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Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp
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Ca Ex S3 C5 Stp

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  • 1. CCNA – Semester 3 Chapter 5 - Spanning Tree Protocol CCNA Exploration 4.0
  • 2. Objectives • Explain the role of redundancy in a converged network • Summarize how STP works to eliminate Layer 2 loops in a converged network • Explain how the STP algorithm uses three steps to converge on a loop-free topology • Implement rapid per VLAN spanning tree (rapid PVST+) in a LAN to prevent loops between redundant switches. 2
  • 3. Role of redundancy 3
  • 4. Redundancy in a hierarchical network • The hierarchical design model addresses issues found in the flat model network topologies. One of the issues is redundancy. • Having multiple paths for data to traverse the network allows for a single path to be disrupted without impacting the connectivity of devices on the network. 4
  • 5. Issues with Redundancy : Layer 2 Loop • When multiple paths exist between two devices on the network, a Layer 2 loop can occur. • Ethernet frames do not have a time to live (TTL) like IP packets traversing routers. So, if they are not terminated properly on a switched network, they continue to bounce from switch to switch endlessly. 5
  • 6. Issues with Redundancy : Broadcast Storm • A broadcast storm occurs when there are so many broadcast frames caught in a Layer 2 loop that all available bandwidth is consumed. • As a result, no bandwidth is available bandwidth for legitimate traffic, and the network becomes unavailable for data communication. 6
  • 7. Issues with Redundancy : Duplicate Unicast Frames • Unicast frames sent onto a looped network can result in duplicate frames arriving at the destination device. 7
  • 8. Real-world redundancy issues • Network loops that are a result of accidental duplicate connections in the wiring closets are a common occurrence. • The example displays a loop that occurs if a switch is connected to two different switches on a network that are both also interconnected. The impact of this type of loop is much greater because it affects more switches directly. 8
  • 9. The Spanning Tree Algorithm 9
  • 10. Spanning Tree Protocol • STP ensures that there is only one logical path between all destinations on the network by intentionally blocking redundant paths that could cause a loop. • STP prevents loops from occurring by configuring a loop-free path through the network using strategically placed blocking state ports • A port is considered blocked when network traffic is prevented from entering or leaving that port 10
  • 11. Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) • The STA designates a single switch as the root bridge and uses it as the reference point for all path calculations. • After the root bridge has been determined, the STA calculates the shortest path to the root bridge. Each switch uses the STA to determine which ports to block. 11
  • 12. Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) (cont) • When the STA has determined which paths are to be left available, it configures the switch ports into distinct port roles. – Root ports : Switch ports closest to the root bridge. – Designated ports : All non-root ports that are still permitted to forward traffic on the network. – Non-designated ports : All ports configured to be in a blocking state to prevent loops 12
  • 13. Root Bridge & Election Process • The root bridge serves as a reference point for all spanning-tree calculations to determine which redundant paths to block. • An election process determines which switch becomes the root bridge. 1. After a switch boots, it sends out BPDU frames (more detail later) containing the switch BID and the root ID every 2 seconds. 2. Initially, each switch identifies itself as the root bridge after bootup. 3. If the root ID from the BPDU received is lower than the root ID on the receiving switch, the receiving switch updates its root ID identifying the adjacent switch as the root bridge 4. The switch then forwards new BPDU frames with the lower root ID to the other adjacent switches. 5. Eventually, the switch with the lowest BID ends up being identified as the root bridge for the spanning-tree instance. 13
  • 14. Root Bridge & Election Process 14
  • 15. Root Bridge & Election Process (cont) • BID Structure • Root Bridge 15
  • 16. Best Path to the Route Bridge • The path information is determined by summing up the individual port costs along the path from the destination to the root bridge. • The default port costs are defined by the speed at which the port operates. • Although switch ports have a default port cost associated with them, the port cost is configurable 16
