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                         “The ultimate reference guide to LPI Level 1 certification,
                             pac...
LPIC 1 Certification
       Bible
LPIC 1 Certification
        Bible
                                 Angie Nash and Jason Nash




Best-Selling Books • Dig...
LPIC 1 Certification Bible                                  Philippines; by Contemporanea de Ediciones for
Published by   ...
About the Authors
  Angie Nash is an IT Consultant for her own firm, Tarheel Solutions. She works
  primarily with Linux a...
Credits
  Acquisitions Editors                  Quality Control Technicians
  Nancy Maragioglio                     Andy H...
This book is dedicated to two women who have made a profound impact on both our
lives. The unconditional love and support ...
Preface
  W         elcome to the LPIC 1 Certification Bible. This book is designed to help you
            prepare for th...
x   Preface




        Part III: Administering Linux
        Part III is all about administering and securing resources o...
Preface    xi

     ✦ A list of exam objectives (by exam) covered in that chapter
     ✦ A Chapter Pre-Test that enables y...
xii   Preface




          Prerequisites
          Although this book is a comprehensive study and exam preparation guide...
Preface   xiii

                                             Table 2
                                 Chapters to Study fo...
xiv   Preface



          We strongly recommend that you use only hardware found on the Linux Hardware
          Compatib...
Preface   xv

               ldd file_name

            When you see monospace font presented in bold, the bold text repre...
xvi   Preface



          We always read all of our readers’ e-mail messages and, when possible, include your
          c...
Acknowledgments
 I  must first give my thanks to Nancy Maragioglio, Acquisitions Editor, Brian
    MacDonald, Senior Proje...
xviii   Acknowledgments



            This is the part I hear about long after the book is published. First, I’d like to ...
Contents at a Glance
Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Ack...
Contents
 Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
 Acknowledgments . . ....
xxii   LPIC 1 Certification Bible



                 Partitioning Schemes . . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  ...
Contents          xxiii

      Managing Shared Libraries . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  ...
xxiv   LPIC 1 Certification Bible



                      Using the stream editor . . . . . . . . . .                 .  ...
Contents          xxv

     Locating Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   ...
xxvi   LPIC 1 Certification Bible



            Chapter 8: Understanding the Boot Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295...
Contents          xxvii

           Using a terminal emulator .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  ...
xxviii   LPIC 1 Certification Bible



                   System Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   . ...
Contents          xxix

     Answers to Chapter Questions         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   ...
xxx   LPIC 1 Certification Bible



