Linux Bible        ®


            2008 Edition
   Boot Up to Ubuntu®, Fedora®, KNOPPIX,
Debian®, openSUSE®, and 11 Other ...
Linux® Bible
   2008 Edition
Linux Bible        ®


            2008 Edition
   Boot Up to Ubuntu®, Fedora®, KNOPPIX,
Debian®, openSUSE®, and 11 Other ...
Linux® Bible 2008 Edition: Boot Up to Ubuntu®, Fedora®, KNOPPIX,
Debian®, openSUSE®, and 11 Other Distributions
Published ...
As always, I dedicate this book to my wife, Sheree.
About the Authors
Chris Negus has written or co-written dozens of books on Linux and UNIX, including Red Hat
Linux Bible (...
Credits
Acquisitions Editor         Vice President and Executive Publisher
Jenny Watson                Joseph B. Wikert

D...
I consider anyone who has contributed to the free and open source software community to be a
contributor to the book you a...
Introduction ................................................................................................................
Part V: Running Servers
Chapter 24: Running a Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (LAMP) Server ...................................
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiii

Part I: Linux First Steps
Chapter 1: St...
Contents



                How Do Companies Make Money with Linux? .........................................................
Contents



          Managing Background and Foreground Processes......................................................63...
Contents



          The GNOME Desktop .....................................................................................
Contents



     Creating User Accounts .....................................................................................
Contents



                 Creating a Dial-Up Connection with the Internet Configuration Wizard..................197
   ...
Contents



Part III: Choosing and Installing a Linux Distribution
Chapter 7: Installing Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
Contents



         Fedora Comes of Age ....................................................................................
Contents



Chapter 10: Running SUSE and openSUSE Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
    Understanding SUSE and openSUS...
Contents



       Chapter 12: Running Yellow Dog Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
           Understanding Y...
Contents



          Slackware Users .......................................................................................
Contents



                 Ubuntu as a Server .............................................................................
Contents



         Multimedia Bootables ...................................................................................
Contents



           Using a Digital Camera with gtkam and gPhoto2....................................................54...
Contents



         Getting Here from Windows...............................................................................
Contents



             Running Open Source Linux Games.....................................................................
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Linux Bible 2008 Edition