  • 17. Best Path to the Route Bridge (cont) • Path cost is the sum of all the port costs along the path to the root bridge. • The paths with the lowest path cost become the preferred path, and all other redundant paths are blocked. 17
  • 18. Port Roles • Root Port : – The root port exists on non-root bridges and is the switch port with the best path to the root bridge. Root ports forward traffic toward the root bridge. • Designated Port : – For root bridges, all switch ports are designated ports. – For non-root bridges, a designated port is the switch port that receives and forwards frames toward the root bridge as needed – Only one designated port is allowed per segment • Non-designated Port ; – The non-designated port is a switch port that is blocked, so it is not forwarding data frames and not populating the MAC address table with source addresses • Disabled Port : – The disabled port is a switch port that is administratively shut down. A disabled port does not function in the spanning-tree process 18
  • 19. Port Roles (cont) • When determining the root port on a switch, the switch compares the path costs on all switch ports participating in the spanning tree. • The switch port with the lowest overall path cost to the root is automatically assigned the root port role because it is closest to the root bridge. • When there are two switch ports that have the same lowest path cost to the root bridge, the switch uses the customizable port priority value, or the lowest port ID if both port priority values are the same. • The port ID is the interface ID of the switch port. 19
  • 20. Port Roles (cont) example 20
  • 21. Port Roles (cont) example 21
  • 22. Port Roles (cont) example • After a switch determines which of its ports is the root port, the remaining ports must be configured as either a designated port (DP) or a non-designated port (non-DP) • When two switches exchange their BPDU frames, they examine the sending BID of the received BPDU frame to see if it is lower than its own. • The switch with the lower BID wins the competition and its port is configured in the designated role. The losing switch configures its switch port to be non-designated and, therefore, in the blocking state to prevent the loop from occurring. 22
  • 23. Port Roles (cont) example 23
  • 24. BPDU • STP determines a root bridge for the spanning-tree instance by exchanging BPDUs. • BPDU Fields 24
  • 25. BPDU (cont) • By default, BPDU frames are sent every 2 seconds after a switch is booted. • When adjacent switches receive a BPDU frame, they compare the root ID from the BPDU frame with the local root ID. – If the root ID in the BPDU is lower than the local root ID, the switch updates the local root ID and the ID in its BPDU messages – If the local root ID is lower than the root ID received in the BPDU frame, the BPDU frame is discarded. 25
  • 26. BID • The BID field of a BPDU frame contains three separate fields: bridge priority, extended system ID, and MAC address. Each field is used during the root bridge election. 26
  • 27. BID (cont) 27
  • 28. Port States and BPDU Timers • To facilitate the learning of the logical spanning tree, each switch port transitions through five possible port states and three BPDU timers. 28
  • 29. Port States and BPDU Timers (cont) • Blocking - The port is a non-designated port and does not participate in frame forwarding. • Listening - In this state, the switch port is not only receiving BPDU frames, it is also transmitting its own BPDU frames and informing adjacent switches that the switch port is preparing to participate in the active topology. • Learning - The port prepares to participate in frame forwarding and begins to populate the MAC address table. • Forwarding - The port is considered part of the active topology and forwards frames and also sends and receives BPDU frames • Disabled - The Layer 2 port does not participate in spanning tree and does not forward frames. 29
  • 30. Port States and BPDU Timers (cont) • Cisco PortFast Technology – When a switch port configured with PortFast is configured as an access port, that port transitions from blocking to forwarding state immediately, bypassing the typical STP listening and learning states. 30
  • 31. Port States and BPDU Timers (cont) 31
  • 32. STP Topology Change • A switch considers it has detected a topology change either when a port that was forwarding is going down (blocking for instance) or when a port transitions to forwarding and the switch has a designated port. • When a change is detected, the switch notifies the root bridge of the spanning tree. The root bridge then broadcasts the information into the whole network. 32