                Assessment Questions . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   ...
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  1. 1. 100% “The ultimate reference guide to LPI Level 1 certification, packed with useful tips and self-assessment features.” —Tim Sosbe, Editorial Director, Certification Magazine ONE HUNDRED PERCENT COMPREHENSIVE AUTHORITATIVE WHAT YOU NEED ONE HUNDRED PERCENT Master the material for Linux Professional Institute exams 101 and 102 Test your knowledge with assessment questions, scenarios, and labs Practice on state- of-the-art test- preparation software LPIC 1 Hungry Minds Test Engine powered by Angie Nash and Jason Nash
  2. 2. LPIC 1 Certification Bible
  3. 3. LPIC 1 Certification Bible Angie Nash and Jason Nash Best-Selling Books • Digital Downloads • e-Books • Answer Networks • e-Newsletters • Branded Web Sites • e-Learning Indianapolis, IN ✦ Cleveland, OH ✦ New York, NY
  4. 4. LPIC 1 Certification Bible Philippines; by Contemporanea de Ediciones for Published by Venezuela; by Express Computer Distributors for the Hungry Minds, Inc. Caribbean and West Indies; by Micronesia Media 909 Third Avenue Distributor, Inc. for Micronesia; by Chips New York, NY 10022 Computadoras S.A. de C.V. for Mexico; by Editorial www.hungryminds.com Norma de Panama S.A. for Panama; by American Bookshops for Finland. Copyright  2001 Hungry Minds, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book, including interior For general information on Hungry Minds’ products design, cover design, and icons, may be reproduced and services please contact our Customer Care or transmitted in any form, by any means (electronic, department within the U.S. at 800-762-2974, outside photocopying, recording, or otherwise) without the the U.S. at 317-572-3993 or fax 317-572-4002. prior written permission of the publisher. For sales inquiries and reseller information, including Library of Congress Control Number: 2001090743 discounts, premium and bulk quantity sales, and foreign-language translations, please contact our ISBN: 0-7645-4772-0 Customer Care department at 800-434-3422, fax Printed in the United States of America 317-572-4002 or write to Hungry Minds, Inc., Attn: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Customer Care Department, 10475 Crosspoint 1P/RY/QW/QR/IN Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46256. Distributed in the United States by Hungry Minds, For information on licensing foreign or domestic Inc. rights, please contact our Sub-Rights Customer Care Distributed by CDG Books Canada Inc. for Canada; by department at 212-884-5000. Transworld Publishers Limited in the United For information on using Hungry Minds’ products Kingdom; by IDG Norge Books for Norway; by IDG and services in the classroom or for ordering Sweden Books for Sweden; by IDG Books Australia examination copies, please contact our Educational Publishing Corporation Pty. Ltd. for Australia and Sales department at 800-434-2086 or fax 317-572-4005. New Zealand; by TransQuest Publishers Pte Ltd. for For press review copies, author interviews, or other Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and Hong publicity information, please contact our Public Kong; by Gotop Information Inc. for Taiwan; by ICG Relations department at 317-572-3168 or fax Muse, Inc. for Japan; by Intersoft for South Africa; by 317-572-4168. Eyrolles for France; by International Thomson For authorization to photocopy items for corporate, Publishing for Germany, Austria, and Switzerland; by personal, or educational use, please contact Distribuidora Cuspide for Argentina; by LR Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, International for Brazil; by Galileo Libros for Chile; by Danvers, MA 01923, or fax 978-750-4470. Ediciones ZETA S.C.R. Ltda. for Peru; by WS Computer Publishing Corporation, Inc., for the LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND AUTHOR HAVE USED THEIR BEST EFFORTS IN PREPARING THIS BOOK. THE PUBLISHER AND AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS BOOK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THERE ARE NO WARRANTIES WHICH EXTEND BEYOND THE DESCRIPTIONS CONTAINED IN THIS PARAGRAPH. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES REPRESENTATIVES OR WRITTEN SALES MATERIALS. THE ACCURACY AND COMPLETENESS OF THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HEREIN AND THE OPINIONS STATED HEREIN ARE NOT GUARANTEED OR WARRANTED TO PRODUCE ANY PARTICULAR RESULTS, AND THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY INDIVIDUAL. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OF PROFIT OR ANY OTHER COMMERCIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR OTHER DAMAGES. Linux Professional Institute and the LPI logo are trademarks of Linux Professional Institute, Inc. The Linux Professional Institute does not endorse any third party exam preparation material or techniques. For further details please contact info@lpi.org. Trademarks: All trademarks are property of their respective owners. Hungry Minds, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. is a trademark of Hungry Minds, Inc.
  5. 5. About the Authors Angie Nash is an IT Consultant for her own firm, Tarheel Solutions. She works primarily with Linux and Microsoft operating systems to provide solutions for small businesses. Her free time is spent adding new products to her arsenal. She can be reached at angie@the-nashes.net. Jason Nash is an independent consultant experienced with Linux, Solaris, and several BSD variants. He has written several books for the Microsoft world, but now spends most of his time in Linux and BSD. He can be reached at jason@the-nashes.net.
  6. 6. Credits Acquisitions Editors Quality Control Technicians Nancy Maragioglio Andy Hollandbeck Katie Feltman Susan Moritz Carl Pierce Project Editors Charles Spencer Brian MacDonald Kevin Kent Permissions Editor Laura Moss Technical Editor Theresa Hadden-Martinez Media Development Specialist Megan Decraene Copy Editor Kevin Kent Media Development Coordinator Marisa Pearman Editoral Managers Ami Frank Sullivan Proofreading and Indexing Kyle Looper TECHBOOKS Production Services Project Coordinator Emily Wichlinski Graphics and Production Specialists Gabriele McCann Brian Torwelle
  7. 7. This book is dedicated to two women who have made a profound impact on both our lives. The unconditional love and support that we have received from Marie Ward and Melva Hamby are always with us.
  8. 8. Preface W elcome to the LPIC 1 Certification Bible. This book is designed to help you prepare for the Linux Professional Institute Certification Level 1 exams 101 and 102. The Linux Professional Institute is a distribution-independent, nonprofit organization. The exams are developed to certify an individual’s expertise with Linux systems. Level 1 certification is based upon many general tasks involving Linux systems. This book provides all the information you need to perform these tasks. Because of this, the book is useful as a study guide as well as a general Linux reference. We believe that this book will prove to be a useful tool when preparing for the LPIC exams and that you will want to keep it nearby as a handy resource while working with Linux systems. How This Book Is Organized This book is organized into four major parts, followed by several appendixes, a robust glossary, an index, and a compact disc. Here’s what you’ll find in this book: Part I: Installing Linux and Getting Started Part I presents basic information about Linux. It covers the basic installation and configuration of the Linux operating system. This part introduces the shell environ- ment and its usage. Finally, this part covers software installation, including the packaging systems used on Debian and Red Hat distributions. Part II: Getting Around in Linux Part II covers the basics of using Linux. This part explains many of the text process- ing tools available for Linux. Information on working with Linux partitions and file systems is also covered in this section. Another task required to get around in Linux is managing files and directories. This part introduces the commands most often used for this task. The documentation resources available to aid with the proper use of these commands and many of the tasks required on Linux are also covered here. Part II also explores the boot process, detailing the use of various configuration files and run levels. Finally, this part explores XFree86, the graphical user interface available for Linux.
