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Internet explained: Naming and Addressing

Internet explained: Naming and Addressing

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Peter van Roste Peter van Roste Presentation Transcript

  • Internet Explained Part II: Naming and Addressing Peter VAN ROSTE “ Nerds in the Parliament” European Parliament 23 May 2011
  • IP Addresses
    • Electronic devices need addresses to communicate with each other
    • IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) addresses are running out
    • IPv6 addresses have been introduced over the last decade
  • IPv4 - IPv6 IPv4 IPv6 Format 91.198.174.2 3ffe:6a88:85a3:08d3:1319:8a2e:0370:7344 Range 4 × 10 9 3,4 × 10 38 Benefits All equipment compatible More secure Better routing – more stability IPv4 is running out
  • IPv4 - IPv6
  • The Need for Domain Names
    • There are three main reasons:
    • Remembering addresses
    • Stability (the underlying IP address can change without any impact on the users)
    • Security (Requests can be diverted to avoid server overload)
  • The Need for Domain Names 74.125.77.106 147.67.119.102 www.europa.eu 193.252.122.103 212.113.82.182 212.58.253.68 193.23.48.134 94.100.119.1 www.hyves.nl www.bbc.co.uk info@standaard.be www.allegro.pl blog.orange.fr www.google.it
  • How does it work?
  • Who’s who?
    • These are the Key Players:
    • The user registers a Domain Name (he is the registrant or domain name owner)
    • The reseller selling the domain name (and often hosting or email services) is the registrar
    • The operator of the country code top level domain (e.g. .UK) is the registry
    • ICANN is the global policy coordinator for Top Level Domains
    • IANA is the operator of the Root Zone
  • The Rootzone Source: http://www.root-servers.org/
  • The Rootzone
    • 13 identical copies managed by different organisations
      • European organisations (Netnod and RIPE NCC)
    • Named A to M
    • Technical operator: IANA under US DoC contract
    • Any change requires agreement of US DoC
    • 323 entries
      • 21 gTLDs
      • 11 Test domains
      • 37 IDNs (
      • 254 Country Code Top Level Domains (ISO 3166 list only)
  • THANK YOU! [email_address] www.centr.org