Plant kingdom.ppt2013 2014


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  • Plant kingdom.ppt2013 2014

    1. 1. Plant Kingdo
    2. 2. Basic Plant Characteristics 1) Multicellular 2) Eukaryotic 3) Cell walls contain cellulose 4) Autotrophic  make food by photosynthesis using chlorophyll
    3. 3. Evolutionary Trends and Plants… •There are 4 major groups of plants which are separated by three distinct features: 1) vascular tissue 2) Seeds 3) flowers
    4. 4. 4 Major Groups of Plants Green Algae Ancestor
    5. 5. Plant Review • Four main groups of plants 1. Bryophytes (Moss) 2. Seedless vascular plants (Ferns) 3. Gymnosperms (Plants - cones) 4. Angiosperms (Flowering plants)SEED PLANTS NO SEEDS
    6. 6. Bryophytes •Non-vascular plants (1-2” tall) •No true roots, leaves, stems •Transfer water by osmosis •Use spores to reproduce – grow moist, shaded areas •Ex) Mosses, liverworts, hornworts
    7. 7. General Life Cycle Plants • Two alternating phases: 1) Diploid Phase (Sporophyte) -Sporophyte makes spores by meiosis -Develop into gametophyte 2) Haploid Phase (Gametophyte) -Produce male and female gametes by mitosis -Gametes eventually join to form sporophyte
    8. 8. Alternating Phases: Plant Life Cycle
    9. 9. Life Cycle Bryophytes • Gametophyte is dominant stage • Depends on water to reproduce • Spore protonema (tangled mass green filaments) develop into gametophyte plant • Specific structures make reproductive cells at tips of gametophyte plant • Antheridia = sperm and Archegonia = egg • Join create diploid zygote = sporophyte stage
    10. 10. Seedless Vascular Plants • 1st true land plants • Contain “vascular tissue”/Use spores reproduce • Ex) Ferns, club moss, horsetails
    11. 11. Structure: Seedless Vascular Plants • 2 Types of vascular tissue: -xylem – moves water from roots to all parts of plants -phloem – distributes nutrients and carbohyrates (food) within plant • Have roots, leaves, and stems -roots – absorb water/nutrients -leaves – site photosynthesis -stems – support plant and connect leaves and roots
    12. 12. Fern Life Cycle • Sporophyte dominant stage • Grow haploid spores underside of fronds in structures called sporangia (clustered sporangia = sori) • Spores carried by wind and water  grow into haploid gametophyte • Gametophyte makes antheridia and archegonium which release sperm and eggs. • Zygotes form adult, diploid, sporophyte.
    13. 13. Gymnosperms •Reproduce with seeds instead of spores •Seeds are “exposed” = naked seeds (cone) •Ex) “Conifers/Evergreens”–fir, spruce, ginko
    14. 14. Angiosperms •Seeds are “protected” •Seeds develop inside “flower”/”fruit” •2 groups angiosperms: 1) Monocots 2) Dicots