  9. 9. x Preface Part III: Administering Linux Part III is all about administering and securing resources on a Linux computer. This part begins by explaining how to manage users and groups. It also presents detailed instructions on how to administer the system. This discussion covers a variety of tasks such as system logging, making backups, and managing quotas. Additionally, Part III explores the ins and outs of managing printing. This part also shows you how to work with and even upgrade the kernel. Then Part III ends by building on Part I, including more detailed information on shell usage. Part IV: Managing the Network Part IV covers the various concerns of a networked Linux computer. This part intro- duces the basics of TCP/IP protocols, files, and tools. Additionally, Part IV explains how to create and configure network and dial-up connections. It also covers the various server functions Linux can provide on a network. Finally, Part IV shows you how to efficiently secure a Linux system. At the end of the book are several valuable appendixes. You’ll find full practice exams for both the 101 and 102 tests, a table of the actual exam objectives for both LPIC exams (including cross-references to the section in this book where each objective is covered), important information and tips on how to prepare for the exams, and a complete listing and description of the contents of the compact disc included with this book. CD-ROM This book includes a CD-ROM with several useful programs and utilities. First you’ll find the Hungry Minds test engine, which is powered by Boson Software and fea- tures practice test questions to help you prepare for the exam. The disk also includes an electronic version of the book in PDF format along with Adobe Acrobat Reader so you can easily navigate this resource. Also included are several useful Linux guides, FAQs, and HOWTOs, documentation that can help you grow in your facility with and understanding of Linux systems. How Each Chapter Is Structured When this book was designed, a lot of thought went into its structure, particularly into the specific elements that would provide you with the best possible learning and exam preparation experience. Here are the elements you’ll find in each chapter:
  10. 10. Preface xi ✦ A list of exam objectives (by exam) covered in that chapter ✦ A Chapter Pre-Test that enables you to assess your existing knowledge of the topic ✦ Clear, concise text on each topic ✦ Step-by-step instructions on how to perform Linux tasks ✦ A Key Point Summary ✦ A comprehensive Study Guide that contains the following: • Exam-style Assessment Questions • Scenario problems for you to solve, as appropriate • Lab Exercises to perform on your computer, as appropriate • Answers to Chapter Pre-Test questions, Assessment Questions, and Scenarios How to Use This Book This book can be used either by individuals working independently or by groups in a formal classroom setting. For best results, we recommend the following plan of attack as you use this book. First, take the Chapter Pre-Test and then read the chapter and the Key Point Summary. Use this summary to see if you’ve really got the key concepts under your belt. If you don’t, go back and reread the section(s) you’re not clear on. Then do all of the Assessment Questions and Scenarios at the end of the chapter. Finally, do the Lab Exercises. Remember that the important thing is to master the tasks that are tested by the exams. The chapters of this book have been designed to be studied sequentially. In other words, it would be best if you complete Chapter 1 before you proceed to Chapter 2. A few chapters could probably stand alone, but all in all, we recommend a sequential approach. The Lab Exercises have also been designed to be completed in a sequen- tial order and often depend on the successful completion of the previous labs. After you’ve completed your study of the chapters and reviewed the Assessment Questions and Lab Exercises in the book, use the test engine on the compact disc included with this book to get some experience answering practice questions. The practice questions help you assess how much you’ve learned from your study and also familiarize you with the type of exam questions you’ll face when you take the real exams. Once you identify a weak area, you can restudy the corresponding chapters to improve your knowledge and skills in that area.
  11. 11. xii Preface Prerequisites Although this book is a comprehensive study and exam preparation guide, it does not start at ground zero. We assume you have the following knowledge and skills at the outset: ✦ Basic terminology and basic skills to use Linux systems ✦ Basic software and hardware terms used with computers and networking components If you meet these prerequisites, you’re ready to begin this book. How to determine what you should study Your individual certification goals will ultimately determine which parts of this book you should study. If you want to pass both LPIC exams or simply want to develop a comprehensive working knowledge of Linux, we recommend you study the entire book in sequential order. If you are preparing only for the 101 exam, we suggest you follow the recommended study plan shown in Table 1. Table 1 Chapters to Study for Exam 101 Chapter Number Chapter Title 2 Using the Shell 4 Processing Text 5 Using Partitions and File Systems 6 Managing Files 7 Using Documentation 8 Understanding the Boot Process 10 Managing Users and Groups 11 Administering the System If you are preparing only for the 102 exam, we suggest you follow the recommended study plan shown in Table 2.
  12. 12. Preface xiii Table 2 Chapters to Study for Exam 102 Chapter Number Chapter Title 1 Installing Linux 3 Installing Software 5 Using Partitions and File Systems 8 Understanding the Boot Process 9 Using X 12 Printing 13 Working with the Kernel 14 Using Shells and Scripts 15 Networking Fundamentals 16 Managing Network Services 17 Managing Security Hardware and Software You Need You need access to various hardware and software to be able to do the Lab Exercises in this book. It’s extremely important that you do these labs to acquire the skills tested by the LPIC Level 1 exams. Caution Some of the Lab Exercises in this book have the potential to erase or corrupt data on existing hard disks. Make sure you back up all important data and programs before you attempt to perform the labs. Better yet, do the labs on a computer that doesn’t contain any vital data or programs. Here are the minimum hardware requirements: ✦ Intel-based computer with Pentium/133MHz processor, 256MB of RAM, and 2GB of hard disk space. ✦ Keyboard ✦ CD-ROM drive ✦ Mouse or other pointing device ✦ VGA monitor and graphics card ✦ Network adapter card
  13. 13. xiv Preface We strongly recommend that you use only hardware found on the Linux Hardware Compatibility List. This list can be located on the Web sites of all Linux distribu- tions such as http://www.redhat.com/support/hardware/ for Red Hat and http://www.ibiblio.org/mdw/HOWTO/Hardware-HOWTO.html for Debian. Optional equipment that you might benefit from using includes the following: ✦ Printer ✦ Tape drive ✦ Modem and Internet connection (so you can access online resources) The software you need includes Linux Installation Software. This book covers both Red Hat- and Debian-based distributions. Conventions Used in This Book Every book has its own set of conventions, so we’ll explain the ones we’ve used in this book to you right up front. New terms How could we talk about Linux and other computer stuff without using all kinds of fancy acronyms and terms, without using that alphabet soup you throw into every- day conversation around the dinner table that causes your family members to roll their eyes? We’ve chosen to italicize new or potentially unfamiliar terms, such as pwd, as we define them. Normally, we define a new term right after its first mention. If you hap- pen to see an unfamiliar word that is italicized, such as pwd, but is not followed by a definition, you can flip to the glossary to read the definition of the term. Code All code listings and commands in this book are presented in monospace font, like this: # ls -al We’ve also used this type of font to identify names of files, folders, Web addresses, and character-based screen content when presented verbatim. When you see monospace font presented in italics, the italicized text represents a variable that could actually have a different name. This can be used to represent a filename or perhaps a directory, like this:
