Electrolyte Vignette

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  • likely the tissue destruction associate with starvation provides a steady supply of intracellular potassium
























































































































































































  • Electrolyte Vignette

    1. 1. Fluid and Electrolyte Conference Joel topf, MD Nephrology Faculty Providence Hospital Friday, February 27, 2009
    2. 2. Friday, February 27, 2009
    3. 3. Friday, February 27, 2009
    4. 4. Friday, February 27, 2009
    5. 5. CC: weakness Social Hx: bum physical exam: starving Friday, February 27, 2009
    6. 6. presentation CC: weakness 12 128 92 128 2.8 22 Social Hx: bum 0.6 EtOH 44 physical exam: starving Friday, February 27, 2009
    7. 7. least sick patient you admitted Friday, February 27, 2009
    8. 8. problem list Friday, February 27, 2009
    9. 9. problem list weakness hyponatremia hypokalemia Friday, February 27, 2009
    10. 10. Hypokalemia: differential diagnosis Friday, February 27, 2009
    11. 11. Hypokalemia: differential diagnosis Decreased intake Alcoholism Starvation Friday, February 27, 2009
    12. 12. Hypokalemia: differential diagnosis Decreased intake Alcoholism Starvation Renal losses Diuretics Vomiting RTA Hyperaldo Friday, February 27, 2009
    13. 13. Hypokalemia: differential diagnosis Decreased intake Alcoholism Starvation Renal losses Diuretics Vomiting RTA Hyperaldo GI Losses Diarrhea Friday, February 27, 2009
    14. 14. Decreased intake 945 outpatients with eating disorders Serum Potassium anorexia, bulemia, or both 2% ALL of the hypokalemic 3% patients were abusing cathartics or inducing vomiting NONE of the hypokalemia was due to restricted caloric intake alone 95% The restricted calorie subgroup was the most nutritionally deprived of >3.5 3.0-3.5 <3.0 all the subgroups. Greenfeld, D., Et Al. Am. J. Psychiatry 152, 60-63 (1995). Friday, February 27, 2009
    15. 15. Serum K with dietary restriction Intake does matter in 4.00 experimental settings but clinical Serum K (mEq/dL) 3.25 relevance is questionable 2.50 A compilation of 7 1.75 separate metabolic balance studies 1.00 reveals the 0 200 400 600 800 following graph K defecit (mEq) Friday, February 27, 2009
    16. 16. Alcoholism 61 patients with weekly alcohol ingestion greater than 600g/wk. No cirrhosis of hepatitis, renal disease or, acute medical condition. Admitted for inpatient detoxification for 4 weeks De Marchi, S. et al. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1927-1934 Friday, February 27, 2009
    17. 17. admission 28-days 3.8 4.4 potassium 1.4 1.7 magnesium Friday, February 27, 2009
    18. 18. Vomiting induced hypokalemia is not due to GI losses Friday, February 27, 2009
    19. 19. Vomiting induced hypokalemia is not due to GI losses potassium content of stomach fluid is 15 mEq/L Friday, February 27, 2009
    20. 20. Vomiting induced hypokalemia is not due to GI losses potassium content of stomach fluid is 15 mEq/L How much vomit to get a 120 mEq potassium deficit? Friday, February 27, 2009
    21. 21. Vomiting induced hypokalemia is not due to GI losses potassium content of stomach fluid is 15 mEq/L How much vomit to get a 120 mEq potassium deficit? Friday, February 27, 2009
    22. 22. Distal convoluted tubule Glomerulus Vomiting induced Proximal tubule hypokalemia is Collecting tubule due to renal losses Loop of Henle Friday, February 27, 2009
    23. 23. Vomiting induced hypokalemia is due to renal losses Friday, February 27, 2009
    24. 24. Vomiting induced hypokalemia is due to renal losses Friday, February 27, 2009
    25. 25. Vomiting induced hypokalemia is due to renal losses Friday, February 27, 2009
    26. 26. Vomiting induced hypokalemia is due to renal losses Friday, February 27, 2009
