WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT RIVER BASIN MANAGE (MENTTOPIC 4)
TOPIC 4: WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT
-Water Quality and Sanitation (Pg 28)
-Policy and Legislation
River Basin Management
Basin water resources are part of a management continuum starting with the upstream freshwater
sources in the watershed, moving down into the freshwater-seawater interface in the deltas and
Tanzania is divided into nine river Basins that do not follow administrative boundaries such as
regions and districts.
The objective of the river basin approach
- To manage water resources in an integrated and comprehensive manner, which ensures
equitable, efficient and sustainable development of the resources?
The purpose of river basin management in Tanzania
The Minister for Water gazettes nine (9) water basins for the purpose of water resources
administration and management.
Institutional set-up and resolution of conflict
The management of water resources will have five main levels;
v National level,
v Basin level,
v Catchment level,
v District level, and
v Community / Water User Association
In Tanzania the Ministry with the mandate for water is responsible for managing the nation‟s
Preparation and review of water policy and legislation
Is the custodian (responsible/protector) and implementer of the water law and will coordinate
water use planning and preparation of Basin plans.
Resolution of national level conflicts among sectors
The Minister is the appellate authority.
• Basin Level
This is the level for data collection, processing and analysis, water allocation, pollution control,
preparation of water utilization plans, collection of the various fees and charges, and resolution
of various water related conflicts.
Catchment Water Committees and sub-catchment Water Committees will be established,
Will be composed of representatives from the public and private sector, and from the Water User
Associations within the respective Basin
The role of catchment Water Board includes preparation and implementation of catchment
plans, and resolution of conflicts within the catchments.
District Councils shall participate fully in Basin Boards and Catchment Committees.
Responsible for planning and development of water resources in accordance with Basin plans,
Protection and conservation of natural resources in the villages and wards,
Conflict resolution in accordance with established laws and regulations.
District Councils will make assessment of water demands of their respective districts, and
participate fully in the preparation of Basin plans.
Community Level and Water User Associations
Water User Associations (WUAs) or Water User Groups (WUGs) will be the lowest appropriate
level of management.
Will be responsible for local level management of allocated water resources,
Mediation of disputes among users and between groups within their areas of jurisdiction,
Collection of various data and information, participate in the preparation of water utilization
Enforcement of the law and implementation of conditions of water rights, and control of
They provide legitimate representatives in Basin Boards and Catchment Committees.
GUIDELINES ON WATER QUALITY
The standard of Quality of Domestic Water in Tanzania follows the Tanzanian Guidelines of
quality of domestic water categories.
Most of the parameters to be monitored include:
Physical, chemical and bacteriological
Examination samples should be collected from:
Booster pumping stations and
The frequency of sampling will depend basically on several criteria including:
Quality of water source,
risk of contamination,
complexity of the system
number of water sources,
length of distribution system and
danger of epidemics
THE END OF THE COURSE
SAYS SR. MBEGU
SPECIAL THANKS TO:
SR. Mbegu the course lecturer
Mr. Ngogo Mang'enyi the blogger and Ass. Class Repr
Fr. Revoctus Majuto ------Class Repr.
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WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT MODELS (TOPIC 3:2) GE: 340
WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT MODELS
• Integrated water resource management
• Models for local government engagement in iwrm
Integrated water resource management
Is the practice of making the decisions and taking actions while considering multiple view points
of how matter should be managed?
These decisions and actions relate to situations such as;
· Basin planning
· Planning of new capital facilities
· Controlling reservoir releases
· Regulating flood plains and
Developing new laws and regulations
The decision for making process that uses IWRM is normally very long and involves many
The need for multiple viewpoints is caused by competition for water and complex institutional
THE COMPONENTS AND VIEWPOINTS OF IWRM
· Water resources management
· Purpose and service
· stakeholders groups
· Government and interest groups.
· Disciplines of knowledge.
Integrated WRM begins with the term “Water resources management” which aim to manage/
control both natural and man-made water resources for beneficial uses.
Human-made systems and elements of natural water systems work together in water resources
systems to achieve the water management purpose.
Human-made systems are of two types
1. Structural components
2. Nonstructural components
• Structural components/water-control facilities
Control water flow and quality. They include conveyance systems (channels, canals, and pipes),
diversion structures, dams and storage facilities, treatment plants, pumping stations, HE plants,
• Non structural measures (which do not require constructed facilities)
Are; pricing schedules, zoning, incentives, public relations, regulatory programs, and insurance
Elements of natural water resources systems include;
The atmosphere, watersheds (drainage basins), stream channels, wetlands, floodplains, aquifers,
lakes, estuaries, seas, and the ocean.
IWRM consider the view points of water management agents with specific purposes,
governmental and interest groups, stakeholders who are coming from different geographic
regions, and disciplines of knowledge.
IWRM considers three aspects of water (water surface, ground water, quality and quantity)
• Interactions of water land and environment
• Social interrelationships and
• Economic development
INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IWRM)
-Meaning of IWRM
-Components/view points of IWRM
• Meaning of IWRM= the process of managing water while all the different uses of water
resources are considered together.