  1. 1. Linux Bible ® 2008 Edition Boot Up to Ubuntu®, Fedora®, KNOPPIX, Debian®, openSUSE®, and 11 Other Distributions Christopher Negus Wiley Publishing, Inc.
  2. 2. Linux® Bible 2008 Edition
  3. 3. Linux Bible ® 2008 Edition Boot Up to Ubuntu®, Fedora®, KNOPPIX, Debian®, openSUSE®, and 11 Other Distributions Christopher Negus Wiley Publishing, Inc.
  4. 4. Linux® Bible 2008 Edition: Boot Up to Ubuntu®, Fedora®, KNOPPIX, Debian®, openSUSE®, and 11 Other Distributions Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 10475 Crosspoint Boulevard Indianapolis, IN 46256 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2008 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-0-470-23019-0 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available from the publisher. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572- 4355, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Website is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. For general information on our other products and services please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. Fedora is a registered trademark of Red Hat, Inc. Debian is a registered trademark of Software in the Public Interest, Inc. openSUSE is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc. Ubuntu is a registered trademark of Canonical Limited Company. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books.
  5. 5. As always, I dedicate this book to my wife, Sheree.
  6. 6. About the Authors Chris Negus has written or co-written dozens of books on Linux and UNIX, including Red Hat Linux Bible (all editions), Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux Bible, Linux Troubleshooting Bible, Linux Toys, and Linux Toys II. In late 2007, Chris co-authored three books for the new Linux Toolbox series for power users: Fedora Linux Toolbox, SUSE Linux Toolbox, and Ubuntu Linux Toolbox. For eight years, he worked with the organization at AT&T that developed UNIX before moving to Utah to contribute to Novell’s short-lived UnixWare project in the early 1990s. When not writing about Linux, Chris enjoys playing soccer and just hanging out with his family. Emmett Dulaney is the author of several books on operating systems, networking, and certification. An assistant professor at Anderson University, he is also a columnist for CertCities and a frequent contributor to a number of other magazines.
  7. 7. Credits Acquisitions Editor Vice President and Executive Publisher Jenny Watson Joseph B. Wikert Development Editor Project Coordinator, Cover Sara Shlaer Lynsey Stanford Technical Editor Media Associate Project Manager Emmett Dulaney Laura Atkinson Copy Editor Media Assistant Producer Nancy Rapoport Josh Frank Editorial Manager Media Quality Control Mary Beth Wakefield Kit Malone Production Manager Compositor Tim Tate Kate Kaminski, Happenstance Type-O-Rama Vice President and Proofreader Executive Group Publisher Kathryn Duggan Richard Swadley Indexer Johnna VanHoose Dinse
  8. 8. I consider anyone who has contributed to the free and open source software community to be a contributor to the book you are holding. The backbone of any Linux distribution is formed by the organizations that produce the distributions, the major projects included in Linux, and the thousands of people who give their time and code to support Linux. So, thanks to you all! For Linux Bible 2008 Edition, Emmett Dulaney did most of the heavy lifting. Emmett’s thorough technical edit of the entire book and updates to several critical sections made it possible for us to bring the book to market on schedule. I’d like to acknowledge several contributors for their participation in previous editions. Wayne Tucker wrote and then updated the chapters on Debian, LAMP servers, and mail servers. Bill von Hagen contributed updates to the SUSE, Yellow Dog, and Ubuntu chapters. Jaldhar Vyas updated the Linspire chapter. Thanks to the folks at Wiley for helping me press through the project. Jenny Watson did a wonder- ful job putting together the personnel needed to complete this book, in the face of my having five books scheduled to complete within a two-month period. Sara Shlaer did her usual great job keep- ing the project moving under a very challenging schedule. Thanks to Margot Maley Hutchison and Maureen Maloney from Waterside Productions for contracting the book for me with Wiley. And finally, special thanks to my wife, Sheree. There’s no way I could do the work I do without the solid support I get on the home front. I love you, and thanks for taking such good care of Seth, Caleb, and me. ix
  9. 9. Introduction ............................................................................................................................xxxiii Part I: Linux First Steps Chapter 1: Starting with Linux........................................................................................................3 Chapter 2: Running Commands from the Shell ............................................................................35 Chapter 3: Getting into the Desktop ............................................................................................81 Part II: Running the Show Chapter 4: Learning Basic Administration ..................................................................................131 Chapter 5: Getting on the Internet ..............................................................................................179 Chapter 6: Securing Linux ..........................................................................................................203 Part III: Choosing and Installing a Linux Distribution Chapter 7: Installing Linux ........................................................................................................253 Chapter 8: Running Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux..........................................................283 Chapter 9: Running Debian GNU/Linux ....................................................................................303 Chapter 10: Running SUSE and openSUSE Linux ......................................................................327 Chapter 11: Running KNOPPIX..................................................................................................343 Chapter 12: Running Yellow Dog Linux ......................................................................................365 Chapter 13: Running Gentoo Linux ............................................................................................383 Chapter 14: Running Slackware Linux ........................................................................................403 Chapter 15: Running Linspire and Freespire ..............................................................................419 Chapter 16: Running Mandriva ..................................................................................................435 Chapter 17: Running Ubuntu Linux ..........................................................................................449 Chapter 18: Running a Linux Firewall/Router ............................................................................467 Chapter 19: Running Bootable Linux Distributions ....................................................................493 Part IV: Running Applications Chapter 20: Playing Music and Video ........................................................................................513 Chapter 21: Working with Words and Images ............................................................................549 Chapter 22: E-Mailing and Web Browsing ..................................................................................589 Chapter 23: Gaming with Linux..................................................................................................623 x
  10. 10. Part V: Running Servers Chapter 24: Running a Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (LAMP) Server ..................................649 Chapter 25: Running a Mail Server ............................................................................................671 Chapter 26: Running a Print Server ............................................................................................689 Chapter 27: Running a File Server ..............................................................................................713 Part VI: Programming in Linux Chapter 28: Programming Environments and Interfaces ............................................................749 Chapter 29: Programming Tools and Utilities..............................................................................779 Appendix A: Media ....................................................................................................................809 Appendix B: Entering the Linux Community ..............................................................................819 Index ..........................................................................................................................................825
  11. 11. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiii Part I: Linux First Steps Chapter 1: Starting with Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Taking Your First Step ..................................................................................................4 Starting Right Now......................................................................................................6 Understanding Linux ..................................................................................................6 Exploring Linux History ..............................................................................................8 From a Free-Flowing UNIX Culture at Bell Labs..........................................................9 To a Commercialized UNIX ......................................................................................11 BSD Arrives ....................................................................................................11 UNIX Laboratory and Commercialization ........................................................11 To a GNU Free-Flowing (not) UNIX ..........................................................................13 BSD Loses Some Steam..............................................................................................14 Linus Builds the Missing Piece ..................................................................................14 What’s So Great About Linux? ..................................................................................15 Features in Linux ......................................................................................................16 OSI Open Source Definition ......................................................................................17 Vibrant Communities ................................................................................................18 Major Software Projects ............................................................................................19 Linux in the Real World ............................................................................................20 Linux in Schools........................................................................................................20 Linux in Small Business ............................................................................................21 Linux in the Enterprise ..............................................................................................22 Linux Myths, Legends, and FUD................................................................................23 Can You Stop Worrying About Viruses? ....................................................................23 Will You Be Sued for Using Linux? ............................................................................24 Microsoft Versus Linux ....................................................................................24 The SCO Lawsuits ..........................................................................................25 Software Patents ..............................................................................................26 Other Potentially Litigious Issues ....................................................................27 Can Linux Really Run on Everything from Handhelds to Supercomputers? ..............27 Will Microsoft Crush Linux?......................................................................................27 Are You on Your Own If You Use Linux? ..................................................................29 Is Linux Only for Geeks? ..........................................................................................29 xiii