  14. 14. Preface xv ldd file_name When you see monospace font presented in bold, the bold text represents text that you would type, usually at the command prompt, like this: [root@redhat jason]# ls /etc/pine* Icons Several different icons are used throughout this book to draw your attention to mat- ters that deserve a closer look: Caution This icon is used to warn you that something unfortunate could happen if you’re not careful. It also points out information that could save you a lot of grief. It’s often easier to prevent a tragedy than it is to fix it afterwards. Cross- This icon points you to another place in this book for more coverage of a particu- Reference lar topic. It may point you back to a previous chapter where important material has already been covered, or it may point you ahead to let you know that a topic will be covered in more detail later on. Exam Tip This icon points out important information or advice for those preparing to take the LPIC exams. In the Sometimes things work differently in the real world than books — or product doc- Real World umentation — say they do. This icon draws your attention to the authors’ real- world experiences, which will hopefully help you on the job, if not on the LPIC exams. Objective This icon appears at the beginning of certain parts of the chapter to alert you that objective content is covered in this section. The text of the objective appears next to this icon for your reference. Tip This icon is used to draw your attention to a little piece of friendly advice, a helpful fact, a shortcut, or a bit of personal experience that might be of use to you. How to Contact Us We’ve done our very best to make sure the contents of this book are technically accurate and error free. Our technical reviewer and editors have also worked hard toward this goal. However, we know that perfection isn’t a possibility in the real world, and if you find an error, or have some other comment or insight, we’d appreciate hearing from you. You can contact us via the Internet at angie@the-nashes.net and jason@the-nashes.net.
  15. 15. xvi Preface We always read all of our readers’ e-mail messages and, when possible, include your corrections and ideas in future printings. However, because of the high volume of e-mail we receive, we can’t respond to every message. Please don’t take it person- ally if we don’t respond to your e-mail message. Also, one last note: although we enjoy hearing from our readers, please don’t write to us for product support or for help in solving a particular Linux problem you’re experiencing on your computer or network. In this book we cover various places available for locating support with these types of problems. Well, that about wraps up the general comments. From here you can get started on the nuts and bolts of learning about Linux and get ready to pass those exams. We wish you great success!
  16. 16. Acknowledgments I must first give my thanks to Nancy Maragioglio, Acquisitions Editor, Brian MacDonald, Senior Project Editor, and Kevin Kent, Project and Copy Editor, for this wonderful opportunity and all the work they have done to ensure that this book reaches its full potential. This could not be done without all of their hard work and dedication. The people at Hungry Minds have contributed to making this book a positive experience, even amidst the frantic pace that seems to surround me. I must acknowledge my husband and coauthor Jason, but words fail me. He is truly my best friend and partner through all that life brings. I also have a wonderfully supportive and loving family that has always made me feel special. My parents, Martin and Kathy Brummitt, have selflessly sacrificed for my benefit. The debt I owe them can never be repaid. I must also send my love and thanks to my siblings: Jenny, Michael, and Chris; to Debbie, Jerry, Jeff, Steve, Renee, and Kim Hamby; and to Nettie Cope and all the others in my family who have contributed to my life. I must include a special thanks to Tim and Margaret Franks. You are wonderful peo- ple and deserve only the best life has to offer. I love you both. I also need to thank my wonderful friends, Cathelene Shanaberger and Lisa Anderson. They have been there for me whenever I have needed an ear or a shoulder. To all of my friends online and through life, I could never fit everyone in this book. You know who you are and so do I. Thank you. — Angie Nash Every acknowledgment you read, if you take the time to do so, starts with the author thanking the publishing group they work with. I always figured that this was a simple gratuitous action, but not anymore. The people at Hungry Minds are still excellent to work with. On this project I would like to thank Nancy Maragioglio, our Acquisitions Editor, Brian MacDonald, our Senior Project Editor, and Kevin Kent, our Project and Copy Editor. Good people make projects like this go much smoother, especially when deadlines seem to appear from nowhere. At the top of my list is my wife Angie, who coauthored this book. She is by far the most important thing in my life and my best friend, who I love very much. When you look back in your life, it sometimes surprises you the influence that others had, and without them you would not be where you are today. My mother and stepfa- ther, Peggy and Tim Franks, and my grandmother Marie Ward have helped me more than this entire book could hold. Special thanks are also due to my father Bill Nash, my sister Jeanie, and my grandparents Homer and Frances Nash.
  17. 17. xviii Acknowledgments This is the part I hear about long after the book is published. First, I’d like to say thank you to some of my close friends: Jacob Hall, Robert Mowlds, Johnathan Harris, Todd Shanaberger, and Lee Johnson. We have a large number of online friends, and instead of listing them here and hearing about a couple we forgot, we’ve just used their names in examples throughout the book. You know who you are. Finally, I’d like to thank the members of the open source community that are leading a revolution. Without them none of this would be possible. — Jason Nash
  18. 18. Contents at a Glance Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Part I: Installing Linux and Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1: Installing Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Chapter 2: Using the Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Chapter 3: Installing Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Part II: Getting Around in Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Chapter 4: Processing Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Chapter 5: Using Partitions and File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Chapter 6: Managing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Chapter 7: Using Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Chapter 8: Understanding the Boot Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Chapter 9: Using X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Part III: Administering Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Chapter 10: Managing Users and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Chapter 11: Administering the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Chapter 12: Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 Chapter 13: Working with the Kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 Chapter 14: Using Shells and Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 Part IV: Managing the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559 Chapter 15: Networking Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561 Chapter 16: Managing Network Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 Chapter 17: Managing Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695 Appendix A: What’s on the CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747 Appendix B: Practice Exams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753 Appendix C: Objective Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775 Appendix D: Exam Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803 End-User License Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845 CD-ROM Installation Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 848
