Decision Support and Knowledge Based Systems

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  • Structured decisionsInvolve situations where the procedures to be followed can be specified in advanceUnstructured decisionsInvolve situations where it is not possible to specify most of the decision procedures in advanceSemistructured decisions Some decision procedures can be specified in advance, but not enough to lead to a definite recommended decision
  • Drill down caps- Executives and managers view increasingly specific information by drilling down through multiple levels of detail. Point-and- select operation and windows of choices instantly move users to additional detail, saving valuable time and effort.
  • Although executive support systems have much in common with decision support systems, they have important differences. Generally, a DSS provides a number of modeling tools and is designed to help a user answer a question. Executive support systems allow executives to ask the right questions. An ESS is interactive and helps an executive focus, filter and organize data and information.Unlike a DSS, an ESS is usually customized for a specific individual. Content and format can both be customized.Since executives are typically busy, an ESS must be easy to learn and to use – or it won’t be used.
  • Most executive support systems are designed to give the user a top-down view of business processes and allow him to drill down to greater levels of detail. This capability, as well as access to external databases and to DSS modeling tools, allows top-level managers to work on long term, strategic issues that affect the whole company.
  • Most executive support systems are designed to give the user a top-down view of business processes and allow him to drill down to greater levels of detail. This capability, as well as access to external databases and to DSS modeling tools, allows top-level managers to work on long term, strategic issues that affect the whole company.