  12. 12. Contents How Do Companies Make Money with Linux? ..........................................................29 How Different Are Linux Distributions from One Another? ......................................30 Is the Linux Mascot Really a Penguin? ......................................................................31 Getting Started with Linux ........................................................................................32 Summary ..................................................................................................................33 Chapter 2: Running Commands from the Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Starting a Shell ..........................................................................................................36 Using the Shell Prompt..............................................................................................36 Using a Terminal Window ........................................................................................37 Using Virtual Terminals ............................................................................................38 Choosing Your Shell ..................................................................................................38 Using bash (and Earlier sh) Shells..............................................................................39 Using tcsh (and Earlier csh) Shells ............................................................................39 Using ash ..................................................................................................................40 Using ksh ..................................................................................................................40 Using zsh ..................................................................................................................40 Exploring the Shell ....................................................................................................40 Checking Your Login Session ....................................................................................41 Checking Directories and Permissions ......................................................................41 Checking System Activity ..........................................................................................43 Exiting the Shell ........................................................................................................44 Using the Shell in Linux ............................................................................................45 Locating Commands..................................................................................................46 Rerunning Commands ..............................................................................................48 Command-Line Editing ..................................................................................49 Command-Line Completion ............................................................................51 Command-Line Recall ....................................................................................52 Connecting and Expanding Commands ....................................................................54 Piping Commands ..........................................................................................54 Sequential Commands ....................................................................................54 Background Commands ..................................................................................55 Expanding Commands ....................................................................................55 Expanding Arithmetic Expressions ..................................................................56 Expanding Environment Variables ..................................................................56 Creating Your Shell Environment ..............................................................................56 Configuring Your Shell ..............................................................................................56 Setting Your Prompt ........................................................................................57 Adding Environment Variables ........................................................................59 Adding Aliases ................................................................................................60 Using Shell Environment Variables ............................................................................60 Common Shell Environment Variables ............................................................60 Setting Your Own Environment Variables ........................................................62 xiv
  13. 13. Contents Managing Background and Foreground Processes......................................................63 Starting Background Processes ........................................................................64 Using Foreground and Background Commands ..............................................64 Working with the Linux File System ..........................................................................65 Creating Files and Directories....................................................................................68 Using Metacharacters and Operators................................................................69 Using File-Matching Metacharacters ................................................................70 Using File-Redirection Metacharacters ............................................................71 Understanding File Permissions ......................................................................71 Moving, Copying, and Deleting Files ........................................................................74 Using the vi Text Editor ............................................................................................74 Starting with vi ..........................................................................................................76 Moving Around the File ............................................................................................78 Searching for Text......................................................................................................78 Using Numbers with Commands ..............................................................................79 Summary ..................................................................................................................79 Chapter 3: Getting into the Desktop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Understanding Your Desktop ....................................................................................81 Starting the Desktop ................................................................................................82 Boot to the Desktop ..................................................................................................82 Boot to a Graphical Login ..........................................................................................83 Boot to a Text Prompt................................................................................................85 K Desktop Environment ............................................................................................85 Using the KDE Desktop ............................................................................................86 Managing Files with the Konqueror File Manager......................................................90 Working with Files ..........................................................................................91 Searching for Files ..........................................................................................92 Creating New Files and Folders ......................................................................93 Using Other Browser Features..........................................................................95 Configuring Konqueror Options................................................................................95 Managing Windows ..................................................................................................97 Using the Taskbar ............................................................................................97 Uncluttering the Desktop ................................................................................99 Moving Windows ............................................................................................99 Resizing Windows ..........................................................................................99 Pinning Windows on the Top or Bottom..........................................................99 Using Virtual Desktops ..................................................................................100 Configuring the Desktop ........................................................................................100 Changing the Display ....................................................................................101 Changing Panel Attributes ............................................................................102 Adding Application Launchers and MIME Types ....................................................102 Adding Applications to the Panel ..................................................................103 Adding Applications to the Desktop ..............................................................103 xv