  19. 19. Contents Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Part I: Installing Linux and Getting Started 1 Chapter 1: Installing Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 History of Linux and GNU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The GNU General Public License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 What Does Free Mean? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Why Use Linux? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Linux is multiuser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Linux is multitasking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Linux is stable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Linux has lots of available software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Linux has a wide range of supported hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Linux is fast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Overview of the Linux Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Kernel space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 User space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Linux Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Red Hat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Mandrake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 SuSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Slackware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Caldera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Turbolinux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Preparing Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 CPU requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Memory requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Hard disk controller requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Hard disk space requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Video requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 BIOS settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Peripherals and other hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Resolving Conflicts and Configuring Plug-and-Play Hardware . . . . . . . . 18 Hardware addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Viewing configuration addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Configuring Plug-and-Play devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
  20. 20. xxii LPIC 1 Certification Bible Partitioning Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Using fdisk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Using Disk Druid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Using cfdisk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Boot Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Installing Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Red Hat installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Debian installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Chapter 2: Using the Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Understanding Shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Using the Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Command completion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Editing commands with the Readline Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Command substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Using the history file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 fc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Environment Variables and Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Editing the PATH variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 The init process and the PATH variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Managing Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Modifying Process Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Chapter 3: Installing Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Installing Software from Source Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Obtaining the source code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Decompressing the tarball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Running the configure script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Making changes to the Makefile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Compiling the software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Installing the software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
  21. 21. Contents xxiii Managing Shared Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Viewing required shared libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Setting library paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Configuring shared libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Red Hat Package Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Package files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 The RPM database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 The rpm tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Debian Package Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Using dpkg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Using dselect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Using apt-get . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Using alien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Red Hat labs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Debian labs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Scenario Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Part II: Getting Around in Linux 157 Chapter 4: Processing Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Working with Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Redirection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 tee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 xargs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Modifying Text with Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Sorting lines of a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Cutting text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Pasting text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Converting tabs to spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Formatting paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Deleting or substituting characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Viewing the beginning of a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Viewing the end of a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Joining multiple files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Dividing files into multiple pieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Displaying files in other formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Converting files for printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Displaying files backwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Displaying numeric details of a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Adding line numbers to a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