    27. 27. Vomiting induced hypokalemia is due to renal losses Vomiting causes metabolic alkalosis Increased serum bicarbonate is dumped into the urine urine potassium can rise to 80-120 mEq/L Friday, February 27, 2009
    28. 28. Hypokalemia: Treatment Potassium is 2.8 How much poassium will you give: 100 x (4–k) Friday, February 27, 2009
    29. 29. Orders: Friday, February 27, 2009
    30. 30. Orders: banana bag Friday, February 27, 2009
    31. 31. Orders: banana bag D5LR at 80 an hour Friday, February 27, 2009
    32. 32. Orders: banana bag D5LR at 80 an hour KCL 40 mEq IVPB Friday, February 27, 2009
    33. 33. Orders: banana bag D5LR at 80 an hour KCL 40 mEq IVPB KCL 80mEq orally split over two doses q4 hours Friday, February 27, 2009
    34. 34. Initial Labs 12 128 92 128 2.8 22 0.6 Friday, February 27, 2009
    35. 35. Initial Labs Next morning 12 10 128 92 128 132 100 94 2.8 22 3.2 24 0.6 0.6 Friday, February 27, 2009
    36. 36. 120 mEq and he’s still low 10 132 100 94 3.2 24 0.6 Friday, February 27, 2009
    37. 37. 120 mEq and he’s still low 10 132 100 94 3.2 24 0.6 repeat treatment check magnesium Friday, February 27, 2009
    38. 38. 120 mEq and he’s still low 10 132 100 94 3.2 24 0.6 repeat treatment Ca check magnesium Mg Phos Friday, February 27, 2009
    39. 39. 120 mEq and he’s still low 10 132 100 94 3.2 24 0.6 repeat treatment Ca check magnesium Mg Phos 8.8 1.2 2.2 Friday, February 27, 2009
    40. 40. Problem list hypokalemia hypomagnesemia hypophosphatemia hyponatremia Friday, February 27, 2009
    41. 41. Na, 2Cl - + + K ++ Ca + + + + + K + + + + + + Ca, Na, Mg Friday, February 27, 2009
    42. 42. Na, 2Cl - + + K + + + + + K + + + + + + Ca, Na, Mg Friday, February 27, 2009
    43. 43. Na, 2Cl - + + K ATP + ATP + + + + K ATP + + + + + + Ca, Na, Mg Friday, February 27, 2009
    44. 44. Na, 2Cl - + + K Mg ATP + ATP Mg + + + + Mg K ATP + + + + + + Ca, Na, Mg Friday, February 27, 2009
    45. 45. Na, 2Cl - + + K Mg ATP + ATP Mg + + + + Mg K ATP + + + + + + Ca, Na, Mg Friday, February 27, 2009
    46. 46. Na, 2Cl - + + K ATP + K + ATP + + + + K + ATP K + + + K + + + + Ca, Na, Mg Friday, February 27, 2009
    47. 47. Na, 2Cl - + + K + ATP + + ATP + + + + + + + K ATP + + + + + + + + + Ca, Na, Mg Ca, Na, Mg+ + + Friday, February 27, 2009
    48. 48. Friday, February 27, 2009
    49. 49. FIX THE MAGNESIUM SAVE THE POTASSIUM Friday, February 27, 2009
    50. 50. magnesium Friday, February 27, 2009
    51. 51. magnesium 2 grams of Magnesium Sulfate IVPB over an hour or so Friday, February 27, 2009
    52. 52. magnesium 2 grams of Magnesium Sulfate IVPB over an hour or so Friday, February 27, 2009
    53. 53. magnesium doesn’t really work the next day it’s still low Most of the IV magnesium is immediately dumped in the urine you need to drip it in over as long as possible i like 6g (48.6 mEq) over 24 hours Friday, February 27, 2009
    54. 54. day one labs 12 128 92 128 2.8 22 3.0 0.6 Friday, February 27, 2009
    55. 55. day two labs 12 128 92 128 2.8 22 3.0 0.6 8.8 10 132 100 94 1.2 2.2 3.2 24 0.6 Friday, February 27, 2009
    56. 56. day three labs 12 128 92 128 2.8 22 3.0 0.6 8.8 10 132 100 94 1.2 2.2 3.2 24 0.6 10 8.9 133 98 94 3.9 24 2.3 1.4 0.6 Friday, February 27, 2009
    57. 57. problem list hyponatremia hypophosphatemia muscle weakness Friday, February 27, 2009
    58. 58. problem list 4 hyponatremia 3 Phos (mg/dL) hypophosphatemia 2 muscle weakness 1 0 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Friday, February 27, 2009
    59. 59. weakness hypokalemia corrected magnesium a little high not enough to cause muscle weakness Friday, February 27, 2009
    60. 60. hypermagnesemia the most tolerated electrolyte abnormality Upper limit of magnesium 1.8 pre-eclampsia magnesium 6-8 Lethal magnesium 14 Friday, February 27, 2009
    61. 61. Weakness Hypophosphatemia Friday, February 27, 2009
