Mrs. Nelson
What is Ecology?
Study of interactions
between organisms and
their environment
Abiotic vs. Biotic Factors
 Abiotic- “non-living” components
-ex) temperature, light, water,
nutrients, weather
 Biotic-...
Levels of Ecological Organization
 Species- organisms can interbred and
produce fertile offspring
 Population- all membe...
Conditions for Life
 In order for an ecosystem to sustain life, several
conditions must be met:
1) Energy source (ex: sun...
Living things need energy…
 Producers - organisms can do
photosynthesis
 Consumers – organisms eat other
organisms
-herb...
Energy flow in an ecosystem
 Energy flows through an
ecosystem from the sun to
producers to consumers.
“Who Eats Who”…
 Food chain
- straight line pattern shows simple
feeding relationships
-illustrates passing of energy bet...
Example Food Chain …
“Who Eats Who”…
 Food web- illustrates how all the
food chains in an ecosystem related
 “Network of feeding relationship...
Nutrients within and
ecosystem…
 Three basic nutrient cycles are
present in all ecosystems allowing
organisms to obtain n...
Nitrogen Cycle
 The atmosphere 80% nitrogen gas
(N2).
 However, this nitrogen can not be
used by most living things.
 B...
Nitrogen Fixation Denitrification
Nitrogen Cycle Terminology
 Nitrogen fixation- nitogen gas in the atmosphere
is converted to ammonia (bacteria in soil)
...
Why is the nitrogen cycle
important?
Why is nitrogen important to
living things?
-major part of DNA and proteins
 How do...
Water Cycle
 Driving force is sun.
 Consists of alternation between
evaporation and precipitation.
 Most water returned...
Water Cycle
Condensation
Water
Vapor
Water Cycle Terminology
 Evaporation- liquid water becomes gas
enters atmosphere
 Transpiration- loss water from plants
...
Carbon Cycle
 Carbon cycles between living
organisms and non-living components
of ecosystem.
 Carbon exists in atmospher...
Carbon Cycle Terminology
 Photosynthesis- PLANTS use sunlight,
carbon dioxide and water to make sugar
 Respiration- proc...
Within an Ecosystem…
What is a community?
 All organisms in an area.
 Many interactions take place
between species.
Ex) ...
What if no one wins?
 In some species interactions, neither
species wins.
 Results in close, long term
associations call...
3 Kinds Symbiotic Relationships
 Parasitism (+/-)
 Commensalism (+/0)
 Mutualism (+/+)
Ecology
Ecology
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Ecology

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  • Nice presentation but what about English grammar ?! 'Who Eats Who ' :(((( it should be 'Who Eats Whom'
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Ecology

  1. 1. Mrs. Nelson
  2. 2. What is Ecology? Study of interactions between organisms and their environment
  3. 3. Abiotic vs. Biotic Factors  Abiotic- “non-living” components -ex) temperature, light, water, nutrients, weather  Biotic- “living” species -ex) other organisms including humans
  4. 4. Levels of Ecological Organization  Species- organisms can interbred and produce fertile offspring  Population- all members of a species in area  Community- every species in area  Ecosystem- all organisms and physical environment  Biosphere- The entire region earth where living things found
  5. 5. Conditions for Life  In order for an ecosystem to sustain life, several conditions must be met: 1) Energy source (ex: sun) 2) Living organisms convert energy to organic molecules (ex): Plants –photosynthesis) 3) Nutrients must move between organisms and the environment (ex: water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen).
  6. 6. Living things need energy…  Producers - organisms can do photosynthesis  Consumers – organisms eat other organisms -herbivores -carnivores -omnivores -decomposers
  7. 7. Energy flow in an ecosystem  Energy flows through an ecosystem from the sun to producers to consumers.
  8. 8. “Who Eats Who”…  Food chain - straight line pattern shows simple feeding relationships -illustrates passing of energy between organisms
  9. 9. Example Food Chain …
  10. 10. “Who Eats Who”…  Food web- illustrates how all the food chains in an ecosystem related  “Network of feeding relationships”  Keystone species- species that affects many other species and can not easily be replaced if lost
  11. 11. Nutrients within and ecosystem…  Three basic nutrient cycles are present in all ecosystems allowing organisms to obtain nutrients needed to function effectively.
  12. 12. Nitrogen Cycle  The atmosphere 80% nitrogen gas (N2).  However, this nitrogen can not be used by most living things.  Bacteria are the only organisms that can use nitrogen directly from the environment.
  13. 13. Nitrogen Fixation Denitrification
  14. 14. Nitrogen Cycle Terminology  Nitrogen fixation- nitogen gas in the atmosphere is converted to ammonia (bacteria in soil)  Nitrification- ammonia to nitrate (bacteria in soil)  Assimilation- absorption of nitrate by plants  Ammonification- break down of dead organisms returns “unused nitrogen” to soil (bacteria and fungi)  Denitrification- conversion of ammonia back to nitrogen gas (returns nitrogen to air)
  15. 15. Why is the nitrogen cycle important? Why is nitrogen important to living things? -major part of DNA and proteins  How do plants obtain nitrogen? -absorb it from ground  How do we obtain nitrogen? -eating plants
  16. 16. Water Cycle  Driving force is sun.  Consists of alternation between evaporation and precipitation.  Most water returned atmosphere from evaporation oceans.
  17. 17. Water Cycle Condensation Water Vapor
  18. 18. Water Cycle Terminology  Evaporation- liquid water becomes gas enters atmosphere  Transpiration- loss water from plants  Water vapor- water atmosphere (gas)  Condensation- process where water molecules gather atmosphere “change from gas to liquid”  Precipitation- water falls atmosphere to ground (rain, snow, hail, etc)
  19. 19. Carbon Cycle  Carbon cycles between living organisms and non-living components of ecosystem.  Carbon exists in atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2).
  20. 20. Carbon Cycle Terminology  Photosynthesis- PLANTS use sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to make sugar  Respiration- process organisms use oxygen and release carbon dioxide back into air  Fossil fuels- dead organisms buried in sediment change to coal or oil (unused carbon)  Combustion- burning of fossil fuels
  21. 21. Within an Ecosystem… What is a community?  All organisms in an area.  Many interactions take place between species. Ex) Predator and prey
  22. 22. What if no one wins?  In some species interactions, neither species wins.  Results in close, long term associations called symbiotic relationships.
  23. 23. 3 Kinds Symbiotic Relationships  Parasitism (+/-)  Commensalism (+/0)  Mutualism (+/+)

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