Ca Ex S1 M09 Ethernet


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Ca Ex S1 M09 Ethernet

  1. 1. CCNA – Semester1 Chapter 9 - Ethernet CCNA Exploration V4.0
  2. 2. Objectives • Identify the basic characteristics of network media used in Ethernet. • Describe the physical and data link features of Ethernet. • Describe the function and characteristics of the media access control method used by Ethernet protocol. • Explain the importance of Layer 2 addressing used for data transmission and determine how the different types of addressing impacts network operation and performance. • Compare and contrast the application and benefits of using Ethernet switches in a LAN as apposed to using hubs. • Explain the ARP process.
  3. 3. Overview of Ethernet
  4. 4. Ethernet – Standards and Implementation
  5. 5. Ethernet – Standards and Implementation IEEE (Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Standards • The first LAN is the original version of Ethernet. Robert Metcalfe and his coworkers at Xerox designed it more than thirty years ago. The first Ethernet standard was published in 1980 by a consortium of Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel, and Xerox (DIX). It was released as an open standard. The first Ethernet standard products were sold in the early 1980s. • In 1985, the IEEE standards committee for Local and Metropolitan Networks published standards for LANs. These standards start with the number 802, and 802.3 is for Ethernet. To compare to the International Standards Organization (ISO) and OSI model, the IEEE 802.3 standards had to address the needs of Layer 1 and the lower portion of Layer 2 of the OSI model. As a result, some small modifications to the original Ethernet standard were made in 802.3. • Ethernet operates in the lower two layers of the OSI model: the Data Link layer and the Physical layer.
  6. 6. Ethernet – Layer 1 and Layer 2
  7. 7. LLC – Connecting to the Upper Layers
  8. 8. MAC – Getting Data to the Media • Media Access Control (MAC) is the lower Ethernet sublayer of the Data Link layer. MAC is implemented by hardware, typically in the computer Network Interface Card (NIC). • The Ethernet MAC sublayer has two primary responsibilities: – Data Encapsulation – Media Access Control • Logical Topology: all the nodes (devices) in that network segment share the medium. This requires examining the addressing in the frame provided by the MAC address, and using of CSMA/CD.
  9. 9. Physical and Implementations of Ethernet
  10. 10. Physical and Implementations of Ethernet • Most of the traffic on the Internet originates and ends with Ethernet connections. Since its inception in the 1970s, Ethernet has evolved to meet the increased demand for high-speed LANs. When optical fiber media was introduced, Ethernet adapted to this new technology to take advantage of the superior bandwidth and low error rate that fiber offers. Today, the same protocol that transported data at 3 Mbps can carry data at 10 Gbps. • The success of Ethernet is due to the following factors: – Simplicity and ease of maintenance – Ability to incorporate new technologies – Reliability – Low cost of installation and upgrade
  11. 11. Ethernet – Communication through the LAN
  12. 12. Historic Ethernet
  13. 13. Historic Ethernet
  14. 14. Historic Ethernet • Early Ethernet Media: Coaxial cable – Logical and physical bus topology – 10BASE5, or Thicknet, used a thick coaxial that allowed for cabling distances of up to 500 meters before the signal required a repeater. – 10BASE2, or Thinnet, used a thin coaxial cable that was smaller in diameter and more flexible than Thicknet and allowed for cabling distances of 185 meters. • Now, it was replaced by UTP cables. – The UTP cables were easier to work with, lightweight, and less expensive. – Physical topology was a star topology using hubs. Hubs concentrate connections. Any single cable to fail without disrupting the entire network. However, repeating the frame to all other ports did not solve the issue of collisions.
  15. 15. Ethernet Collision Management Legacy Ethernet • In 10BASE-T networks, typically using a hub. This created a shared media. Only one station could successfully transmit at a time: half- duplex communication. • More devices, more collisions. • Using CSMA/CD to manage collisions, with little or no impact on performance. As the number of devices and subsequent data traffic increase, however, the rise in collisions can have a significant impact on the user's experience.