  • 33. Cisco and STP Variants 33
  • 34. Cisco and STP Variants 34
  • 35. PVST + • Cisco developed PVST+ so that a network can run an STP instance for each VLAN in the network. With PVST+, more than one trunk can block for a VLAN and load sharing can be implemented. • In a Cisco PVST+ environment, you can tune the spanning- tree parameters so that half of the VLANs forward on each uplink trunk 35
  • 36. PVST + Bridge ID • Bridge priority - A 4-bit field carries the bridge priority. Because of the limited bit count, the priority is conveyed in discrete values in increments of 4096. The default priority is 32,768. • Extended system ID - A 12-bit field carrying the VID for PVST+. • MAC address - A 6-byte field with the MAC address of a single switch. 36
  • 37. Configure PVST + • Step 1. Select the switches you want for the primary and secondary root bridges for each VLAN. • Step 2. Configure the switch to be a primary bridge for one VLAN, for example switch S3 is a primary bridge for VLAN 20. • Step 3. Configure the switch to be a secondary bridge for the other VLAN, for example, switch S3 is a secondary bridge for VLAN 10. 37
  • 38. Configure PVST + (cont) 38
  • 39. RSTP • RSTP (IEEE 802.1w) is an evolution of the 802.1D standard • RSTP speeds the recalculation of the spanning tree when the Layer 2 network topology changes. RSTP can achieve much faster convergence in a properly configured network, sometimes in as little as a few hundred milliseconds. • If a port is configured to be an alternate or a backup port it can immediately change to a forwarding state without waiting for the network to converge. 39
  • 40. RSTP (cont) 40
  • 41. RSTP BPDU • RSTP (802.1w) uses type 2, version 2 BPDUs, so an RSTP bridge can communicate 802.1D on any shared link or with any switch running 802.1D – Protocol information can be immediately aged on a port if hellos are not received for three consecutive hello times, 6 seconds by default, or if the max age timer expires – Because BPDUs are used as a keepalive mechanism, three consecutively missed BPDUs indicate lost connectivity between a bridge and its neighboring root or designated bridge 41
  • 42. RSTP BPDU (cont) 42
  • 43. RSTP (cont) : Edge Port • An RSTP edge port is a switch port that is never intended to be connected to another switch device. It immediately transitions to the forwarding state when enabled. • Unlike PortFast, an RSTP edge port that receives a BPDU loses its edge port status immediately and becomes a normal spanning-tree port. 43
  • 44. RSTP (cont) : Link Types • The link type provides a categorization for each port participating in RSTP • The link type is automatically determined, but can be overwritten with an explicit port configuration. • Root ports do not use the link type parameter. Root ports are able to make a rapid transition to the forwarding state as soon as the port is in sync. • Alternate and backup ports do not use the link type parameter in most cases. • Designated ports make the most use of the link type parameter. Rapid transition to the forwarding state for the designated port occurs only if the link type parameter indicates a point-to-point link. 44
  • 45. RSTP (cont) : Port States • RSTP provides rapid convergence following a failure or during re-establishment of a switch, switch port, or link. • There are three possible RSTP port states: discarding, learning, and forwarding. 45
  • 46. RSTP (cont) : Port Roles 46
  • 47. Configuring rapid PVST + 47
  • 48. Configuring rapid PVST + (cont) 48
  • 49. Design STP for Trouble Avoidance • Know Where the Root Is • Minimize the Number of Blocked Ports 49
  • 50. Design STP for Trouble Avoidance (contd) • VTP Pruning 50
  • 51. Design STP for Trouble Avoidance (contd) • Use Layer 3 Switching – There is no speed penalty with the routing hop and an additional segment between C1 and C2. – Core switch C1 and core switch C2 are Layer 3 switches. VLAN 20 and VLAN 30 are no longer bridged between C1 and C2, so there is no possibility for a loop. 51
  • 52. Design STP for Trouble Avoidance (contd) 52
  • 53. Troubleshoot STP Operation 53
  • 54. Troubleshoot STP Operation • To troubleshoot a bridging loop, you need to know: – The topology of the bridge network – The location of the root bridge – The location of the blocked ports and the redundant links • Some possible failure – Switch or Link Failure – PortFast Configuration Error – Network Diameter Issues 54
  • 55. Switch or Link Failure 55
  • 56. PortFast Configuration Error 56
  • 57. Network Diameter Issues 57
  • 58. Summary 58

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