• Components of IWRM= WRM, governments& interest groups, stakeholders, different
disciplines& different geographical regions & the purpose
CHALLENGES OF INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Answer for qn. 11
„‟Discuss the Challenges to Water resources Management Integration‟‟.
§ -governments& interest groups,
§ -different geographical regions &
§ -different disciplines&
Governmental and interest group
Accommodating the views of the government and interest groups is a challenge in IWRM
because of their different perspectives.
Governmental groups themselves
Inter government agencies at the same level include regional inter relations; state to state
The relationships btn the levels of the government at the national level and the local government.
It is very difficult to integrate ideas from all these groups.
These range from those favoring development of resources to those favoring preservation. In
Cases, conflicts arise between the same types of interest groups, as, for example, between fly
fishers and rafters (by boat) on a stream.
The views of stakeholders in different locations must be balanced in introducing a geographic
dimension of integration.
Example issues between upstream and downstream stakeholders and views of stakeholders in a
basin of origin versus those in a receiving basin. All these should be balanced
The complexity of integrated water resources management requires knowledge and wisdom
from different areas of knowledge, or disciplines. Blending knowledge from engineering, law,
finance, economics, politics, history, sociology, psychology, life science, mathematics, and other
fields can bring valuable knowledge about the possibilities and consequences of decisions and
It becomes very difficult to accommodate all their different views together.
For example, engineering knowledge might focus on physical infrastructure systems, whereas
sociology or psychology might focus on human impacts.
Local government engagement in water resources management
The whole idea of this model is to direct how the local government can be incorporated in the
process of managing the water resources.
It can be engaged by the following ways
1. Engaging with new integrated water resources management institutions
2. Implementing integrated water resource management principles through local actions
These two ways are also called models for local government engagement in IWRM.
Engaging with new integrated water resources management institutions/ full”,
or institutional-based, IWRM
This model argues that planners should involve the local gvt leaders in the planning of the new
policies, in the revision of the water laws and in the board of the new established institution.
-This calls for developing governance structures in which all groups are represented and linked,
and for local government to engage within these institutions.
Implementing IWRM principles through local actions/ “light” or principle-based IWRM.
This principle is calling for adopting, following and implementing the underlying WRM
principles in the day to day water usage in which local gvt is engaged.
The idea behind the principle-based approach, is that if all sub-sector and all stakeholders in
water management try to apply good WRM practice at their own level, in their own work, this
will in turn lead to the emergence of better local level water resource management.
These two approaches are not mutually exclusive. In fact, in most situations it will make sense
for local governments to follow both approaches simultaneously (Moriarty et
al.,2004). Engaging with new IWRM institutions and Implementing IWRM principles through
Discuss the contention that „‟Engaging with new IWRM institutions and Implementing IWRM
principles through local actions approaches‟‟ are not
3:3 COST AND BENEFIT ANALYSIS/CBA OF WATER PROJECTS
COST AND BENEFIT ANALYSIS/CBA OF WATER PROJECTS
Ø Meaning CBA
Ø Relationship between CBA and water project
Ø Environmental valuation
Ø Costs are disadvantages or loss
Ø Benefits are the advantages or gains
3:3=Disadvantages and advantages assessment of water project.
The coast and the benefits are defined according to the satisfactions of the wants.
If something meets the wants then it is the benefit but if it detracts/goes away from wants it is
Anything is a benefit if it improves human well being and anything is a cost if it reduces human
Relationship between CBA and Project
CBA is an economic tool for evaluating all relevant costs and benefits of an investment,
reflecting the total impact of a project on society as a whole.
The project should only be accepted only if summation of (Benefit – the cost) is greater than
zero. ∑ B - C> 0
As a social decision rule for accepting the implementation of the project we need to know what
If everyone prefers the project then we have no problem.
If many prefer the project we also have no problem.
If half of the people prefer and half not you need to prepare the individual gain and costs
A cost benefit analysis is a straight forward when all costs and benefits are measured in monetary
Much of the environmental resources including water are non market goods and services, making
it difficult to assign money values to these environmental goods.
There is need to have an idea of economic value of environmental assets.
• Environmental Valuation
Is the process of putting monetary values on environmental goods and services, many of which
have no easily observed market prices, Example putting the monetary values for things likes
enjoying the good weather, visiting the national park, swimming in the river etc.
Importance /role of environmental valuation
• Determine the people‟s preferences. People differ in preferences. Example how much people are
willing to pay for the existence of wood land in their environment?
• Provide the means of quantifying the benefits that people receive and the costs that the people
are likely to incur if a particular resource is going to be degraded or loss.
• It answer the following questions
o How much the environment is worth and to whom it is worth.
o How can we efficiently and equitably finance its conservation?
o How does degradation and loss lead to cost to different stakeholders?
o How would you ensure that the people take into account the benefits and cost of the loss of that
particular resource when they are doing the economic activities?
o How do we influence policy planning and decision making with regard to natural resources.
Explain the role of environmental valuation in water resources management.