  14. 14. Contents The GNOME Desktop ............................................................................................103 Using the Metacity Window Manager ......................................................................105 Using the GNOME Panels........................................................................................107 Using the Applications, Places, and System Menus ........................................108 Adding an Applet ..........................................................................................109 Adding Another Panel....................................................................................109 Adding an Application Launcher ..................................................................110 Adding a Drawer............................................................................................111 Changing Panel Properties ............................................................................111 Using the Nautilus File Manager..............................................................................112 3D Effects with AIGLX ............................................................................................114 Changing GNOME Preferences................................................................................116 Exiting GNOME ......................................................................................................117 Configuring a GNOME Online Desktop ..................................................................118 Configuring Your Own Desktop ..............................................................................120 Configuring X..........................................................................................................120 Creating a Working X Configuration File ......................................................121 Getting New X Drivers ..................................................................................122 Tuning Up Your X Configuration File ............................................................122 Choosing a Window Manager..................................................................................124 Choosing Your Personal Window Manager ..............................................................126 Getting More Information ......................................................................................126 Summary ................................................................................................................127 Part II: Running the Show Chapter 4: Learning Basic Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Graphical Administration Tools ..............................................................................132 Using Web-Based Administration ............................................................................132 Open Source Projects Offering Web Administration ......................................132 The Webmin Administration Tool..................................................................133 Graphical Administration with Different Distributions ............................................133 Red Hat Config Tools ....................................................................................134 SUSE YaST Tools............................................................................................136 Using the root Login ..............................................................................................137 Becoming Root from the Shell (su Command) ........................................................138 Allowing Limited Administrative Access ..................................................................139 Exploring Administrative Commands, Configuration Files, and Log Files ................140 Administrative Commands ......................................................................................140 Administrative Configuration Files ..........................................................................141 Administrative Log Files ..........................................................................................145 Using sudo and Other Administrative Logins ........................................................146 Administering Your Linux System ............................................................................148 xvi
  15. 15. Contents Creating User Accounts ..........................................................................................149 Adding Users with useradd......................................................................................149 Setting User Defaults ..............................................................................................152 Modifying Users with usermod................................................................................154 Deleting Users with userdel ....................................................................................155 Configuring Hardware ............................................................................................155 Managing Removable Hardware ..............................................................................156 Removable Media on a GNOME Desktop ......................................................157 Removable Media on a SUSE KDE Desktop ..................................................159 Working with Loadable Modules ............................................................................160 Listing Loaded Modules ................................................................................160 Loading Modules ..........................................................................................161 Removing Modules ........................................................................................162 Managing File Systems and Disk Space ..................................................................162 Mounting File Systems ............................................................................................165 Supported File Systems..................................................................................165 Using the fstab File to Define Mountable File Systems ..................................167 Using the mount Command to Mount File Systems ......................................169 Using the umount Command ......................................................................171 Using the mkfs Command to Create a File System ..................................................172 Adding a Hard Disk ................................................................................................173 Checking System Space ..........................................................................................175 Displaying System Space with df....................................................................175 Checking Disk Usage with du ........................................................................176 Finding Disk Consumption with find ............................................................176 Monitoring System Performance ............................................................................177 Summary ................................................................................................................178 Chapter 5: Getting on the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Connecting to the Network ....................................................................................180 Connecting via Dial-Up Service ..............................................................................180 Connecting a Single Computer to Broadband ..........................................................181 Connecting Multiple Computers to Broadband........................................................182 Connecting Servers..................................................................................................184 Connecting Other Equipment..................................................................................185 Using Ethernet Connections to the Internet ............................................................186 Configuring Ethernet During Installation ................................................................186 Configuring Ethernet from the Desktop ..................................................................187 Using Network Configuration GUI in Fedora ..........................................................188 Identifying Other Computers (Hosts and DNS) ......................................................190 Using the Network Settings GUI in Ubuntu ............................................................191 Understanding Your Internet Connection ................................................................193 Using Dial-Up Connections to the Internet ............................................................195 Getting Information ................................................................................................195 Setting Up Dial-Up PPP ..........................................................................................196 xvii
  16. 16. Contents Creating a Dial-Up Connection with the Internet Configuration Wizard..................197 Launching Your PPP Connection ............................................................................199 Launching Your PPP Connection on Demand ..........................................................199 Checking Your PPP Connection ..............................................................................200 Checking That Your Modem Was Detected..............................................................200 Connecting to the Internet with Wireless................................................................201 Summary ................................................................................................................202 Chapter 6: Securing Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Linux Security Checklist ..........................................................................................204 Finding Distribution-Specific Security Resources ....................................................207 Finding General Security Resources ........................................................................208 Using Linux Securely ..............................................................................................209 Using Password Protection ......................................................................................209 Choosing Good Passwords ......................................................................................210 Using a Shadow Password File ................................................................................211 Breaking Encrypted Passwords ......................................................................212 Checking for the Shadow Password File ........................................................212 Using Log Files ........................................................................................................213 The Role of syslogd..................................................................................................216 Redirecting Logs to a Loghost with syslogd..............................................................216 Understanding the messages Log File ......................................................................217 Using Secure Shell Tools..........................................................................................218 Starting the ssh Service ............................................................................................218 Using the ssh, sftp, and scp Commands ..................................................................219 Using ssh, scp, and sftp Without Passwords ............................................................220 Securing Linux Servers ............................................................................................222 Controlling Access to Services with TCP Wrappers..................................................222 Understanding Attack Techniques ..........................................................................225 Protecting Against Denial of Service Attacks ............................................................226 Mailbombing ................................................................................................226 Spam Relaying ..............................................................................................228 Smurf Amplification Attack............................................................................228 Protecting Against Distributed DOS Attacks ............................................................229 Protecting Against Intrusion Attacks ........................................................................233 Evaluating Access to Network Services ..........................................................233 Disabling Network Services ..........................................................................235 Securing Servers with SELinux ................................................................................236 Protecting Web Servers with Certificates and Encryption ........................................237 Symmetric Cryptography ..............................................................................237 Asymmetric Cryptography ............................................................................238 Secure Sockets Layer ....................................................................................238 Using Linux Live CD Security Tools ........................................................................247 Advantages of Security Live CDs..............................................................................247 Using INSERT to Check for rootkits ........................................................................247 Summary ................................................................................................................248 xviii
