Policy Intiative for the Democratic Republic of Congo Presentation
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Policy Intiative for the Democratic Republic of Congo Presentation



No other place on earth can the failed effects of European colonialism be displayed than the broken continent of Africa. The “dark continent” lured European powers to balkanization of the ...

No other place on earth can the failed effects of European colonialism be displayed than the broken continent of Africa. The “dark continent” lured European powers to balkanization of the continent and exploitation of its vast resources; more so, the mass effects of such “divide-and-conquer” politics and colonization of Africa can most accurately be depicted and drawn from the historical contexts of the Congo kingdom. From King Leopold II to the Western backed rule of Mobutu Sese Seko and the current mineral grab by multinational corporations, the Congo has and continues to be both economically and socially exploited. Hope of sustainable democracy in Africa and specifically in the Congo can not be established until the Congolese take pride in an unified culture (ex., American patriotism), nationalize their mineral resources, and an international governance board (ex,. Board of Director’s) is established. The DRC, with the support of the international community (America, UN, IMF, World Bank), needs to be included in a Marshall Plan and adopt a Monroe Doctrine, only than can the Congo become economically and socially independent.



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  • For those following the developments in the Congo, GlobalWitness.org is a great resource for comments on policy initiatves and the work of the UN in the area.
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  • My main argument is that the Congo has never been developed nor has it ever been built on democratic principles and a market based economy. Current political processes are based on colonial rule and thus are grounded in exploitative laws while the Congo’s infrastructure was only developed to the point that it increased the amount of exploitation, after which it crumbled.

Policy Intiative for the Democratic Republic of Congo Presentation Policy Intiative for the Democratic Republic of Congo Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • The Democratic Republic of the Congo
    Policy Frameworks: From Conflict Minerals and Resources to Fair Trade and Sustainable Minerals
  • Thesis Argument
    Sustainable democracy in Africa, specifically in the Congo, can not be established until the Congolese people become unified under stable government, take precedence over their resources, and launch an international governance board to oversee development of the Congo state.
  • Favorite Quote
    “From the colonial era, the major legacy Europe left for Africa was not democracy as it is practiced today in countries like England, France and Belgium; it was authoritarian rule and plunder. On the whole continent, perhaps no nation has had a harder time than the Congo in emerging from the shadow of its past.”
    - King Leopold’s Ghost, AdamHochschild
  • Key Terms of the Failed Congo State
    Raubwirtschaft: German for “plunder economy”
  • Scramble for Africa
    European surplus capital was often more profitably invested overseas, where cheap labor, limited competition, and abundant raw materials made greater premiums possible
    Another inducement to imperialism arose from the demand for raw materials unavailable in Europe, such as copper, cotton, rubber, palm oil, cocoa, diamonds, tea, and tin
  • King Leopold II
    King Leopold II ruled the Congo from 1885-1908 as his personal fiefdom and business venture
    Forced labor, enslavement and mutilation of the native population was common
    The Encyclopedia Britannica estimates the population loss at somewhere between 8 million and 30 million people.
  • Belgian Congo
    “The elimination of the more brutal aspects of the Congo Free State notwithstanding, Belgian rule remained conspicuously unreceptive to political reform. By placing the inculcation of Western moral principles above political education and welfare benefits above the apprenticeship of social responsibility, Belgian policies virtually ruled out all initiatives designed to foster political experience and responsibility among Africans.”
    -Encyclopedia Britannica
  • Mobutu Sese Seko
    Formed a totalitarian regime in Zaire
    Killed and tortured political rivals
    In 1968 Pierre Mulele, Lumumba's Minister of Education, while alive, had his eyes were gouged out, his genitals ripped off, and his limbs amputated one by one
    • Amassed a vast personal fortune, $4 billion, at the expense of Zaire
  • So What? Why Should I Care?
    In January 2008 the International Rescue Committee (IRC) estimated that 5.4 million people had died due to violence, starvation, and disease since the beginning of the civil war in 1998. 45,000 additional Congolese deaths occur each month.
    Mineral deposits constitute the DRC’s principal source of wealth. The armed groups, FDLR, perpetuating the violence generate an estimated $144 million each year by trading in four main minerals in the Congo
  • Framework Opportunities
    Stimulate local and regional development
    Develop Democratic government
    Renegotiation of Trade Agreements
    Increased standard of living
    Implementation of renewable energy resources
    Stimulate continual improvement in the sustainability of supply chain
  • The 3 Part Framework
    To truly overcome the conflict minerals curse in eastern Congo, a more comprehensive approach will be necessary; one that embraces a significant, sustained, and long-term investment in the Congo’s security, governance, and livelihoods over a multi-year timeframe
  • Initiative One
    Establish International Governance Board to oversee the development of the DRC
    DRC Marshall Plan
  • Initiative Two
    Temporary Nationalization of Conflict Minerals
    Joint-Venture Partnerships
    DRC Marshall Plan
  • Initiative Three
    The DRC can become a world exporter of clean, renewable energy, as infrastructure develops it would be based on these energy sources instead of natural gas, coal, and oil, thus becoming one of the first “clean” developed nations in the world
  • Conclusion
    Hundreds of millions of dollars, if not, billions are being systematically spent on Congo initiatives but have provided little benefit to to Congolese people. This is do to lack of coordination between groups, civil unrest, and continued exploitation by multinational companies. Annual reports on the condition of the Congo state are of little use, what is needed is a concerted effort by the international community to develop the Congo state!
  • What’s Left to do
    Reorganization of paper, “flow”
    Focus on and define key terms
    More depth to my three initiative proposals
    Find place for differing view points
  • My Writing Process
    Technical, suited for political and business purposes
    Tend to work best under pressure
    I write papers that are random pieces of thought with little flow and then go back and edit, putting the pieces together