    62. 62. differential dx Decreased phosphorous absorption Intracellular shift Increased renal excretion Friday, February 27, 2009
    63. 63. differential dx Intracellular shift Decreased phosphorous absorption Calcitonin Dietary insufficiency Catecholamines Malabsorption Epinephrine Phosphate binders Dopamine Calcium Terbutaline Magnesium Albuterol Aluminum Insulin Sevelamer Carbohydrate infusions Lanthium refeeding Vitamin D deficiency Respiratory alkalosis Steatorrhea Rapid cell proliferation Vitamin D resistant rickets Treatment of anemia Glucocorticoids CML in blast crisis AML Friday, February 27, 2009
    64. 64. differential dx Increased renal excretion Fanconi syndrome Volume expansion/ Alcoholism natriuretic states Multiple myeloma IV Bicarbonate Amoniglycosides Bicarbonaturia Heavy metal toxicity Glucosuria Chinese herbs Diuretics Congenital Acetazolamide is the Ifosfamide most phosphaturic Cisplatin High salt diet or Cystinosis saline infusion Wilson’s Disease Hyperaldosteronism Hereditary fructose SIADH intolerance Paraneoplastic syndrome Glucocorticoids PTHrp Hyperparathyroidism Tumor induced Hypercalcemia osteomalacia Metabolic acidosis Renal transplantation Acute malaria (falciparum) X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets Friday, February 27, 2009
    65. 65. differential dx 3.0 8.8 1.2 2.2 8.9 2.3 1.4 Friday, February 27, 2009
    66. 66. differential dx alcoholism 3.0 refeeding syndrome 8.8 malabsorption 1.2 2.2 respiratory alkalosis 8.9 Saline infusion 2.3 1.4 Friday, February 27, 2009
    67. 67. differential dx 3.0 refeeding syndrome 8.8 1.2 2.2 8.9 2.3 1.4 Friday, February 27, 2009
    68. 68. Transcellular redistribution is movement of phosphorous into cells. This is usually transient and, in the face of normal total body phosphourous is harmless. However, in the face of pre-existing phosphorous depletion, this transcellular movement can provoke serious symptoms including death. The most severe cases are found with refeeding syndrome. Weinsier and Krumdieck, 1981, Am J Clin Nutr, 34, 393-9 Friday, February 27, 2009
    69. 69. Starvation decreases total body phosphorous. However, serum phos remains normal due to movement of phosphorous out of cells. With refeeding, insulin moves phosphorous into cells, in order to phosphorylate carbs as part of glycolysis. This unmasks the previous phosphorous depletion. Friday, February 27, 2009
    70. 70. this is worse with fructose conversion of fructose to fructose-P is unregulated causes rapid consumption of Phos and ATP the loss of ATP is thought to be the cause of fructose toxicity Friday, February 27, 2009
    71. 71. give phos stop carbs Friday, February 27, 2009
    72. 72. Stop the D5LR Started 8 ounces of milk four times a day Used a packet of KPhos Friday, February 27, 2009
    73. 73. IV sodium phosphorous 8mmol q6 hours target 32 mmol in a day careful in renal failure Friday, February 27, 2009
    74. 74. day four and five labs Day Na K P Mg 1 128 2.8 3.0 2 132 3.2 2.2 1.2 3 133 3.9 1.4 2.3 4 131 3.8 1.8 2.2 5 130 4.2 2.8 1.8 Friday, February 27, 2009
    75. 75. problem list hyponatremia Friday, February 27, 2009
    76. 76. Specific gravity on admission: 1.005 What’s the specific gravity in: hypervolemic hyponatremia: heart failure? Cirrhosis? Nephrotic syndrome? Euvolemic hyponatremia: SIADH? Hypovolemic hyponatremia: diuretics? GI losses? Friday, February 27, 2009
    77. 77. Friday, February 27, 2009
    78. 78. What regulates specific gravity? Friday, February 27, 2009
    79. 79. What regulates specific gravity? ADH Friday, February 27, 2009
    80. 80. What regulates specific gravity? ADH We start with an increase in the plasma osmolality Friday, February 27, 2009
    81. 81. What regulates specific gravity? ADH This is detected increase in We start with an by the brainthe plasma osmolality Friday, February 27, 2009