  17. 17. Contents Part III: Choosing and Installing a Linux Distribution Chapter 7: Installing Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Choosing a Linux Distribution ................................................................................254 Linux at Work ........................................................................................................254 Other Distributions ................................................................................................255 Getting Your Own Linux Distribution ....................................................................255 Finding Another Linux Distribution ........................................................................256 Understanding What You Need ..............................................................................256 Downloading the Distribution ................................................................................257 Burning the Distribution to CD ..............................................................................258 Exploring Common Installation Topics ....................................................................259 Knowing Your Computer Hardware ........................................................................259 Upgrading or Installing from Scratch ......................................................................261 Dual Booting with Windows or Just Linux? ............................................................261 Using Installation Boot Options ..............................................................................263 Partitioning Hard Drives..........................................................................................263 Partitioning with Disk Druid During Installation ..........................................264 Partitioning with fdisk ..................................................................................267 Tips for Creating Partitions ............................................................................269 Using LILO or GRUB Boot Loaders..........................................................................271 Booting Your Computer with GRUB ..............................................................271 Booting with GRUB ......................................................................................272 Temporarily Changing Boot Options..............................................................272 Permanently Changing Boot Options ............................................................273 Adding a New GRUB Boot Image ..................................................................275 Booting Your Computer with LILO ................................................................275 Changing Your Boot Loader ..........................................................................279 Configuring Networking..........................................................................................280 Configuring Other Administrative Features ............................................................281 Installing from the Linux Bible CD or DVD ............................................................281 Summary ................................................................................................................282 Chapter 8: Running Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux . . . . . . . . . 283 Digging into Features ..............................................................................................285 Red Hat Installer (Anaconda) ..................................................................................285 RPM Package Management ......................................................................................286 Kudzu Hardware Detection ....................................................................................286 Red Hat Desktop Look-and-Feel..............................................................................287 System Configuration Tools ....................................................................................288 Going Forward with Fedora ....................................................................................288 Growing Community Support for Fedora ................................................................288 Forums and Mailing Lists ........................................................................................289 xix
  18. 18. Contents Fedora Comes of Age ..............................................................................................289 Installing Fedora......................................................................................................291 Choosing Computer Hardware ................................................................................291 Choosing an Installation Method ............................................................................292 Installing on Multiple Computers ..................................................................293 Installation Guides ........................................................................................293 Choosing to Install or Upgrade................................................................................293 Beginning the Installation ........................................................................................294 Running the Fedora Setup Agent ............................................................................301 Summary ................................................................................................................302 Chapter 9: Running Debian GNU/Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 Inside Debian GNU/Linux ......................................................................................304 Debian Packages ......................................................................................................304 Debian Package Management Tools ........................................................................305 Debian Releases ......................................................................................................307 Getting Help with Debian ......................................................................................307 Installing Debian GNU/Linux ................................................................................308 Hardware Requirements and Installation Planning ..................................................308 Workstations..................................................................................................309 Servers ..........................................................................................................309 Running the Installer ..............................................................................................309 Managing Your Debian System ................................................................................314 Configuring Network Connections ..........................................................................314 IP Networks: Ethernet and Wireless ..............................................................315 Dial-Up PPP Connections ..............................................................................316 PPPoE Connections ......................................................................................317 Package Management Using APT ............................................................................317 Managing the List of Package Repositories ....................................................318 Updating the APT Package Database..............................................................318 Finding and Installing Packages ....................................................................319 Removing Packages........................................................................................320 Upgrading Your System ................................................................................320 Package Management Using dpkg............................................................................321 Installing and Removing Packages ................................................................321 Querying the Package Database ....................................................................321 Examining a Package File ..............................................................................322 Installing Package Sets (Tasks) with Tasksel ............................................................323 Alternatives, Diversions, and Stat Overrides ............................................................323 Managing Package Configuration with debconf ......................................................325 Summary ................................................................................................................325 xx
  19. 19. Contents Chapter 10: Running SUSE and openSUSE Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Understanding SUSE and openSUSE ......................................................................328 What’s in SUSE........................................................................................................329 Installation and Configuration with YaST ................................................................330 RPM Package Management ......................................................................................332 Automated Software Updates ..................................................................................334 Managing Software with zypper ..............................................................................334 Getting Support for SUSE and openSUSE ................................................................334 Installing openSUSE ................................................................................................335 Before You Begin......................................................................................................335 Starting Installation ................................................................................................336 Installation Settings........................................................................................337 Configuration Settings ..................................................................................339 Starting with openSUSE ..........................................................................................341 Summary ................................................................................................................341 Chapter 11: Running KNOPPIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 KNOPPIX Features ..................................................................................................343 Understanding KNOPPIX ........................................................................................344 KNOPPIX News ......................................................................................................344 