  22. 22. xxiv LPIC 1 Certification Bible Using the stream editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Using grep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Enhancing Searches with Regular Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Chapter 5: Using Partitions and File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Linux File Systems Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 File system types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Considerations when making a file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Creating Partitions and File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Partition types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 File system tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Checking the File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 fsck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 du . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 df . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Mounting and Unmounting File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Mounting file systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Unmounting file systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Checking available file systems with /etc/fstab . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Checking mounted file systems with /etc/mtab . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Chapter 6: Managing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Managing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Changing directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Listing directory contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Determining a file type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Changing file time stamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Copying files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Moving files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Deleting files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Creating directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Understanding File System Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Standard file locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 System directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
  23. 23. Contents xxv Locating Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 find . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 locate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 which . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 whereis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Creating File Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Hard links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Symbolic links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Working with Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Symbolic and numeric permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Files, directories, and special files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 User and group permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 SUID and SGID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Sticky bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Using Compression Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 tar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 gzip and gunzip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 compress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 bzip2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Managing Quotas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 quota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 edquota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 repquota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 quotaon and quotaoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Chapter 7: Using Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Getting Help with Man Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Locating man pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Searching man page sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Using Documentation Stored in /usr/doc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Documentation on the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Linux Documentation Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Vendor sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Newsgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Mailing lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Creating Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Providing Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
  24. 24. xxvi LPIC 1 Certification Bible Chapter 8: Understanding the Boot Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Using LILO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Configuring LILO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 Installing and updating LILO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 Viewing boot messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Understanding Runlevels and init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Using runlevels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Configuring the init process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Customizing the Boot Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 BSD startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Sys V startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Troubleshooting the Boot Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Troubleshooting LILO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Booting to single-user mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Creating a boot disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Creating repair disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Chapter 9: Using X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Overview of the X Window System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 History of X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Architecture overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Window managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Desktop environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Installing X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Installing with RPMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Installing on Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Installing with binary packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Versions of XFree86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Configuring X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Manually configuring the XF86Config file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Using XF86Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Using xf86config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Detecting video hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 Fine tuning video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Configuring fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Starting X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Starting X manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Using XDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Using X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Choosing a window manager or environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Using X clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
  25. 25. Contents xxvii Using a terminal emulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Customizing X applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Using special keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Managing bad applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Running X and Clients Remotely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Configuring X security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Configuring remote clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 Configuring remote login . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Part III: Administering Linux 385 Chapter 10: Managing Users and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Special Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 nobody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Manually Adding Users and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Storing user information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Storing group information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 Picking numeric user and group ids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 Creating a user by hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 Managing Users and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Managing User and Group Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Assigning and Using Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 Configuring Global and User Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 /etc/profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 /etc/skel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Chapter 11: Administering the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Starting and Stopping Daemons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Using the /etc/rc.d scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Using the kill command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