  16. 16. Ethernet Collision Management Current Ethernet • 100BASE-TX Ethernet. Switches replace hubs • Switches can control the flow of data by isolating each port and sending a frame only to its proper destination (if the destination is known), rather than send every frame to every device. • The switch reduces or minimizes the possibility of collisions. • Support full-duplex communications (transmit and receive signals at the same time) • 1Gbps Ethernet and beyond.
  17. 17. Move to 1Gbps and Beyond • The applications tax even the most robust networks. For example, the increasing use of Voice over IP (VoIP) and multimedia services requires connections that are faster than 100 Mbps Ethernet. • 1000 Mbps (Gigabit) Ethernet is used. • Some of the equipment and cabling in modern, well- designed and installed networks may be capable of working at the higher speeds with only minimal upgrading. This reduces the total cost.
  18. 18. Move to 1Gbps and Beyond • The increased cabling distances enabled by the use of fiber-optic cable in Ethernet-based networks has resulted in a blurring of the distinction between LANs and WANs. Ethernet was initially limited to LAN cable systems within single buildings, and then extended to between buildings. It can now be applied across a city in what is known as a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN).
  19. 19. Ethernet Frame
  20. 20. The Frame – Encapsulating the Packet
  21. 21. Ethernet frame structure •The Preamble is used for timing synchronization in the asynchronous 10 Mbps and slower implementations of 10101011 Ethernet. Faster versions of Ethernet are synchronous, and this timing information is redundant but retained for compatibility •The Destination Address field contains the MAC destination address. It can be unicast, multicast (group), or broadcast (all nodes) •The source address is generally the unicast address of the transmitting Ethernet node (can be virtual entity – group or multicast)
  22. 22. Ethernet frame structure •The type value specifies the Length if value < 1536 decimal, upper-layer protocol to (0x600)  need LLC to identify receive the data after upper protocol Ethernet processing is completed. •The length indicates the number of bytes of data that follows this field. (so contents of the Data field are decoded per the protocol indicated) •The maximum transmission unit (MTU) for Ethernet is 1500 octets, so the data should not exceed that size 4 bytes •Ethernet requires that the CRC frame be not less than 46 Type if value => 1536 decimal, octets or more than 1500 (0x600)  it identify upper octets (Pad is required if not protocol enough data)
  23. 23. The Ethernet MAC Address
  24. 24. The Ethernet MAC Address •Ethernet uses MAC addresses that are 48 bits in length and expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits •Sometimes referred to as burned-in addresses (BIA) because they are burned into read-only memory (ROM) and are copied into random-access memory (RAM) when the NIC initializes
  25. 25. Hexadecimal Numbering and Addressing
  26. 26. Hexadecimal Numbering and Addressing • Hexadecimal Numbering: The base 16 numbering system uses the numbers 0 to 9 and the letters A to F. • Understanding Bytes: 8 bits (a byte) is a common binary grouping, binary 00000000 to 11111111 can be represented in hexadecimal as the range 00 to FF. • Representing Hexadecimal Values: preceded by 0x (for example 0x73) • Hexadecimal is used to represent Ethernet MAC addresses and IP Version 6 addresses. • Hexadecimal Conversions: Number conversions between decimal and hexadecimal values are straightforward, but quickly dividing or multiplying by 16 is not always convenient. If such conversions are required, it is usually easier to convert the decimal or hexadecimal value to binary, and then to convert the binary value to either decimal or hexadecimal as appropriate.
  27. 27. Hexadecimal Numbering and Addressing
  28. 28. Another Layer of Addressing
  29. 29. Another Layer of Addressing Data Link Layer • OSI Data Link layer (Layer 2) physical addressing, implemented as an Ethernet MAC address, is used to transport the frame across the local media. Although providing unique host addresses, physical addresses are non-hierarchical. They are associated with a particular device regardless of its location or to which network it is connected. • These Layer 2 addresses have no meaning outside the local network media. A packet may have to traverse a number of different Data Link technologies in local and wide area networks before it reaches its destination. A source device therefore has no knowledge of the technology used in intermediate and destination networks or of their Layer 2 addressing and frame structures.
