Polymeric materials for organic solar cells

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Polymeric materials for organic solar cells

  1. 1. NESLİHAN YAĞMUR 23/01/2013 POLYMERIC MATERIALS FOR ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS 1
  2. 2. Organic Photovoltaic Cells  Organic photovoltaic cells are solar cells that utilize organic polymers and small molecules as the active layer for light absorption and charge transport http://www.solarcell.net.in/2
  3. 3. Organic Photovoltaic Cells  Solar cells are designed using a p- n junction with both n and p-type materials such that the free holes and electrons flow in opposite directions, producing a direct current. http://www.solarcell.net.in/3
  4. 4. The Steps for the Charge Transfer 1) Excitation on donor 2) Excitation delocalized on a donor-acceptor complex 3) Charge-transfer initiated. 4) Charge separation. 4
  5. 5. Diagram of the Donor and Acceptor 5
  6. 6. Advantages of Polymeric Materials  Compared to silicon structures, organic materials have several advantages: 1) Low cost of the technology 2) Possible to achieve fully flexible structures, 3) Relatively low voltages. 6
  7. 7. Polymeric Materials  Materials having a delocalized electron system can absorb sunlight, create photogenerated charge carriers, and transport these charge carriers.  Organic solar cells generally focuses either on solution processable organic semiconducting polymers. 7
  8. 8. Donor (P-Type) Examples 8
  9. 9. Polymeric Materials as Donor  1. Phthalocyanine  2. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) “P3HT” 9
  10. 10. 1. Phthalocyanine  C32H18N8  Molecular Mass: 514.54 g mol−1 10
  11. 11. 1. Phthalocyanine Hazards:  Do not breathe dust  Avoid contact with skin  Avoid contact with eyes 11
  12. 12. 1. Phthalocyanine  Unsubstituted phthalocyanines strongly absorb light between 600 and 700 nm, thus these materials are blue or green.  Substitution can shift the absorption towards longer wavelengths, changing the color from pure blue to12
  13. 13. 2. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) “P3HT”  (C10H14S)n  Melting Point: 238 °C  High molecular weight http://www.1-material.com/node/31 13
  14. 14. Acceptor (N-Type) Examples 14
  15. 15. Polymeric Materials as Acceptor  1. Perylene  2. Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride “PTCDA”  3. Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester “PCBM”  4. Buckminsterfullerene “C60” 15
  16. 16. 1. Perylene  C20H12  Molar mass: 252.31 g mol−1  Melting Point: 276- 279 °C S. Güneş, H. Neugebauer, Conjugated Polymer-Based Organic Solar Cells, 2007 16
  17. 17. 1. Perylene  The perylene molecule consists of two naphthalene mole cules connected by a carbon-carbon bond at the 1 and 8 positions on both molecules.  All of the carbon atoms in perylene are sp2 hybridized.S. Güneş, H. Neugebauer, Conjugated Polymer-Based Organic Solar Cells, 200717
  18. 18. 1. Perylene  It or its derivatives may be carcinogenic  Do not breathe dust  Avoid contact with skin  Avoid contact with eyes . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perylen e 18
  19. 19. 1. Perylene  It has an absorption maximum at 434 nm. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perylen e 19
  20. 20. 2. Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride “PTCDA”  C24H8O6  Molar Mass: 392.32 g · mol -1  Melting Point: > 300 ° C 20
  21. 21. 2. Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride “PTCDA”  Harmful if swallowed  May cause respiratory irritation.  Avoid breathing dust / fume / gas / mist / vapors / spray. 21
  22. 22. 3. Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester “PCBM”  C72H14O2  Molar Mass: 910.88 g mol−1 22
  23. 23. 3. Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester “PCBM”  It is a more practical choice for an electron acceptor when compared with fullerenes because of its solubility in chlorobenzene.  This allows for solution processable donor/acceptor mixes, a necessary property for "printable" solar cells.23
  24. 24. 4. Buckminsterfullerene “C60”  C60  Molar Mass: 720.64 g mol−1  Density: 1.65 g/cm3  Melting Point: sublimates at ~600 °C S. Güneş, H. Neugebauer, Conjugated Polymer-Based Organic Solar Cells, 2007 24
  25. 25. 4. Buckminsterfullerene “C60”  The C60 molecule is extremely stable, being able to withstand high temperatures and pressures. S. Güneş, H. Neugebauer, Conjugated Polymer-Based Organic Solar Cells, 2007 25
  26. 26. References  S. Gunes, H. Neugebauer, Conjugated Polymer- Based Organic Solar Cells, 2007  A. Moliton1, R. Hiorns, Review of electronic and optical properties of semiconducting π-conjugated polymers: applications in optoelectronics, 2004  A. Facchetti, π-Conjugated Polymers for Organic Electronics and Photovoltaic Cell Applications, Northwestern University, 2011  www.wikipedia.com 26
  27. 27. Thank You for Your Attention 27

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