MODERN OPERATING
SYSTEMS
SECOND EDITION
by Andrew S. Tanenbaum
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
ISBN 0-13-031358-0, 976 pages
...
MODERN OPERATING SYSTEMS
PREFACE
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM?
1.1.1 The Operating System as an Extended...
1.5.6 Security
1.5.8 Recycling of Concepts
1.6 SYSTEM CALLS
1.6.1 System Calls for Process Management
1.6.2 System Calls f...
2.2.7 Pop-Up Threads
2.2.8 Making Single-Threaded Code Multithreaded
2.3 INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATION
2.3.1 Race Conditions
...
2.5.2 Scheduling in Batch Systems
First-Come First-Served
Shortest Job First
Shortest Remaining Time Next
Three-Level Sche...
Recovery through Killing Processes
3.5 DEADLOCK AVOIDANCE
3.5.1 Resource Trajectories
3.5.2 Safe and Unsafe States
3.5.3 T...
Structure of a Page Table Entry
4.3.3 TLBs—Translation Lookaside Buffers
Software TLB Management
4.3.4 Inverted Page Table...
4.7.4 Locking Pages in Memory
4.7.5 Backing Store
4.7.6 Separation of Policy and Mechanism
4.8 SEGMENTATION
4.8.1 Implemen...
5.4.1 Disk Hardware
Magnetic Disks
RAID
CD-ROMs
CD-Recordables
CD-Rewritables
DVD
5.4.2 Disk Formatting
5.4.3 Disk Arm Sch...
The Hard Disk
The CPU
The Memory
Wireless Communication
Thermal Management
Battery Management
Driver Interface
5.9.3 Degra...
6.3.3 Implementing Directories
6.3.4 Shared Files
6.3.5 Disk Space Management
Block Size
Keeping Track of Free Blocks
Disk...
7.3.1 The JPEG Standard
7.3.2 The MPEG Standard
7.4 MULTIMEDIA PROCESS SCHEDULING
7.4.1 Scheduling Homogeneous Processes
7...
8.1.2 Multiprocessor Operating System Types
Each CPU Has Its Own Operating System
Master-Slave Multiprocessors
Symmetric M...
A Receiver-Initialed Distributed Heuristic Algorithm
A Bidding Algorithm
8.3 DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
8.3.1 Network Hardware
Et...
9.2 BASICS OF CRYPTOGRAPHY
9.2.1 Secret-Key Cryptography
9.2.2 Public-Key Cryptography
9.2.3 One-Way Functions
9.2.4 Digit...
Memory Resident Viruses
Boot Sector Viruses
Device Driver Viruses
Macro Viruses
Source Code Viruses
9.5.3 How Viruses Spre...
10 CASE STUDY 1: UNIX AND LINUX
10.1 HISTORY OF UNIX
10.1.1 UNICS
10.1.2 PDP-11 UNIX
10.1.3 Portable UNIX
10.1.4 Berkeley ...
Memory Management in Linux
10.5 INPUT/OUTPUT IN UNIX
10.5.1 Fundamental Concepts
Networking
10.5.2 Input/Output System Cal...
11.2.1 The Win32 Application Programming Interface
11.2.2 The Registry
11.3 SYSTEM STRUCTURE
11.3.1 Operating System Struc...
11.6.4 Device Drivers
11.7 THE WINDOWS 2000 FILE SYSTEM
11.7.1 Fundamental Concepts
11.7.2 File System API Calls in Window...
12.3.1 System Structure
Layered Systems
Exokernels
Client-Server Systems
Extensible Systems
Kernel Threads
12.3.2 Mechanis...
12.6.1 Large Address Space Operating Systems
12.6.2 Networking
12.6.3 Parallel and Distributed Systems
12.6.4 Multimedia
1...
[Next]
PREFACE

The world has changed a great deal since the first edition of this book appeared in
1992. Computer networks and d...
Software and supplementary material for my books.
In addition to the major change of switching the emphasis to single-proc...
I would like to thank the following people for their help in reviewing parts of the
manuscript: Rida Bazzi, Riccardo Betta...
[Previous] [Next]
1
INTRODUCTION

A modern computer system consists of one or more processors, some main memory,
disks, printers, a keyboard...
Figure 1-1. A computer system consists of hardware, system programs, and application
programs.

The purpose of the data pa...
the computer manufacturer. This is a crucial, but subtle, point. The operating system is
(usually) that portion of the sof...
1.1.1 The Operating System as an Extended Machine
As mentioned earlier, the architecture (instruction set, memory organiza...
a nice, simple view of named files that can be read and written is, of course, the
operating system. Just as the operating...
hardware, but information (files, databases, etc.) as well. In short, this view of the
operating system holds that its pri...
The first true digital computer was designed by the English mathematician Charles
Babbage (1792-1871). Although Babbage sp...
punched cards. It was now possible to write programs on cards and read them in instead
of using plugboards; otherwise, the...
Figure 1-2. An early batch system. (a) Programmers bring cards to 1401. (b) 1401 reads
batch of jobs onto tape. (c) Operat...
Figure 1-3. Structure of a typical FMS job.

1.2.3 The Third Generation (1965-1980) ICs and
Multiprogramming
By the early ...
and so forth). Since all the machines had the same architecture and instruction set,
programs written for one machine coul...
prehistoric beasts stuck in a tar pit. The cover of Silberschatz et al. (2000) makes a
similar point about operating syste...
calculations and massive commercial data processing runs, they were still basically
batch systems. Many programmers pined ...
worked at all when it finally arrived. In addition, MULTICS was enormously ambitious
for its time, much like Charles Babba...
Ken Thompson, subsequently found a small PDP-7 minicomputer that no one was using
and set out to write a stripped-down, on...
but in terms of price they certainly were different. Where the minicomputer made it
possible for a department in a company...
wise) decision to sell MS-DOS to computer companies for bundling with their
hardware, compared to Kildall’s attempt to sel...
Another Microsoft operating system is Windows NT (NT stands for New Technology),
which is compatible with Windows 95 at a ...
A distributed operating system, in contrast, is one that appears to its users as a
traditional uniprocessor system, even t...
code but quickly moved on to high-level languages (mostly because the development
work was done on bigger machines). The s...
handle more advanced features. It is likely that this development will continue for years
to come. Other fields may also h...
very large personal computers, workstations, or even mainframes. They serve multiple
users at once over a network and allo...
Another kind of real-time system is a soft real-time system, in which missing an
occasional deadline is acceptable. Digita...
extends the computer’s instruction set and manages its resources. To work it must know
a great deal about the hardware, at...
from memory into a register, and store a word from a register into memory. Other
instructions combine two operands from re...
Figure 1-6. (a) A three-stage pipeline. (b) A superscalar CPU.

Even more advanced than a pipeline design is a superscalar...
switches from user mode to kernel mode and starts the operating system. When the work
has been completed, control is retur...
machines have two or even three levels of cache, each one slower and bigger than the
one before it.

Figure 1-7. A typical...
arm from one cylinder to the next one takes about 1 msec. Moving it to a random
cylinder typically takes 5 msec to 10 msec...
programmed at the factory and cannot be changed afterward. It is fast and inexpensive.
On some computers, the bootstrap lo...
problem, we need to either relocate the program at load time, finding all the addresses
and modifying them (which is doabl...
Figure 1-9. (a) Use of one base-limit pair. The program can access memory between the
base and the limit. (b) Use of two b...
study some of them later in this book. The thing to note here is that managing the MMU
must be an operating system functio...
do all this work, controllers often contain small embedded computers that are
programmed to do their work.
The other piece...
Modern operating systems
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