  30. 30. Another Layer of Addressing Network Layer • Network layer (Layer 3) addresses, such as IPv4 addresses, provide the ubiquitous, logical addressing that is understood at both source and destination. To arrive at its eventual destination, a packet carries the destination Layer 3 address from its source. However, as it is framed by the different Data Link layer protocols along the way, the Layer 2 address it receives each time applies only to that local portion of the journey and its media. In short: • The Network layer address enables the packet to be forwarded toward its destination. • The Data Link layer address enables the packet to be carried by the local media across each segment.
  31. 31. Ethernet Unicast
  32. 32. Ethernet Broadcast
  33. 33. Ethernet Multicast
  34. 34. Ethernet Media Access Control
  35. 35. Media Access Control in Ethernet
  36. 36. CSMA/CD – The Process
  37. 37. CSMA/CD – The Process
  38. 38. CSMA/CD – The Process
  39. 39. CSMA/CD – The Process
  40. 40. CSMA/CD – The Process • Hubs and Collision Domains
  41. 41. Ethernet Timing • The electrical signal that is transmitted takes a certain amount of time (latency) to propagate (travel) down the cable. Each hub or repeater in the signal's path adds latency as it forwards the bits from one port to the next. • This accumulated delay increases the collisions because a listening node may transition while the hub or repeater is processing the message. Because the signal had not reached this node while it was listening, it thought that the media was available. This condition often results in collisions.
  42. 42. Ethernet Timing • Ethernet 10Mbps and slower are asynchronous. • Ethernet 100Mbps and higher are synchronous. However, for compatibility reasons, the Preamble and Start Frame Delimiter (SFD) fields are still present.
  43. 43. Ethernet Timing
  44. 44. Interframe spacing and Backoff • Bit Time: For each different media speed, a period of time is required for a bit to be placed and sensed on the media. This period of time is referred to as the bit time. • Slot Time: In half-duplex Ethernet, where data can only travel in one direction at once, slot time becomes an important parameter in determining how many devices can share a network. For all speeds of Ethernet transmission at or below 1000 Mbps, the standard describes how an individual transmission may be no smaller than the slot time. • Interframe Spacing: this time is measured from the last bit of the FCS field of one frame to the first bit of the Preamble of the next frame.
  45. 45. Interframe spacing and Backoff Jam Signal • As soon as a collision is detected, the sending devices transmit a 32-bit "jam" signal that will enforce the collision. This ensures all devices in the LAN to detect the collision. • It is important that the jam signal not be detected as a valid frame; otherwise the collision would not be identified. The most commonly observed data pattern for a jam signal is simply a repeating 1, 0, 1, 0 pattern, the same as the Preamble.
  46. 46. Interframe spacing and Backoff Backoff Timing • After a collision occurs and all devices allow the cable to become idle, the devices whose transmissions collided must wait an additional - and potentially progressively longer - period of time before attempting to retransmit the collided frame. The waiting period is random. The waiting period is measured in increments of the parameter slot time. • After 16 attempts, it gives up and generates an error to the Network layer.
