Klein Sensory Deprivation


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  • Klein Sensory Deprivation

    1. 1. TOK- Sensory Perception Lesson 2- Shock Therapy (Chapter 2, The Shock Doctrine by Naomi Klein
    2. 2. CIA Funded Project • In the late 1950s the CIA funded a psychological experiment conducted by a Canadian psychiatrist by the name of Ewen Cameron at the Allan Memorial Institute . • MKUltra (CIA secret experiment) was a project designed to see how far the human mind could be wiped clean before ‘reconstruction.’
    3. 3. Cameron’s Methods • ‘Patients’ unaware they are ‘human guinea pigs’ • Dramatically increased dosages of elctroshock • Addition of mind-altering drugs like LSD & PCP • Sensory deprivation • Addition of drug curare (induces paralysis)
    4. 4. Sensory Deprivation • Soundproof room & white noise • No lights and ‘patients’ forced to wear goggles • The use of rubber eardrums • The use of cardboard tubing on the hands and arms thereby starving the sense of touch
    5. 5. ...subsequently • Cameron’s ‘patients’ subsequently suffered from schizophrenia, hallucinations, intense anxiety and a loss of touch with reality.
    6. 6. Kubark • The CIA produced a handbook entitled ‘Kubark Counterintelligence Interrogation’ based strongly on Cameron’s research methods • These methods are designed as forms of torture aimed at eliciting information from subjects but are also illegal! (Geneva Conventions)
    7. 7. Kubark Sensory Deprivation • Keeping windows high in wall to limit light • Breaking the subject’s sense of space and time continuum, such as serving soup at breakfast to entirely disrupt any sense of routine which relates to the real world. • This resulted in regression leading to childish behaviour
    8. 8. Wiping the slate clean • Known as ‘erasing structured personalities’ • In 2003, Donald Rumsfeld, empowered by George W Bush, decreed that prisoners captured in Afghanistan were not covered by the Geneva Conventions because they were ‘enemy combatants,’ not POW’s • The U.S. government was now free to use the techniques of the 50s, without fear of prosecution.
    9. 9. Guantanamo Bay • Cameron’s methods have been employed in Guantanamo Bay • After periods of isolation and ‘sensory deprivation,’ the senses are then bombarded with barking dogs, strobe lights and endless tape loops of babies crying • A declassified letter from the FBI to the Pentagon described a prisoner who was ‘talking to nonexistent people, reported hearing voices and in extreme regression.’
    10. 10. Conclusions • Cameron’s techniques were exceptional ways of destroying the established personality and memories of individuals. • He had hoped to also reconstruct new personalities but left his ‘patients’ smashed, confused with fragmented memories and flashbacks galore.
    11. 11. TOK Questions • What do we need to know about Naomi Klein in order to assess her work? Does she have a political agenda? • Do Cameron’s techniques conflict ethically with the ‘Hippocratic Oath?’ • Why do you think ‘sensory deprivation’ was so important to this process? • What do YOU think. Is this form of torture appropriate for use with ‘enemy combatants?’