Looking Inside KNOPPIX........................................................................................344 What’s Cool About KNOPPIX ..................................................................................346 Examining Challenges with KNOPPIX ....................................................................347 Seeing Where KNOPPIX Comes From ....................................................................348 Exploring Uses for KNOPPIX ..................................................................................349 Starting KNOPPIX ..................................................................................................350 Getting a Computer ................................................................................................350 Booting KNOPPIX ..................................................................................................351 Correcting Boot Problems........................................................................................351 Customizing KNOPPIX..................................................................................354 Special Features and Workarounds ................................................................355 Using KNOPPIX ......................................................................................................356 Getting on the Network ..........................................................................................357 Installing Software in KNOPPIX ..............................................................................358 Saving Files in KNOPPIX ........................................................................................359 Writing to Hard Disk ....................................................................................359 Creating a Persistent Home Directory ............................................................360 Keeping Your KNOPPIX Configuration....................................................................361 Restarting KNOPPIX................................................................................................362 Summary ................................................................................................................363 xxi
  20. 20. Contents Chapter 12: Running Yellow Dog Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Understanding Yellow Dog Linux ..........................................................................365 Going Forward with Yellow Dog ............................................................................367 Digging into Yellow Dog..........................................................................................368 Installing Yellow Dog Linux ....................................................................................369 Hardware Support ..................................................................................................370 Planning Your Installation........................................................................................371 Installing Mac OS X and Yellow Dog Linux on One Hard Drive ....................372 Installing Mac OS 9 or Earlier and Yellow Dog Linux on One Hard Drive......372 Installing Mac OS 9 or Earlier, Mac OS X, and Yellow Dog Linux on Multiple Hard Drives ..........................................................................373 Yellow Dog Linux 3.0.1 Special Considerations ............................................373 Beginning the Installation ........................................................................................373 Rebooting Your Linux Mac ......................................................................................379 Updating Yellow Dog Linux ....................................................................................379 Running Mac Applications with Mac-on-Linux........................................................381 Support Options......................................................................................................381 Summary ................................................................................................................382 Chapter 13: Running Gentoo Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Understanding Gentoo............................................................................................383 Gentoo’s Open Source Spirit ....................................................................................384 The Gentoo Community..........................................................................................385 Building, Tuning, and Tweaking Linux ....................................................................385 Where Gentoo Is Used ............................................................................................386 What’s in Gentoo ....................................................................................................387 Managing Software with Portage..............................................................................388 Finding Software Packages ......................................................................................388 New Gentoo Features ............................................................................................389 Installing Gentoo ....................................................................................................389 Getting Gentoo ........................................................................................................389 Live CD Install ..............................................................................................390 Minimal/Universal Install CD ........................................................................390 Starting Gentoo Installation from a Live CD ............................................................391 Starting Gentoo Installation from a Minimal CD ......................................................393 Getting Software with emerge ..................................................................................401 Summary ................................................................................................................402 Chapter 14: Running Slackware Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 Getting into Slackware............................................................................................403 Characterizing the Slackware Community ..............................................................405 The Slackware Creator ............................................................................................405 xxii
  21. 21. Contents Slackware Users ......................................................................................................406 Slackware Internet Sites ..........................................................................................407 Challenges of Using Slackware................................................................................407 Using Slackware as a Development Platform ..........................................................408 Installing Slackware ................................................................................................409 Getting Slackware....................................................................................................409 New Features in Slackware 12.0 ..............................................................................409 Hardware Requirements ..........................................................................................410 Starting Installation ................................................................................................410 Starting with Slackware ..........................................................................................415 Summary ................................................................................................................417 Chapter 15: Running Linspire and Freespire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 Overview of Linspire ..............................................................................................419 Which Version Is Right for You? ..............................................................................421 Installing Software with Click-N-Run ......................................................................423 Other Installation Options ......................................................................................424 Linspire and Freespire Support ..............................................................................425 Forums and Information ........................................................................................425 Audio Assistant........................................................................................................425 Installing Linspire or Freespire ................................................................................426 Hardware Requirements ..........................................................................................426 Installing Linspire or Freespire ................................................................................427 Securing Linspire and Freespire ..............................................................................431 Summary ................................................................................................................432 Chapter 16: Running Mandriva. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Mandriva Features ..................................................................................................435 Exploring Mandriva ................................................................................................437 Mandriva Installer (DrakX)......................................................................................438 RPM Package Management with RPMDrake ............................................................439 Mandriva Linux Control Center ..............................................................................440 The Mandriva Community ......................................................................................441 RPM Repository on Mandriva Club ........................................................................442 Mandriva Forums ....................................................................................................442 Installing Mandriva Limited Edition ........................................................................442 The Right Hardware for Mandriva ..........................................................................443 Installing Mandriva with the DrakX Installer ..........................................................444 Summary ................................................................................................................447 Chapter 17: Running Ubuntu Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Overview of Ubuntu ..............................................................................................450 Ubuntu Releases ......................................................................................................450 Ubuntu Installer ......................................................................................................451 Ubuntu as a Desktop ..............................................................................................451 xxiii