Transcript

  • 1. DECISIONSUPPORT ANDKNOWLEDGEBASED SYSTEMSInformationSystemsPresentationGroup-5
  • 2. PRESENTATIONOVERVIEW◊Decision Support Systems (DSS)◊Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS)◊Enterprise & Executive Decision SupportSystems◊Knowledge Management, Knowledgebased Expert Systems◊DSS Success Stories
  • 3. 4-3DECISIONS, DECISIONS,DECISIONSPhases of decision making Intelligence – find or recognize aproblem, need, or opportunity Design – consider possible ways of solving theproblem Choice – weigh the merits of each solution Implementation – carry out the solution
  • 4. 4-4FOUR PHASES OFDECISION MAKING
  • 5. 4-5TYPES OF DECISIONSWE FACEStructured decision – processing acertain information in a specified way sothat you will always get the right answerNon-structured decision – one for whichthere may be several “right” answers,without a sure way to get the right answer
  • 6. 4-6EXAMPLE- WHAT JOB DOI TAKE?
  • 7. 4-7TYPES OF DECISIONSWE FACERecurring decision – one that happens repeatedlyNonrecurring (ad hoc) decision – one you make infrequently
  • 8. 4-8DECISION SUPPORTSYSTEMS Decision support system (DSS) – a highlyflexible and interactive system that is designed tosupport decision making when the problem is notstructured.“DSSs help you analyze, but you must know howto solve the problem, and how to use the resultsof the analysis.”
  • 9. 4-9COMPONENTS OF A DSSModel management component –consists of both the DSS models and themodel management systemData management component – storesand maintains the information that youwant your DSS to useUser interface management component– allows you to communicate with the DSS
  • 10. 4-10COMPONENTS OF A DSS
  • 11. PRESENTATIONOVERVIEW◊Decision Support Systems (DSS)◊Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS)◊Enterprise & Executive Decision SupportSystems◊Knowledge Management, Knowledgebased Expert Systems◊DSS Success Stories
  • 12. GROUP DECISIONSUPPORT SYSTEM Group Decision Support Systems(GDSS) are a class of electronic meetingsystems, a collaboration technologydesigned to support meetings and groupwork .“Group Support Systems has come tomean computer software and hardwareused to support group functions andprocesses.”12
  • 13. WHY USE GDSS?High level managers can spend 80% of their timemaking decisions in groups. Applied correctly, GDSScan reduce this time, arriving at a better decisionfaster.GDSS provides the hardware, software, databasesand procedures for effective decision making.13
  • 14. GDSS TIME/PLACEENVIRONMENTSame-TimeSame-Place(Most widely used GDSS-computers with projectors, votingtools)Same-TimeDifferent-Place(team room, tools, audioconferencing, screen sharing, chat)Different-TimeSame-Place(audio/video conferencing,document sharing)Different-TimeDifferent-Place(voice mail, email, bulletin boards)14
  • 15. COMPONENTS OF GDSS SoftwareThe software part may consist of the followingcomponents: databases and database managementcapabilities, user/system interface with multi-useraccess, specific applications to facilitate groupdecision-makers activities HardwareThe hardware part may consist of the followingcomponents: I/O devices, PCsor workstations, individual monitors for eachparticipant or a public screen for group.15
  • 16. COMPONENTS OF GDSS PeopleThe people may include decision-makingparticipants and /or facilitator. A facilitator is aperson who directs the group through the planningprocess. ProceduresThis refers to the methods that have been used inholding meetings.
  • 17. GDSS MODEL17
  • 18. ADVANTAGES OF GDSSParallel Communication – eliminatemonopolizing providing increased participation,better decisionsAutomated record keeping – no need to takenotes, they’re automatically recordedAbility for virtual meetings – only needhardware, software and people connectedPortability - Can be set up to be portable…laptopGlobal Potential - People can be connectedacross the world 18
  • 19. DISADVANTAGES OFGDSSCost –infrastructure costs to provide thehardware and software/room/networkconnectivity can be very expensiveSecurity – especially true when companies rentthe facilities for GDSS; also, the facilitator may bea lower-level employee who may leak informationto peersTechnical Failure – power loss, loss ofconnectivity, relies heavily on bandwidth andLAN/WAN infrastructure – properly setup systemshould minimize this risk19
  • 20. PRESENTATIONOVERVIEW◊Decision Support Systems (DSS)◊Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS)◊Enterprise & Executive Decision SupportSystems◊Knowledge Management, Knowledgebased Expert Systems◊DSS Success Stories
  • 21. ENTERPRISE &EXECUTIVES SUPPORTThe growth of corporateintranets, extranets and the Web(internet) has accelerated thedevelopment and use of“executive class” informationdelivery & decision supportsoftware tools to virtually everylevel of the organization.
  • 22. ENTERPRISE &DECISION MAKING DSS to provide enterprise-wide support Executives Many decision makers in different locations
  • 23. EXECUTIVE DECISIONS:STRATEGICStrategic LevelInputs: Aggregate dataProcessing: InteractiveOutputs: ProjectionsUsers: Senior managers
  • 24. EXECUTIVE DECISIONS:STRATEGIC5-year sales trendforecasting5-year operatingplan5-year budgetforecastingProfit planning
  • 25. EXECUTIVE SUPPORTSYSTEMSSpecialized decision support systemsdesigned to meet the needs of seniormanagementESS are enterprise-wide DSS that helptop-level executivesanalyze, compare, and highlight trends inimportant variables so that they canmonitor performance and identifyopportunities and problems
  • 26. PERSPECTIVES OFEXECUTIVE SUPPORTSYSTEMS Tailored to individual executivesNot to managers in other levels Easy to use Drill down capabilities Support need for external data Can help when uncertainty is high Future-oriented, ties CEO to all levels Linked to value-added processes
  • 27. CAPABILITIES OFEXECUTIVE SUPPORTSYSTEMSSupport for defining an overall visionOrganization’s product lines and servicesSupport for strategic planningPredict future trendsAnalyze merger possibilitiesSupport for strategic organizing &staffingChoice of departmentsPay raises
  • 28. CAPABILITIES OFEXECUTIVE SUPPORTSYSTEMS CONT..Support for strategic controlMonitor and manage the overallorganizationSupport for crisis managementPut together a contingency plan
  • 29. PRESENTATIONOVERVIEW◊Decision Support Systems (DSS)◊Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS)◊Enterprise & Executive Decision SupportSystems◊Knowledge Management, Knowledgebased Expert Systems◊DSS Success Stories
  • 30. KNOWLEDGEDataInformationKnowledgeIntelligenceCodifiable, explicitEasily transferableHuman, judgmentalContextual, tacitTransfer needs learning
  • 31. DATA, INFORMATION &KNOWLEDGE
  • 32. DATA, INFORMATION ANDKNOWLEDGE Datarefers to isolated facts such as individualmeasurementNo meaning on their own Informationfact about situation, person, events Knowledgeexperience
  • 33. KNOWLEDGEMANAGEMENT Knowledge management (KM) comprises a rangeof strategies and practices used in an organisationto identify, create, represent, distribute, and enableadoption of insights and experiences KM is a process that helps organizations identify,select, organize, disseminate, and transferimportant information and expertise that are part ofthe organization’s memory. KM is the process of systematically and activelymanaging and leveraging stores of knowledge in anorganization
  • 34. EXPERT SYSTEMExpert system are the system designedto solve complex problem by reasoninglike as an expert Expert Systems Application Areas in Action1.Medical Diagnosis2.Telephone Network Maintenance3.Detection of Common Metals
  • 35. EXPERT SYSTEMARCHITECTUREThe typical architecture of an expert system isoften described as follows-userinterfaceinferenceengineknowledgebase
  • 36. EXPERT SYSTEMS:CHARACTERISTICSLike a human expert, an expert system is expectedto Be specialist : know facts and procedural rules Use heuristics : interpolate from known facts Justify its conclusions : to establish credibilityand confidence. The user can ask: Be able to learn : be able to absorb newknowledge and apply it estimate the reliability of itsanswer.
  • 37. DSS SUCCESS STORIES-FAIR ISAACCORPORATION (FICO)Enterprise Decision ManagementEnterprise Fraud ProtectionBig Data AnalyticsConnected DecisionsMobile DialoguesNormally total$200,000 pluswww.fico.com
  • 38. FICO’S SUCCESS More than 5000businesses in morethan 80 countries 9 of the top 10companies in theFortune 500 Multiple success storiesof big and smallcompanies
  • 39. ThankYou!Questions & Answers Session