  47. 47. Ethernet Physical Layer
  48. 48. Overview of Ethernet Physical Layer
  49. 49. 10Mbps and 100Mbps Ethernet • 10BASE5 using Thicknet coaxial cable • 10BASE2 using Thinnet coaxial cable • 10BASE5, and 10BASE2 used coaxial cable in a physical bus. No longer used; and are not supported by the newer 802.3 standards. 10BASE-T: • 10BASE-T (in 1990) used cheaper and easier to install Category 3 unshielded twisted pair (UTP) copper cable rather than coax cable. The cable plugged into a central connection device (the shared bus), this device was a hub. • This is referred to as a star topology. The distances the cables could extend from the hub via another hub referred to as an extended star topology. • Originally 10BASE-T was a half-duplex protocol, but full-duplex features were added later. • 10BASE-T : Manchester encoding, max. 90 meter horizontal cable, use RJ-45 connectors
  50. 50. 10Mbps and 100Mbps Ethernet
  51. 51. 10Mbps and 100Mbps Ethernet • 100-Mbps Ethernet is also known as Fast Ethernet. The two technologies that have become important are 100BASE-TX, which is a copper UTP medium and 100BASE-FX, which is a multimode optical fiber medium. • Three characteristics common to 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX are the timing parameters, the frame format, and parts of the transmission process. 100BASE-TX and 100-BASE-FX both share timing parameters. Note that one bit time in 100-Mbps Ethernet is 10nsec
  52. 52. 1000Mbps Ethernet 1000 Mbps - Gigabit Ethernet • The development of Gigabit Ethernet standards resulted in specifications for UTP copper, single-mode fiber, and multimode fiber. • Encoding and decoding data is more complex. Gigabit Ethernet uses two separate encoding steps. 1000BASE-T Ethernet • 1000BASE-T Ethernet provides full-duplex transmission using all four pairs in Category 5 or later UTP cable. Gigabit Ethernet over copper wire enables an increase from 100 Mbps per wire pair to 125 Mbps per wire pair, or 500 Mbps for the four pairs. Each wire pair signals in full duplex, doubling the 500 Mbps to 1000 Mbps. • 1000BASE-T uses 4D-PAM5 line encoding to obtain 1 Gbps data throughput.
  53. 53. 1000Mbps Ethernet • 1000BASE-T (IEEE 802.3ab) was developed to provide additional bandwidth. • 1000BASE-T (CAT 5e) standard is interoperable with 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet was designed to function over Cat 5 copper cable. Most installed Cat 5 cable can pass 5e certification if properly terminated) • In idle periods there are nine voltage levels found on the cable, and during data transmission periods there are 17 voltage levels found on the cable
  54. 54. 1000Mbps Ethernet 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX Ethernet Using Fiber-Optics • Advantages over UTP: noise immunity, small physical size, and increased unrepeated distances and bandwidth. • Full-duplex binary transmission at 1250 Mbps over two strands of optical fiber. The transmission coding is based on the 8B/10B encoding scheme. • Each data frame is encapsulated at the Physical layer before transmission, and link synchronization is maintained by sending a continuous stream of IDLE code groups during the interframe spacing. • The principal differences among the 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX fiber versions are the link media, connectors, and wavelength of the optical signal.
  55. 55. Ethernet – Future Options • The IEEE 802.3ae standard was adapted to include 10 Gbps, full-duplex transmission over fiber-optic cable. 10-Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) is evolving for use not only in LANs, but also for use in WANs and MANs. • 10Gbps can be compared to other varieties of Ethernet in these ways: – Frame format is the same, allowing interoperability between all varieties of legacy, fast, gigabit, and 10 gigabit Ethernet, with no reframing or protocol conversions necessary. – Bit time is now 0.1 ns. All other time variables scale accordingly. – Only full-duplex fiber connections are used, so CSMA/CD is not necessary. – Up to 40 km fiber links and interoperability with other fiber technologies. • With 10Gbps Ethernet, flexible, efficient, reliable, relatively low cost end-to-end Ethernet networks become possible. Future Ethernet Speeds • Although 1-Gigabit Ethernet is now widely available and 10-Gigabit products are becoming more available, the IEEE and the 10-Gigabit Ethernet Alliance are working on 40-, 100-, or even 160-Gbps standards. The technologies that are adopted will depend on a number of factors, including the rate of maturation of the technologies and standards, the rate of adoption in the market, and the cost of emerging products.
  56. 56. Ethernet – Future Options
  57. 57. Hubs and Switches
  58. 58. Legacy Ethernet – Using Hubs • Using hubs to interconnect nodes: not perform any type of traffic filtering; forwards all the bits to every device; share the bandwidth. • High levels of collisions on the LAN, so this type of Ethernet LAN has limited use: typically in small LANs or in LANs with low bandwidth. Scalability • More devices, less average bandwidth. Latency • Must wait to transmit to avoid collisions. Increases when the distance is extended. Also affected by a delay of the signal across the media as well as the hubs and repeaters process delay. Increasing the length of media, the number of hubs and repeaters in a segment make the latency increase. Greater latency, more collisions.
