Six degrees of Separation &Management of RelationshipAbhishek Sharma FT13300Arjun Choudhry FT13312Garv Sharma FT13325Irene Eltham FT13337Mrityunjay Arya FT13350Ramachandran FT13362Sonali Das FT13374Vijaykumar Bale FT13386
• First mentioned in 1920’s by Karinthy.• 30 years later, became a research problem• The idea that everybody in the world is connected by six degrees of separation – Where 1 degree of separation means you know (or have met) somebody else. • In other words, everyone is on average approximately six steps away, by way of introduction, from any other person in the world
Stanley Milgram experiment showing that people are all connected by an average of six steps• A citizen in Nebraska was instructedto mail a letter to someone who theythought would know a particularbusiness man in Boston•The goal was to measure the numberof steps for the letter to reach thebusiness man• On average, required six steps• Replicated on global scale with sameresults! It’s a small world after allPhoto by Dan Coulter
• No longer limited strictly to academic or philosophical thinking, the notion of Six Degrees recently has become influential throughout popular culture.• Further advances in communication technology—and particularly the Internet— have drawn great attention to social networks and human interconnectedness.
• PLAY: American playwright, John Guare, wrote a play in 1990, and later released a film in 1993 that popularised the notion of Six Degrees.
• FILM: 1993 film drama featuring Will Smith, Donald Sutherland and Stockard Channing. 2007 film BABEL is also based on the Six Degree concept.
• INTERNET: SixDegrees.com was an early social networking site developed by Kevin Bacon. FACEBOOK has a Six Degrees application.
• TELEVISION: Shows like LOST, The L Word, The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, & Six Degrees of Martina McBride have adopted this concept.
Six degrees & Weak Ties TheoryThe power of networking using Six degrees of separation supports developing weak ties :-• We have both friends and acquaintances. Our friends are often a part of a close-knit group who largely know one another. Our acquaintances are far less likely to know one another.• Societies and social systems that have more weak ties are more likely to be dynamic and innovative. If the system is mostly made up of strong ties, then it will be fragmented and uncoordinated.• Some weak ties are better than others. Weak ties to friends of your friends are not as useful as weak ties elsewhere as the information and further connections are likely to be similar to those of your friends. Weak ties that join separate social groups are called bridges.• You can also find absent ties, where you might expect a tie but it does not exist, for example in a group of friends where two people are still distant from one another.• The modern approach to business networking is based on the principle of weak ties: having a wide range of acquaintances can be far more helpful than having just a few good friends. Weak ties are also useful for activists who need to mobilize large protest or action groups.• Weak ties are the channels of culture and are woven into successful organisations where many know many others on first-name terms. Three types of weak ties that may be found in towns and cities are social (casual friendship), community (eg. neighbors) and profesional (job-related)
Line = a relationship between two people more embedded = central less embedded = periphery Node = a person “embedded”: the degree to which a person is connected within a network
The basic principles of networking discussed here are based on the following three universal laws: • There are plenty of opportunities for everyone – plenty of ideas, clients, customers, jobs and so on. Just because your diary is empty does The law of abundance not mean that there are no opportunities around. Great networkers believe in an abundance of opportunities. • What you give out comes back tenfold. If you give out help, you get back help; give out love, you get back love; give out information, you get back information. The challenge, of course, is that although for you the giving is instant and in the The law of reciprocity short term, the receiving may not happen for some time. Also, what is returned may not come from the person to whom it was given. However, great networkers believe firmly that what you give out comes back tenfold. • This occurs when you give without an expectation of receiving something. YouThe law of giving without do something for someone not to get something back, but because you want expectation to help them achieve their goal.
1. We determine structure of our network: how many people we are connected to The average American has 4 close social contacts known as their “core discussion network” The same number of people can be arranged and connected in different ways, and have different topologies
2. We influence the density of interconnections between friends and family we introduce friends from separate groups to one another
3. We control how “central” we are within the social networkAre you the life of the party? Or the wall flower?
• These days a lot of us spend more time in a workplace, so managing relationships become vital and takesa new and different importance.•In the workplace, managing relationships assumessignificance due to the hierarchies- yourpeers, superiors, subordinates, partners, clients, customers, etc - and for everyone theres a different code ofconduct.• Y manage relationships? Relationships cannot be allowed to get static, they must continually develop and grow in a work environment.
DO’S & DON’T Look at the big picture. Don’t blockExhibit positive and cheerful attitude at communication.all times.Proactively communicate with others. Don’t make promises youRespond promptly. cant keepAnticipate misunderstandings. Don’t be judgemental.Focus on issues rather on personalities. Don’t be defensive.Change interaction pattern by Don’t hold grudgesidentifying positive traits and expressing Don’t force theappreciation. Relationship for businessValidate facts.Embrace new ideas and change. Don’t mix personal andSend a powerful action message. business relationshipsRespect others time, privacy and space. Don’t give up!
Mutual respect Willingness Acceptance to work and through flexibility obstacles Honesty Relationship and directTrust Factors communica tion Some shared Preparation values Commitme nt
You will be more aligned with the team You will be more committedYou can expect the best from the members (Team) Your needs will be looked after Working culture accepted Your contributions will be well acknowledged You will be onboard and motivated
How people see you: • Misunderstandings crop when things are fuzzy. Team should know what you think and feel. Everyone should be aware of the parameters of the relationship and you remain clear andnegotiate and set clear goals direct. • This is a key communication skill. If you see things from your side, you provide solutionsSeeing others point of view from that perspective and waste precious time. So, see and accept others point of view too. Gauging others • This is simple but is often overlooked. Its easy to assume what a other people want without checking it out. Find out what supports them; you show your concern and care. expectations Dont make assumptions: be straight in asking, making the relation transparent. Initiate solutions as • Dont hope problems go away or wait tn they get bigger and out of control. Try and solve it and nip it in the bud and set precedence. problems come • Keep your relations dynamic by offering insight, ideas and support. Recognise and Give more acknowledge their contributions. This creates valuable loyalty points. Develop your • Be a good listener. Respond and deal conflict with blan by negotiating skills, learning to say no and yes when appropriate. communication skills