  26. 26. xxviii LPIC 1 Certification Bible System Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Configuring system logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Rotating system logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 Identifying problems using log files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 Scheduling Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Using the at utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Using the batch utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 Using the crond daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 Performing Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Planning the backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Backup methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Backup media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Other considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Backup commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Limiting Core Dump Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 Chapter 12: Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 Installing Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 Configuring the /etc/printcap file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 Creating the spool directory and log file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 Controlling printer access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Using Print Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Installing Apsfilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Installing Magicfilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 Using PrintTool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Managing the Printer Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 Managing the printer daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 Managing printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 Managing print queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 Managing print jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 Printing Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 Using lpr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 Using a2ps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 Troubleshooting Printing Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 lpd problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 Queue problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 Printer problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 File and directory problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Space problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
  27. 27. Contents xxix Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 Chapter 13: Working with the Kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 Kernel Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 Kernel development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 Kernel types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 Managing modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 Reconfiguring and Installing a New Kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 Obtaining the kernel source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 Updating your source with patches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 Configuring the kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 Compiling the kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 Installing the kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 Creating a ramdisk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 Configuring LILO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 Testing the new kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 Lab Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 Chapter 14: Using Shells and Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 Using vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 Text editing practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 Opening files for editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 Exiting vi and saving files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 Moving the cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 Adding text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 Deleting text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 Copying and pasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 Searching for text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524 Undoing changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527 Customizing the Shell Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527 Environment variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 Aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 Special files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 Writing Simple Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 Starting a shell script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 Writing a basic script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 Testing conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543 Flow control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545 Reading user input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 Script considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
  28. 28. xxx LPIC 1 Certification Bible Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 Part IV: Managing the Network 559 Chapter 15: Networking Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561 The TCP/IP Protocol Suite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564 Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564 Network classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565 Dividing networks with subnet masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569 Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 Configuration and Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 Managing network interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 Managing network configuration files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 Configuring PPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 Answers to Chapter Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 Chapter Pre-Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 Assessment Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597 Chapter 16: Managing Network Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 Using the Internet Super Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602 Configuring inetd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602 Restarting the inetd process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604 Configuring Basic Network Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605 Configuring an FTP server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605 Configuring Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617 Using sendmail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618 Customizing the sendmail.cf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619 Aliasing and forwarding mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623 Managing sendmail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624 Using Apache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 Starting and stopping httpd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626 Configuring Apache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627 Using NFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637 Configuring exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638 Mounting exported directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639 Managing the NFS server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642

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