Examples: Farmer can’t sell much milk in the winter, wonder’s why, finds out that adding sugar and chocolate in a microwaveable bottle makes instant hot cocoa and more people buy that (i.e., his milk) during the winter. || My EBP steps for recidivism reduction…
Motivational Interviewing is the most praised, and is fast becoming a standard method of treatment, especially for substance abusers that are resistant to treatment | Drug Avoidance Skills Training has shown a lot of promise because of it’s ability to literally train clients to stay away from and refuse drugs | Naltrexone is part of a various attempts by the pharmaceutical field to find a ‘cure’ for addiction, it just happens to be the most successful, just slightly more promising than buprenorphine.
Average number of years: 7.5 | Range: 1.5 – 13  Opinions of JADAC services range from “promising with flaws” to “best in the area” | Theme Solutions: RD = waiting period and requirements to meet for readmission | Discipline: Immediate action taken when transgressions are noted, beyond ‘talking to’ or ‘slap on the wrist’. 
AVG age = 31 | Range = 26 – 40 years old | Avg length of JADAC involvement: 11 days | Range = &lt;24 hours – 30 days
Naltrexone is either a very idealistic or biased intervention, or the clients and staff have so been exposed to abstinence-only treatment that they immediately reject the idea of using a drug to help someone kick their addiction. DAST: Seems to be in the midst of a paternalistic scenario in which the researchers and the counselors know what’s best for the client more than the client does. MI: Seems to be completely compatible with everyone—the researchers see great results, the clinicians see true promise, and the clients feel good about going through the process.
Agency-wide practice lessons for motivational interviewing for counselors who do not currently use this method; Techs should also be familiarized with the techniques used in Motivational Interviewing for treatment consistency.  DAST: A regular, at least weekly, course that gives clients a chance to practice avoiding old people, old places, and old things. Possibly splitting practice sessions between drug (categories) of choice: alcohol; hallucinogens; benzodiazapines; opiates, etc.  Naltrexone is expensive, so, due to its noted success, JADASC should be able to secure grants to put it into use, if it chooses to do so as an agency.
If opiate addicts can make it through their standard withdrawal periods, they will have a better chance at not relapsing because they remain to get the education and treatment that they need. // When clients stop taking up bed space repeatedly throughout the year, this leaves space open for people new to recovery // If JADAC’s services are so highly regarded now, once they are enhanced via adoption of evidence-based practices, the agency will have a higher success rate, which means more clients, more funding, and more people in recovery in the surrounding areas.
Grounding Frequent Flyers
Grounding Frequent Flyers<br />Best Practices for recidivism reduction <br />Presented by<br />Tenesha L. Curtis, B.A.<br />UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE<br /> KENT SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK<br />
Operating (JADAC, The Brook, etc.) based on evidence (as opposed to tradition, popularity, etc.)<br />EBP brings together research from studies, client experience, and clinician experience and wisdom in order to formulate the best course of action to accomplish the goals of the agency, such as the best course of action to help keep addicts clean at JADAC.<br />Evidence-Based Practice<br />
Evidence-Based Practice<br />Steps<br /> 1. ID the problem/issue.<br /> 2. Formulate answerable question.<br /> 3. Find the best research relevant to the question.<br /> 4. Critically appraise findings for relevance, validity, etc.<br /> 5. Apply strongest method to practice.<br /> 6. Evaluate results of changes.<br />
A Very Simplistic Example of Steps in Action<br />ID the problem: “I’m out of pain pills!”<br />Formulate Answerable Question: “What’s the easiest, fastest way for me to get more pain pills?”<br />Find the best research: Magazine article says to fake pain at doctor’s office; doctor’s say pain they can’t detect means they prescribe more pain pills to people; other addicts say faking back pain works best<br />Appraise research: “I think faking pain is good, but faking back pain sounds like my best bet!”<br />Apply method: “Doc, I really got this terrible pain in my spine…”<br />Evaluate: “I was only at the doctor’s office for ten minutes and got a 90-day supply of pain pills. This method works!”<br />
