Ecology
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Ecology

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  • Nice presentation but what about English grammar ?! 'Who Eats Who ' :(((( it should be 'Who Eats Whom'
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Ecology Ecology Presentation Transcript

  • Mrs. Nelson
  • What is Ecology? Study of interactions between organisms and their environment
  • Abiotic vs. Biotic Factors  Abiotic- “non-living” components -ex) temperature, light, water, nutrients, weather  Biotic- “living” species -ex) other organisms including humans
  • Levels of Ecological Organization  Species- organisms can interbred and produce fertile offspring  Population- all members of a species in area  Community- every species in area  Ecosystem- all organisms and physical environment  Biosphere- The entire region earth where living things found
  • Conditions for Life  In order for an ecosystem to sustain life, several conditions must be met: 1) Energy source (ex: sun) 2) Living organisms convert energy to organic molecules (ex): Plants –photosynthesis) 3) Nutrients must move between organisms and the environment (ex: water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen).
  • Living things need energy…  Producers - organisms can do photosynthesis  Consumers – organisms eat other organisms -herbivores -carnivores -omnivores -decomposers
  • Energy flow in an ecosystem  Energy flows through an ecosystem from the sun to producers to consumers.
  • “Who Eats Who”…  Food chain - straight line pattern shows simple feeding relationships -illustrates passing of energy between organisms
  • Example Food Chain …
  • “Who Eats Who”…  Food web- illustrates how all the food chains in an ecosystem related  “Network of feeding relationships”  Keystone species- species that affects many other species and can not easily be replaced if lost
  • Nutrients within and ecosystem…  Three basic nutrient cycles are present in all ecosystems allowing organisms to obtain nutrients needed to function effectively.
  • Nitrogen Cycle  The atmosphere 80% nitrogen gas (N2).  However, this nitrogen can not be used by most living things.  Bacteria are the only organisms that can use nitrogen directly from the environment.
  • Nitrogen Fixation Denitrification
  • Nitrogen Cycle Terminology  Nitrogen fixation- nitogen gas in the atmosphere is converted to ammonia (bacteria in soil)  Nitrification- ammonia to nitrate (bacteria in soil)  Assimilation- absorption of nitrate by plants  Ammonification- break down of dead organisms returns “unused nitrogen” to soil (bacteria and fungi)  Denitrification- conversion of ammonia back to nitrogen gas (returns nitrogen to air)
  • Why is the nitrogen cycle important? Why is nitrogen important to living things? -major part of DNA and proteins  How do plants obtain nitrogen? -absorb it from ground  How do we obtain nitrogen? -eating plants
  • Water Cycle  Driving force is sun.  Consists of alternation between evaporation and precipitation.  Most water returned atmosphere from evaporation oceans.
  • Water Cycle Condensation Water Vapor
  • Water Cycle Terminology  Evaporation- liquid water becomes gas enters atmosphere  Transpiration- loss water from plants  Water vapor- water atmosphere (gas)  Condensation- process where water molecules gather atmosphere “change from gas to liquid”  Precipitation- water falls atmosphere to ground (rain, snow, hail, etc)
  • Carbon Cycle  Carbon cycles between living organisms and non-living components of ecosystem.  Carbon exists in atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2).
  • Carbon Cycle Terminology  Photosynthesis- PLANTS use sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to make sugar  Respiration- process organisms use oxygen and release carbon dioxide back into air  Fossil fuels- dead organisms buried in sediment change to coal or oil (unused carbon)  Combustion- burning of fossil fuels
  • Within an Ecosystem… What is a community?  All organisms in an area.  Many interactions take place between species. Ex) Predator and prey
  • What if no one wins?  In some species interactions, neither species wins.  Results in close, long term associations called symbiotic relationships.
  • 3 Kinds Symbiotic Relationships  Parasitism (+/-)  Commensalism (+/0)  Mutualism (+/+)