About the Authors Tim Converse has written software to recommend neckties, answer questions about space stations, pick value stocks, and make simulated breakfast. He has an M.S. in Computer Science from the University of Chicago, where he taught several programming classes. He is now an engineering manager in the Web search group at Yahoo!. Joyce Park has an M.A. in history from the University of Chicago, and has worked for several Silicon Valley startups including Epinions, KnowNow, and Friendster. She is a co-lead of the Mod-pubsub Open Source project. Clark Morgan is a Web application and educational software developer with more than five years’ experience writing PHP. He works primarily with medical clients and related busi- nesses. Originally from Boston, he now lives and works in Jacksonville, Florida, with his wife and two children. Clark spends entirely too much of his free time reading other people’s com- puter books.
Credits Acquisitions Editor Vice President and Publisher Debra Williams Cauley Joseph B. Wikert Development Editor Executive Editorial Director Sara Shlaer Mary Bednarek Production Editor Project Coordinator Eric Newman April Farling Technical Editors Graphics and Production Specialists Chris Cornell Beth Brooks David Wall Sean Decker Carrie Foster Copy Editor Lauren Goddard C. M. Jones Quality Control Technician Editorial Manager Laura Albert Mary Beth Wakefield Carl William Pierce Vice President & Executive Group Permissions Editor Publisher Carmen Krikorian Richard Swadley Media Development Specialist Vice President and Executive Angela Denny Publisher Bob Ipsen Proofreading and Indexing TECHBOOKS Production Services
To our parents: For their love, for their sacrifices, and for letting us read a lot when we were kids. — Tim Converse and Joyce Park This, my first serious writing effort, is for my lifelong friend Bob, who pointed me inthis direction nearly ten years ago and then had the nerve to suggest I write about it. — Clark Morgan
Preface W elcome to PHP5 and MySQL Bible! Although we’re biased, we believe that the PHP Web-scripting language is the hands-down win- ner in its niche — by far the easiest and most flexible server-side tool for getting great Web sites up and running in a hurry. Although millions of Web programmers worldwide could be wrong, in this particular case, they’re not. MySQL is the most popular open-source database platform, and it is the first choice of many for creating database-backed PHP-driven Web sites As we write this, PHP5 is in its third beta version, and PHP has continued to grow in reach, adoption, and features since we wrote the first two versions of this book.What Is PHP? PHP is an open-source, server-side, HTML-embedded Web-scripting language that is compati- ble with all the major Web servers (most notably Apache). PHP enables you to embed code fragments in normal HTML pages — code that is interpreted as your pages are served up to users. PHP also serves as a “glue” language, making it easy to connect your Web pages to server-side databases.Why PHP? We devote nearly all of Chapter 1 to this question. The short answer is that it’s free, it’s open source, it’s full featured, it’s cross-platform, it’s stable, it’s fast, it’s clearly designed, it’s easy to learn, and it plays well with others.What’s New in This Edition? Although this book has a new title, it is in some sense a third edition. Previous versions were: ✦ PHP 4 Bible. Published in August 2000, covering PHP through version 4.0. ✦ PHP Bible, Second Edition. Published in September 2002, a significantly expanded ver- sion of the first edition, current through PHP 4.2. Our initial plan for this book was to simply reorganize the second edition and bring it up to date with PHP5. We realized, however, that although the previous editions covered PHP/MySQL interaction, we had left readers in the dark about how to create and administer MySQL databases in the first place, and this led to many reader questions. As a result, we decided to beef up the coverage of MySQL and change the title.
x Preface New PHP5 features Although much of PHP4’s functionality survives unchanged in PHP5, there have been some deep changes. Among the ones we cover are: ✦ Zend Engine 2 and the new object model, with support for private/protected members, abstract classes, and interfaces ✦ PHP5’s completely reworked XML support, built around libmxl2 ✦ Exceptions and exception handling MySQL coverage We now cover MySQL 4.0 installation, database design, and administration, including back- ups, replication, and recovery. As with previous editions, we devote much of the book to techniques for writing MySQL-backed PHP applications. Other new material In addition to MySQL- and PHP5-specific features, we’ve added: ✦ Improved coverage of databases other than MySQL (Oracle, PostgreSQL, and the PEAR database interaction layer) ✦ The PEAR code repository ✦ A chapter on integrating PHP and Java ✦ Separate chapters on error-handling and debugging techniques Finally, we reorganized the entire book, pushing more advanced topics toward the end, to give beginners an easier ramp up. Who wrote the book? The first two editions were by Converse and Park, with a guest chapter by Dustin Mitchell and tech editing by Richard Lynch. For this version, Clark Morgan took on much of the revi- sion work, with help by Converse and Park as well as by David Wall and Chris Cornell, who also contributed chapters and did technical editing. Whom This Book Is For This book is for anyone who wants to build Web sites that exhibit more complex behavior than is possible with static HTML pages. Within that population, we had the following three particular audiences in mind: ✦ Web site designers who know HTML and want to move into creating dynamic Web sites ✦ Experienced programmers (in C, Java, Perl, and so on) without Web experience who want to quickly get up to speed in server-side Web programming ✦ Web programmers who have used other server-side technologies (Active Server Pages, Java Server Pages, or ColdFusion, for example) and want to upgrade or simply add another tool to their kit.
Preface xi We assume that the reader is familiar with HTML and has a basic knowledge of the workings of the Web, but we do not assume any programming experience beyond that. To help save time for more experienced programmers, we include a number of notes and asides that com- pare PHP with other languages and indicate which chapters and sections may be safely skipped. Finally, see our appendixes, which offer specific advice for C programmers, ASP coders, and pure-HTML designers.This Book Is Not the Manual The PHP Documentation Group has assembled a great online manual, located at www.php.net and served up (of course) by PHP. This book is not that manual or even a substitute for it. We see the book as complementary to the manual and expect that you will want to go back and forth between them to some extent. In general, you’ll find the online manual to be very comprehensive, covering all aspects and functions of the language, but inevitably without a great amount of depth in any one topic. By contrast, we have the leisure of zeroing in on aspects that are most used or least understood and give background, explanations, and lengthy examples.How the Book Is Organized This book is divided into five parts, as the following sections describe. Part I: PHP: The Basics This part is intended to bring the reader up to speed on the most essential aspects of PHP, with complexities and abstruse features deferred to later Parts. ✦ Chapters 1 through 4 provide an introduction to PHP and tell you what you need to know to get started. ✦ Chapters 5 through 10 are a guide to the most central facets of PHP (with the exception of database interaction): the syntax, the datatypes, and the most basic built-in functions. ✦ Chapter 11 is a guide to the most common pitfalls of PHP programming. Part II: PHP and MySQL Part II is devoted both to MySQL and to PHP’s interaction with MySQL. ✦ Chapters 12 and 13 provide a general orientation to Web programming with SQL databases, including advice on how to choose the database system that is right for you. ✦ Chapter 14 covers installation and administration of MySQL databases, and Chapter 15 is devoted to PHP functions for MySQL. ✦ Chapters 16 and 17 are detailed, code-rich case studies of PHP/MySQL interactions. ✦ Chapters 18 and 19 provide tips and gotchas specific to PHP/MySQL work.
xii Preface Part III: Advanced Features and Techniques In this part we cover more advanced and abstruse features of PHP, usually as self-contained chapters, including object-oriented programming, session handling, exception handling, using cookies, and regular expressions. Chapter 32 is a tour of debugging techniques, and Chapte