The Problem<br />Keeping addicts sober after they leave treatment.<br />
The Question<br />For chemically dependent adults, what are the most effective interventions for preventing post-inpatient detoxification recidivism? <br />In other words, what can we do during the client’s time with us to help keep them clean once they leave treatment?<br />
The JADAC Way<br />Components of JADAC’s current operations<br />Abstinence Only<br />Mixed Gender<br />12-step facilitation and referral<br />Cognitive Behavioral / Reality Therapy<br />
TheEBPWay<br />According to my research, the way JADAC “should” operate<br />Pharmacological Assistance<br />Cocaine “vaccine”, buprenorphine, methadone, antabuse<br />Single-Gender<br />Mixed gender facilities are counterproductive for females attempting to recover<br />12-step Facilitation and Referral<br />Bring meetings in, send clients to meetings, and tell them to keep going to meetings after treatment<br />Motivational Interviewing ( CBT/RT)<br />Motivational interviewing sessions after each step of the CD treatment process. Session 1: Detox Prep; Session 2: Residential Prep; Session 3: Discharge Prep (to keep levels of motivation high through the treatment process). Cognitive Behavioral and Reality Therapy can come afterwards.<br />
Methodology: Lit Review<br />Searched a multitude of databases (via Minerva/Ebsco)<br />Keywords: drug abuse; substance abuse; substance dependence; chemical dependency; recidivism; reduction<br />Research from 1999 – 2009, only from peer-reviewed journal articles<br />Each article appraised, scored, and ranked for rigor, reliability, and relevancy; only top ten chosen for use<br />
Lit Review: Results<br />Big Three<br />Naltrexone<br />Blocks ‘high’ only AFTER drug has been taken—therefore would eventually create a neutralization so that taking drug was about as interesting as watching paint dry.<br />Weaning / life-long administration—like Antabuse, there is no true incentive for an addict to continue administering the drug since they know that if they don’t, they will get the high back. Because there is not internal motivation to stop using, naltrexone could possibly have to be administered for life. <br />Drug Avoidance Skills Training<br />Practicing avoiding common drug scenarios <br />Practical application of tips and tricks—like the ones talked about in the relapse prevention lecture. <br />Relapse prevention and subsequent release into the outside world is equivalent to reading the Kentucky driver’s manual to someone, and them telling them to practice driving on the highway between two semis in an ice storm. Whereas, adding DAST to the equation means the manual is read to the students, the students get a chance to practice driving around the neighborhood under various weather conditions, and THEN they get to go on the highway, given them a much better chance of not having an accident/relapsing. <br />Motivational Interviewing<br />Learn client’s motivations for behaviors<br />Use client’s internal motivations to move them towards recovery<br />If you can visualize our clients as wind-up toys, JADAC would be the type of facility that picks the toy up and makes it move forward, left, right, etc. Whereas, with MI, you are simply turning the key to set the mechanisms within the client to make them move forward on their own. <br />
Methodology: Practitioner Interviews<br />Six questions; Four CD Techs and Counselors<br />Current Issues Themes<br />Revolving Door: Especially rapidly readmitting those who have severely disturbed the treatment community in the (recent) past.<br />Discipline: As it stands now, clients occasionally get ‘contracts’ or a ‘talking to’ from their counselor. <br />Possible Changes Themes<br />Waiting Period / Pre-requisite(s) for Readmission: Make the disruptive client showcase their commitment to following program guidelines by having specific assignments they must complete related to their previous behavior (making amends, in a sense) before they are allowed back into the program.<br />Swift, Significant Consequences for Transgressions: Something meaningful to the client should be removed relatively quickly for breaking rules.<br />
