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Kingdom protista

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  • 1. Kingdom Protista
  • 2. Protists, What are they?  Protists are defined by what they are NOT…  Eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi  Scientists believe they were the “1st eukaryotic organisms”  Most are unicellular (algae exception)  Many are “aquatic”  Very diverse kingdom
  • 3. Protists and the EvolutionaryTree
  • 4. Animal-like Protist  Heterotrophic organisms  Distinguished by how they move : 1) flagella: long “tail-like” structure 2) pseudopods: “false feet” extensions of cytoplasm 3) cilia: tiny “hair-like” structures beat in unison 4) some immobile
  • 5. Sarcodines  Animallike protists use pseudopods for feeding and moving  Ex) Amoeba Food
  • 6. Ciliates  Animallike protists use cilia for feeding and movement  Ex) Paramecium
  • 7. Zooflagellates  Animallike protists swim using flagella  Trypanosoma protist spread by the bite of tsetse fly causes African Sleeping Sickness  Giardia can contaminate water and cause digestive problems  Trichonympha lives in mutualistic relationship with termites
  • 8. Sporozoans  Animallike protists that do not move on their own and are parasitic  Plasmodium sporozoan causes malaria  Sporozoan parasite is carried by female Anopheles mosquito
  • 9. Plasmodium Life Cycle Mosquito bites human parasite injected• Parasites invade liver reproduce and develop• Liver cells burst and parasites move red blood cells• RBC burst person experiences anemia, fever, chills, may result in death• Parasites may then move into other RBC or are picked up by mosquito and transferred to another person
  • 10. Plantlike Protists: UnicellularAlgae  Photoautotrophs- contain chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis  Often called “phytoplankton”- small photosynthetic organisms near the surface of ocean  Phytoplankton carries out photosynthesis releasing oxygen into the atmosphere  Phytoplankton important food source for many “filter feeders”
  • 11. Euglenophytes  Plantlikeprotists that have flagella chloroplast, but no cell wall.  Ex) Euglena
  • 12. Diatoms  Produce thin, delicate cell walls made of silicon  Used in toothpaste, paints on license plates, dynamite
  • 13. Plantlike Protists: Algae  Red Algae- mostly multicellular algae contains special pigments that allows it to live deep areas of water  Brown Algae- all multicellular and most are found in marine environments (ex: Kelp)
  • 14. Plantlike Protists: Algae  Green Algae- some are unicellular, some form colonies, few are multicellular VolvoxChlamydomonas Sea Lettuce
  • 15. Humans and Algae • Humans understand many beneficial uses of algae: 1) Used to make nutrient agar 2) Used as ingredient in ice cream, pudding, salad dressing, syrups 3) Food source – humans and other animals 4) Releases oxygen from photosynthesis • Algae causes harm in “algal blooms” – depletes water of nutrients and oxygen
  • 16. Funguslike Protists  Heterotrophic protists that absorb nutrients, but lack cell walls with chitin  Ex) Slime molds- found near moist, rotting logs and composts  Ex) Water molds – can be parasitic and cause “ick” in fish