  59. 59. Legacy Ethernet – Using Hubs Network Failure • Because of share media, any device could cause problems for other devices. If any device connected to the hub generates detrimental traffic, the communication for all devices on the media could be impeded. This harmful traffic could be due to incorrect speed or full- duplex settings on a NIC. Collisions • According to CSMA/CD, a node should not send a packet unless the network is clear of traffic. If two nodes send packets at the same time, a collision occurs and the packets are lost. Then both nodes send a jam signal, wait for a random amount of time, and retransmit their packets. Any part of the network where packets from two or more nodes can interfere with each other is considered a collision domain. A network with a larger number of nodes on the same segment has a larger collision domain and typically has more traffic. As the amount of traffic in the network increases, the likelihood of collisions increases.
  60. 60. Legacy Ethernet – Using Hubs
  61. 61. Legacy Ethernet – Using Hubs
  62. 62. Ethernet – Using Switches • Switches allow the segmentation of the LAN into separate collision domains.
  63. 63. Ethernet – Using Switches Nodes are Connected Directly • In a LAN where all nodes are connected directly to the switch, the throughput of the network increases dramatically. The three primary reasons for this increase are: – Dedicated bandwidth to each port – Collision-free environment – Full-duplex operation
  64. 64. Ethernet – Using Switches Dedicated Bandwidth • Each node has the full media bandwidth available in the connection between the node and the switch. Each device effectively has a dedicated point-to-point connection between the device and the switch, without media contention.
  65. 65. Ethernet – Using Switches Collision-Free Environment • A dedicated point-to-point connection to a switch also removes any media contention between devices, allowing a node to operate with few or no collisions. In a moderately-sized classic Ethernet network using hubs, approximately 40% to 50% of the bandwidth is consumed by collision recovery. In a switched Ethernet network - where there are virtually no collisions - the overhead devoted to collision recovery is virtually eliminated. This provides the switched network with significantly better throughput rates.
  66. 66. Ethernet – Using Switches Full-Duplex Operation • Switching allows a network to operate as a full-duplex Ethernet environment. With full-duplex enabled in a switched Ethernet network, the devices connected directly to the switch ports can transmit and receive simultaneously, at the full media bandwidth. • This arrangement effectively doubles the transmission rate when compared to half-duplex. For example, if the speed of the network is 100 Mbps, each node can transmit a frame at 100 Mbps and, at the same time, receive a frame at 100 Mbps.
  67. 67. Hubs vs Switches • Most modern Ethernet use switches to the end devices and operate full duplex. Because switches provide so much greater throughput than hubs and increase performance so dramatically, it is fair to ask: why not use switches in every Ethernet LAN? Three reasons why hubs are still being used: • Availability - LAN switches were not developed until the early 1990s and were not readily available until the mid 1990s. Early Ethernet networks used UTP hubs and many of them remain in operation to this day. • Economics - Initially, switches were rather expensive. As the price of switches has dropped, the use of hubs has decreased and cost is becoming less of a factor in deployment decisions. • Requirements - The early LAN networks were simple networks designed to exchange files and share printers. For many locations, the early networks have evolved into the converged networks of today, resulting in a substantial need for increased bandwidth available to individual users. In some circumstances, however, a shared media hub will still suffice and these products remain on the market.