Methodology: Consumer Interviews<br />Four questions; Four current clients<br />Opiates; Benzodiazapines; Methadone; Marijuana; and Alcohol addicted persons were represented in this sample.<br />Current Treatment Theme<br />The clients feel that the overall treatment experience at JADAC is positive, with a few minor issues to be addressed such as having more recreation time and allowing there to be more activities for non-smokers to engage in while the nicotine addicts are smoking outside. <br />Possible Change Themes<br />Clients seemed to enjoy the prospects of having motivational interviewing or naltrexone added to their treatment (once these were explained to those who had not heard of them), but were fearful of drug avoidance skills training due to thinking they may be triggered strongly enough to leave. Which is interesting considering that they will definitely run into these scenarios in the outside world. I interpret that as them understanding that they believe they will definitely relapse if these situations come up once they leave treatment. <br />
Practice Implications<br />For JADAC these results mean the agency ‘should’:<br />Begin agency-wide use of MI and MI Principles<br />Possibly incorporate DAST into curriculum, if it feels it can take steps to alleviate major client fears and guard against client departure from the program<br />
Desired Outcomes<br />Clinicians use MI principles throughout their interactions with clients (groups, classes, etc.)<br />(Especially opiate) addicts stay in treatment longer<br />Fewer clients relapse (instead of 85% relapsing, only 30% relapse)<br />Clients relapse less (the average amount of times in treatment drops from 6 to 2)<br />JADAC provides clients with top-level, research-supported treatment services<br />
References<br />Brown, Thomas G.; Seraganian, Peter; Tremblay, Jacques; Annis, Helen. Process and outcome changes with relapse prevention versus 12-Step aftercare programs for substance abusers. Addiction, Jun2002, Vol. 97 Issue 6, p677<br />Farabee, David; Rawson, Richard; McCann, Michael. Adoption of drug avoidance activities among patients in contingency management and cognitive-behavioral treatments. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Dec2002, Vol. 23 Issue 4, p343<br />Kakko, Johan; Svanborg, Kerstin Dybrandt; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Heilig, Markus. 1-year retention and social function after buprenorphine-assited relapse prevention treatment for heroin dependence in Sweden: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet, 2/22/2003, Vol. 361 Issue 9358, p662<br />
References (page 2)<br />Martell, Bridget A.; Mitchell, Ellen; Poling, James; Gonsai, Kishor; Kosten, Thomas R.. Vaccine Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence. Biological Psychiatry, Jul2005, Vol. 58 Issue 2, p158-164<br />Olmstead, Todd; White, William D.; Sindelar, Jody. The Impact of Managed Care on Substance Abuse Treatment Services. Health Services Research, Apr2004, Vol. 39 Issue 2, p319-344<br />Roll, John M.; Petry, Nancy M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Brecht, Mary L.; Peirce, Jessica M.; Mccann, Michael J.; Blame, Jack; MacDonald, Marilyn; Dimaria, Joan; Kellogg, Leroy Lucero Scott. Contingency Management for the Treatment of Methamphetamine Use Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, Nov2006, Vol. 163 Issue 11, p1993-1999<br />
References (page 3)<br />Schmitz, Joy M.; Stotts, Angela L.; Sayre, Shelly L.; DeLaune, Katherine A.; Grabowski, John. Treatment of Cocaine–Alcohol Dependence with Naltrexone and Relapse Prevention Therapy. American Journal on Addictions, Jul-Sep2004, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p333-341<br />Stein, L. A. R.; Lebeau-Craven, Rebecca. Motivational Interviewing and Relapse Prevention for DWI: A Pilot Study Journal of Drug Issues, Fall2002, Vol. 32 Issue 4, p1051-1069<br />Walton, M., Blow, F., & Booth, B. (2001). Diversity in relapse prevention needs: gender and race comparisons among substance abuse... American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse, 27(2), 225.<br />Wiesbeck, G. A.; Weijers, H. -G.; Wodarz, N.; Lesch, O. M.; Glaser, T.; Boening, J.. Gender-related differences in pharmacological relapse prevention with flupenthixoldecanoate in detoxified alcoholics. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 2003, Vol. 6 Issue 4, p259-262<br />