    82. 82. What regulates specific gravity? ADH The is detected increase Thisbrain releases the in We start with an by ADHbrainthe plasma osmolality Friday, February 27, 2009
    83. 83. What regulates specific gravity? ADH ADH acts releases the The is detected kidney Thisbrain on an increase in We start withthe by ADHbrainthe plasma osmolality Friday, February 27, 2009
    84. 84. What regulates specific gravity? ADH The retained water goes here not here The kidney reacts by retaining water and producing a small amount of kidney The is detected concentrated Thisbrain on an increase in urine. ADH acts releases the We start withthe by ADHbrainthe plasma osmolality Friday, February 27, 2009
    85. 85. What regulates specific gravity? ADH What do all of the etiologies of hyponatremia have in common? Friday, February 27, 2009
    86. 86. What regulates specific gravity? ADH What do all of the etiologies of hyponatremia have in common? ADH Friday, February 27, 2009
    87. 87. Hyponatrmia Occurs When Water Intake Exceeds Excretion Friday, February 27, 2009
    88. 88. ADH Decreases Urine Volume Friday, February 27, 2009
    89. 89. Friday, February 27, 2009
    90. 90. Our patient has a low specific gravity. Friday, February 27, 2009
    91. 91. Our patient has a low specific gravity. ADH independent hyponatremia Friday, February 27, 2009
    92. 92. Our patient has a low specific gravity. ADH independent hyponatremia psychogenic polydipsia Friday, February 27, 2009
    93. 93. Our patient has a low specific gravity. ADH independent hyponatremia psychogenic polydipsia tea and toast or beer drinkers potomania Friday, February 27, 2009
    94. 94. psychogenic polydipsia Friday, February 27, 2009
    95. 95. psychogenic polydipsia 18 liters Friday, February 27, 2009
    96. 96. The kidney is able to concentrate urine to 1200 mOsm/L The kidney is able to dilute urine to 50 mOsm/L If a patient has a daily solute load of 600 mOsms. What is: The minimal amount of urine he can produce (maximum ADH) The maximum amount of urine he can make (minimal ADH) Friday, February 27, 2009
    97. 97. The kidney is able to concentrate urine to 1200 mOsm/L The kidney is able to dilute urine to 50 mOsm/L If a patient has a daily solute load of 600 mOsms. What is: The minimal amount of urine he can produce (maximum ADH) 500 mL The maximum amount of urine he can make (minimal ADH) Friday, February 27, 2009
    98. 98. The kidney is able to concentrate urine to 1200 mOsm/L The kidney is able to dilute urine to 50 mOsm/L If a patient has a daily solute load of 600 mOsms. What is: The minimal amount of urine he can produce (maximum ADH) 500 mL The maximum amount of urine he can make (minimal ADH) 12,000 mL Friday, February 27, 2009
    99. 99. 600 mOsms is the typical daily solute load so a patient requires a minimum of 500 mL of urine to remove the daily solute load A patient making less than that is unable to clear the daily solute load what is the definition of oliguria Friday, February 27, 2009
    100. 100. What if the daily solute load is 100 mOsms? What is the most urine they can make? Friday, February 27, 2009
    101. 101. What if the daily solute load is 100 mOsms? What is the most urine they can make? 2,000 mL Friday, February 27, 2009
    102. 102. What if the daily solute load is 100 mOsms? What is the most urine they can make? 2,000 mL What happens if they are getting IV fluids at 100 mL/hour? Friday, February 27, 2009
    103. 103. An alcoholic gets much of his daily calories from alcohol. Alcohol is metabolized to CO2 and water no solute for the kidney to excrete Low daily solute load Friday, February 27, 2009
    104. 104. A tea and toast diet refers to a carbohydrate rich diet free of proteins Friday, February 27, 2009
    105. 105. Both beer drinker’s and Tea and Toast respond to increased protein intake Usually get a brisk response to crystalloids Friday, February 27, 2009

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