  22. 22. Contents Ubuntu as a Server ..................................................................................................452 Ubuntu Spin-Offs ....................................................................................................454 Challenges Facing Ubuntu ......................................................................................454 Installing Ubuntu ....................................................................................................455 Starting with Ubuntu ..............................................................................................460 Trying Out the Desktop ..........................................................................................461 Adding More Software ............................................................................................462 Getting More Information About Ubuntu ..............................................................465 Summary ................................................................................................................466 Chapter 18: Running a Linux Firewall/Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Understanding Firewalls..........................................................................................468 Protecting Desktops with Firewalls ........................................................................469 Starting Your Firewall in Fedora ..............................................................................469 Configuring a Firewall in Mandriva ........................................................................470 Using Firewalls with iptables ..................................................................................472 Starting with iptables ..............................................................................................472 Setting Some Rules ........................................................................................472 Saving Firewall Settings ................................................................................476 Checking Your Firewall..................................................................................476 Using iptables to Do SNAT or IP Masquerading ......................................................477 Adding Modules with iptables ................................................................................478 Using iptables as a Transparent Proxy ......................................................................479 Using iptables for Port Forwarding ..........................................................................479 Getting iptables Scripts ..................................................................................480 Finding Out More About iptables ..................................................................480 Making a Coyote Linux Bootable Floppy Firewall....................................................480 Creating a Coyote Linux Firewall ............................................................................481 Building the Coyote Linux Floppy ..........................................................................482 Running the Coyote Linux Floppy Firewall ............................................................488 Managing the Coyote Linux Floppy Firewall ..........................................................488 Using a Web Interface ....................................................................................488 Using a Remote Login ....................................................................................488 Using Other Firewall Distributions ........................................................................490 Summary ................................................................................................................491 Chapter 19: Running Bootable Linux Distributions. . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 Overview of Bootable Linux Distributions ..............................................................493 Choosing a Bootable Linux......................................................................................494 Security and Rescue Bootables ................................................................................495 BackTrack Network Security Suite ................................................................496 SystemRescueCd............................................................................................497 KNOPPIX Security Tools Distribution............................................................498 The Inside Security Rescue Toolkit ................................................................498 Demonstration Bootables ........................................................................................500 xxiv
  23. 23. Contents Multimedia Bootables ..............................................................................................500 MoviX............................................................................................................501 GeeXboX ......................................................................................................502 KnoppMyth ..................................................................................................502 Dyne:bolic ....................................................................................................503 Tiny Desktops ........................................................................................................503 Damn Small Linux ........................................................................................503 Puppy Linux ..................................................................................................505 Special-Purpose Bootables ......................................................................................506 Customizing a Bootable Linux ................................................................................508 Summary ................................................................................................................510 Part IV: Running Applications Chapter 20: Playing Music and Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 Playing Digital Media and Obeying the Law ..........................................................514 Copyright Protection Issues ....................................................................................514 Exploring Codecs ....................................................................................................516 Playing Music ..........................................................................................................518 Setting Up Audio Cards ..........................................................................................518 Choosing an Audio CD Player ................................................................................520 Playing CDs with gnome-cd ..........................................................................520 Playing Music with the Rhythmbox Audio Player ..........................................522 Playing Music with the XMMS Multimedia Player..........................................524 Using MIDI Audio Players ......................................................................................528 Performing Audio File Conversion and Compression ..............................................528 Converting Audio Files with SoX ..................................................................528 Compressing Music Files with oggenc ..........................................................531 Recording and Ripping Music ................................................................................531 Creating an Audio CD with cdrecord ......................................................................532 Ripping CDs with Grip............................................................................................533 Creating CD Labels with cdlabelgen ........................................................................535 Working with TV, Video, and Digital Imaging ..........................................................536 Watching TV with tvtime ........................................................................................536 Getting a Supported TV Card ........................................................................536 Running tvtime..............................................................................................537 Video Conferencing with Ekiga ..............................................................................538 Getting a Supported Webcam ........................................................................538 Opening Your Firewall for Ekiga ....................................................................539 Running Ekiga ..............................................................................................539 Watching Movies and Video ....................................................................................540 Watching Video with xine........................................................................................540 Using xine ....................................................................................................542 Creating Playlists with xine............................................................................542 xine Tips........................................................................................................543 Using Helix Player and RealPlayer 10 ......................................................................544 xxv
  24. 24. Contents Using a Digital Camera with gtkam and gPhoto2....................................................545 Downloading Digital Photos with gtkam ................................................................545 Using Your Camera as a Storage Device ..................................................................546 Summary ................................................................................................................547 Chapter 21: Working with Words and Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 Using OpenOffice.org ............................................................................................550 Other Word Processors ..........................................................................................552 Using StarOffice ......................................................................................................553 Using AbiWord........................................................................................................554 Using KOffice ..........................................................................................................554 Getting Away from Windows ..................................................................................555 Using Traditional Linux Publishing Tools..................................................................557 Creating Documents in Groff or LaTeX ..................................................................558 Text Processing with Groff ......................................................................................560 Formatting and Printing Documents with Groff ............................................561 Creating a Man Page with Groff ....................................................................561 Creating a Letter, Memo, or White Paper with Groff ......................................564 Adding Equations, Tables, and Pictures ........................................................566 Text Processing with TeX/LaTeX ..............................................................................570 Creating and Formatting a LaTeX Document ................................................570 Using the LyX LaTeX Editor ..........................................................................571 Printing LaTeX Files ......................................................................................572 Converting Documents............................................................................................573 Building Structured Documents ..............................................................................574 Understanding SGML and XML ....................................................................574 Understanding DocBook................................................................................575 Printing Documents in Linux ..................................................................................578 Printing to the Default Printer..................................................................................579 Printing from the Shell ............................................................................................579 Checking the Print Queues......................................................................................580 Removing Print Jobs ................................................................................................580 Checking Printer Status ..........................................................................................581 Displaying Documents with ghostscript and Acrobat..............................................581 Using the ghostscript and gv Commands ................................................................581 Using Adobe Acrobat Reader ..................................................................................582 Working with Graphics ..........................................................................................583 Manipulating Images with GIMP ............................................................................583 Acquiring Screen Captures ......................................................................................585 Modifying Images with KPaint ................................................................................585 Using Scanners Driven by SANE ............................................................................586 Summary ................................................................................................................587 Chapter 22: E-Mailing and Web Browsing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589 Using E-Mail............................................................................................................589 Choosing an E-Mail Client ......................................................................................589 xxvi
  25. 25. Contents Getting Here from Windows....................................................................................591 Getting Started with E-Mail ....................................................................................592 Tuning Up E-Mail ....................................................................................................593 Reading E-Mail with Thunderbird ..........................................................................594 Connecting to the Mail Server........................................................................599 Managing Incoming Mail ..............................................................................599 Composing and Sending E-Mail ....................................................................600 Filtering E-Mail and Catching Spam ..............................................................601 Managing E-Mail in Evolution ................................................................................602 Receiving, Composing, and Sending E-Mail ..................................................604 Managing E-Mail with Search Folders ............................................................604 Filtering E-Mail Messages ..............................................................................605 Reading E-Mail with Mozilla Mail ............................................................................606 Working with Text-Based E-Mail Readers ................................................................606 Mutt Mail Reader ..........................................................................................606 Pine Mail Reader............................................................................................607 Mail Reader....................................................................................................607 Choosing a Web Browser ........................................................................................607 Exploring the Mozilla Suite ....................................................................................608 Using Firefox ..........................................................................................................609 Setting Up Firefox ..................................................................................................610 Setting Firefox Preferences ............................................................................610 Adding Plug-ins ............................................................................................612 Changing Firefox Themes ..............................................................................613 Securing Firefox ......................................................................................................614 Tips for Using Firefox ..............................................................................................616 Using Firefox Controls ............................................................................................616 Improving Firefox Browsing ....................................................................................617 Adding a Preferences Toolbar ........................................................................617 Adding Java Support......................................................................................618 Doing Cool Things with Firefox ..............................................................................618 Blocking Pop-ups ..........................................................................................618 Using Tabbed Browsing ................................................................................619 Using the DOM Inspector ..............................................................................619 Resizing the Web Page ..................................................................................619 Using Text-Based Web Browsers..............................................................................620 Summary ................................................................................................................621 Chapter 23: Gaming with Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623 Overview of Linux Gaming ....................................................................................623 Basic Linux Gaming Information ............................................................................624 Where to Get Information about Linux Gaming ......................................................624 Choosing a Video Card for Gaming ........................................................................626 Binary-Only Video Card Drivers ....................................................................626 Open Source Video Drivers............................................................................627 xxvii
  26. 26. Contents Running Open Source Linux Games........................................................................628 GNOME Games ......................................................................................................628 KDE Games ............................................................................................................629 Games in Fedora ....................................................................................................631 Freeciv ..........................................................................................................632 PlanetPenguin Racer (TuxRacer) ....................................................................637 Commercial Linux Games ......................................................................................638 Getting Started with Commercial Games in Linux ..................................................638 Playing Commercial Linux Games ..........................................................................639 id Software Games ..................................................................................................640 Quake III Arena ............................................................................................640 Return to Castle Wolfenstein..........................................................................641 Playing TransGaming and Cedega Games ................................................................641 Loki Software Game Demos ....................................................................................643 Civilization: Call to Power ............................................................................644 Myth II: Soulblighter ....................................................................................645 Heretic II ......................................................................................................645 Neverwinter Nights........................................................................................646 Summary ................................................................................................................646 Part V: Running Servers Chapter 24: Running a Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (LAMP) Server. . 649 Components of a LAMP Server................................................................................649 Apache ....................................................................................................................650 MySQL ....................................................................................................................650 PHP ........................................................................................................................651 Setting Up Your LAMP Server..................................................................................651 Installing Apache ....................................................................................................652 Installing PHP..........................................................................................................652 Installing MySQL ....................................................................................................654 Operating Your LAMP Server ..................................................................................655 Editing Your Apache Configuration Files ................................................................655 Adding a Virtual Host to Apache ............................................................................658 User Content and the userdir Setting ......................................................................659 Installing a Web Application: Coppermine Photo Gallery ........................................659 Troubleshooting ......................................................................................................662 Configuration Errors................................................................................................662 Access Forbidden and Server Internal Errors ..........................................................664 Securing Your Web Traffic with SSL/TLS ..................................................................665 Generating Your Keys ..............................................................................................667 Configuring Apache to Support SSL/TLS ................................................................668 Summary ................................................................................................................670 xxviii

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