  68. 68. Switches – Selective Forwarding
  69. 69. Switches – Selective Forwarding • Switch Operation: – Learning: The MAC table must be populated with MAC addresses and their corresponding ports. – Aging: to remove old entries in the MAC table. – Flooding: sends the unknown frame to all ports except the port on which the frame arrived. – Selective Forwarding: forwards the frame to the corresponding port. – Filtering: not forward a frame
  70. 70. Switches – Selective Forwarding • Upon initialization of the switch, the MAC address table is empty • Host1 sends data to Host2. The frame sent contains both a source MAC address and a destination MAC address
  71. 71. Switches – Selective Forwarding
  72. 72. Switches – Selective Forwarding
  73. 73. Switches – Selective Forwarding
  74. 74. Switches – Selective Forwarding
  75. 75. Switches – Selective Forwarding
  76. 76. Switches – Selective Forwarding • Activity
  77. 77. Address Resolution Protocol
  78. 78. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) • In order for devices to communicate, the sending devices need both the IP addresses and the MAC addresses of the destination devices. • When they try to communicate with devices whose IP addresses they know, they must determine the MAC addresses. • ARP enables a computer to find the MAC address of the computer that is associated with an IP address. The ARP protocol provides two basic functions: – Resolving IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses – Maintaining a cache of mappings
  79. 79. Address resolution protocol
  80. 80. ARP table in host
  81. 81. ARP operation ARP Table: ? MAC ? MAC A.B.C.1.3.3 IP IP Data A.B.C.1.3.3 A.B.C.4.3.4 A.B.C.7.3.5 A B C
  82. 82. ARP operation: ARP request MAC MAC IP IP What is your MAC Addr? ff.ff.ff.ff.ff.ff A.B.C.1.3.3 A.B.C.1.3.3 A.B.C.4.3.4 A.B.C.7.3.5 A B C
  83. 83. ARP operation: Checking MAC MAC IP IP What is your MAC Addr? ff.ff.ff.ff.ff.ff A.B.C.1.3.3 A.B.C.1.3.3 A.B.C.4.3.4 A.B.C.7.3.5 A B C
  84. 84. ARP operation: ARP reply MAC MAC IP IP This is my MAC Addr A.B.C.1.3.3 A.B.C.7.3.5 A.B.C.1.3.3 A.B.C.4.3.4 A.B.C.7.3.5 A B C
  85. 85. ARP operation: Caching ARP Table: A.B.C.7.3.5 – MAC MAC IP IP Data A.B.C.7.3.5 A.B.C.1.3.3 A.B.C.1.3.3 A.B.C.4.3.4 A.B.C.7.3.5 A B C
  86. 86. ARP – Destination Outside the Local Network
  87. 87. ARP – Destination Outside the Local Network
  88. 88. ARP – Destination Outside the Local Network
  89. 89. ARP – Destination Outside the Local Network
  90. 90. ARP – Destination Outside the Local Network
  91. 91. ARP – Destination Outside the Local Network
  92. 92. Proxy ARP
  93. 93. ARP – Removing Address Mappings • For each device, an ARP cache timer removes ARP entries that have not been used for a specified period of time. The times differ depending on the device and its operating system. For example, some Windows operating systems store ARP cache entries for 2 minutes. If the entry is used again during that time, the ARP timer for that entry is extended to 10 minutes. • Commands may also be used to manually remove all or some of the entries in the ARP table. After an entry has been removed, the process for sending an ARP request and receiving an ARP reply must occur again to enter the map in the ARP table. • arp commands
  94. 94. ARP – Removing Address Mappings
  95. 95. ARP Broadcasts - Issues Overhead on the Media • As a broadcast frame, an ARP request is received and processed by every device on the local network. If a large number of devices were to be powered up and all start accessing network services at the same time, there could be some reduction in performance for a short period of time. • However, after the devices send out the initial ARP broadcasts and have learned the necessary MAC addresses, any impact on the network will be minimized. Security • In some cases, the use of ARP can lead to a potential security risk. ARP spoofing, or ARP poisoning, is a technique used by an attacker to inject the wrong MAC address association into a network by issuing fake ARP requests. An attacker forges the MAC address of a device and then frames can be sent to the wrong destination. • Manually configuring static ARP associations is one way to prevent ARP spoofing. Authorized MAC addresses can be configured on some network devices to restrict network access to only those devices listed.
  96. 96. ARP Broadcasts - Issues
  97. 97. Summary