The Digestive SystemPresented By:Mrs. Nelson
Nutrition Nutrition is the study of how food affectsthe function of living organisms. Food contains nutrients. Nutrient...
Six Categories of NutrientsEnergy Suppliers Carbohydrates Lipids ProteinsNon-Energy Suppliers Water Vitamins Minerals
Carbohydrates Glucose is main source of carbohydratesfor animals. Glucose is easily converted to ATP. Glucose is found ...
Lipids Provide twice as much energy as carbohydrates. Important for…1) Making cell membranes2) Hormone production3) Myel...
Proteins Proteins made of amino acids. 20 different amino acids. Body can make 12/20 amino acids. The other eight must...
Water Most important nutrient. Lubricates areas of body (blood, lymph,plasma, etc.) Coolant for body. Solvent for dige...
Minerals Inorganic (not made by living things). Plants absorb minerals. Animals eat plants to get minerals. Minerals a...
Vitamins Organic (made by living things). Help regulate body processes. Most obtained from food. Vitamin K- made by ba...
Importance of Various Vitamins A, C, D, E, K, Folic Acid, B12Helps RBC mature
The Digestive System System is responsible for breaking down foodso that nutrients can be absorbed by thebloodstream. Th...
The Alimentary Canal Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Rectum* The liver, pancreas, and gallbl...
The Mouth Chemical digestion –saliva containsenzyme amylase that digestscarbohydrates (starches) Mechanical digestion- c...
Esophagus Tube from back throatto stomach. Trachea (lungs) andesophagus are next toeach other. Epiglottis prevents food...
Stomach Chemical/mechanicaldigestion. Hydrochloric acid andpepsin (enzyme) breakdown proteins toamino acids. Stomach li...
Small Intestine 20 ft. Remaining carbohydratesand proteins are brokendown. All lipids are digested here. Connected to ...
Liver and PancreasLIVER JOBS Makes and secretesbile (needed digestlipids). Bile is stored in thegall bladder. Detoxifie...
Small Intestine (cont.) After all nutrients aredigested, they areabsorbed. This is themajor job of thisorgan. S.I. conta...
Large Intestine All proteins,carbohydrates, andlipids have beenremoved from food bythe time it gets here. Water is absor...
Digestion.ppt2012
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Digestion.ppt2012

  1. 1. The Digestive SystemPresented By:Mrs. Nelson
  2. 2. Nutrition Nutrition is the study of how food affectsthe function of living organisms. Food contains nutrients. Nutrients provide the energy and materialsorganisms need. If organism’s cells are not provided withnutrients, the cells will not functionproperly. Poor diet = poor cells
  3. 3. Six Categories of NutrientsEnergy Suppliers Carbohydrates Lipids ProteinsNon-Energy Suppliers Water Vitamins Minerals
  4. 4. Carbohydrates Glucose is main source of carbohydratesfor animals. Glucose is easily converted to ATP. Glucose is found in fruits, vegetables,grains, and dairy foods. Many foods contain cellulose also knownas “fiber.” Important for helping push foodthrough the digestive tract. Energy from food is measured in“calories.”
  5. 5. Lipids Provide twice as much energy as carbohydrates. Important for…1) Making cell membranes2) Hormone production3) Myelin production4) Protect organs and insulate body Take long time to digest. Too much fat in diet= excess energy = fatdeposits. Saturated fats (solid, contain single bonds)contain LDL cholesterol and build up on arteries.
  6. 6. Proteins Proteins made of amino acids. 20 different amino acids. Body can make 12/20 amino acids. The other eight must come from food arecalled “essential amino acids.” Proteins are materials needed for…1) growth and repair.2) skin and muscles.3) regulatory (enzymes- insulin) and transportfunctions (hemoglobin– RBC).
  7. 7. Water Most important nutrient. Lubricates areas of body (blood, lymph,plasma, etc.) Coolant for body. Solvent for digestion. Provides fluid environment for cells. Body needs intake 1L of water a day.
  8. 8. Minerals Inorganic (not made by living things). Plants absorb minerals. Animals eat plants to get minerals. Minerals are only needed in trace amountsby the body. Iron (hemoglobin RBC) Calcium (bones and teeth) Sodium/Potassium (nerve and musclefunction) Magnesium/Zinc/Iodine
  9. 9. Vitamins Organic (made by living things). Help regulate body processes. Most obtained from food. Vitamin K- made by bacteria in digestive tract. Vitamin D- synthesized by skin cells whenexposed to sunlight. 2 types vitamins…1) Fat soluble- can be stored in fattytissues for future use (A, D, E, K)2) Water soluble- dissolve in water and cannot be stored by body (C, B)
  10. 10. Importance of Various Vitamins A, C, D, E, K, Folic Acid, B12Helps RBC mature
  11. 11. The Digestive System System is responsible for breaking down foodso that nutrients can be absorbed by thebloodstream. The “alimentary canal” is the pathway whichfood travels while it is digested.
  12. 12. The Alimentary Canal Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Rectum* The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are parts ofthe digestive system but are not parts of thealimentary canal.
  13. 13. The Mouth Chemical digestion –saliva containsenzyme amylase that digestscarbohydrates (starches) Mechanical digestion- chewing
  14. 14. Esophagus Tube from back throatto stomach. Trachea (lungs) andesophagus are next toeach other. Epiglottis prevents foodfrom going down thewrong tube. Peristalsis- muscularcontractions pushesfood down esophagus.
  15. 15. Stomach Chemical/mechanicaldigestion. Hydrochloric acid andpepsin (enzyme) breakdown proteins toamino acids. Stomach lining containsmucus. Mucus protects stomachfrom acid (ulcers). Sphincter muscles (cardiacand pyloric) control whatenters and leaves thestomach (heartburn).
  16. 16. Small Intestine 20 ft. Remaining carbohydratesand proteins are brokendown. All lipids are digested here. Connected to liver andpancreas.
  17. 17. Liver and PancreasLIVER JOBS Makes and secretesbile (needed digestlipids). Bile is stored in thegall bladder. Detoxifies drugs andalcohol.PANCREAS JOBS Regulates bloodsugar. Secretes digestiveenzymes into smallintestine. Neutralizes stomachacid as it enters thesmall intestine(bicarbonate).
  18. 18. Small Intestine (cont.) After all nutrients aredigested, they areabsorbed. This is themajor job of thisorgan. S.I. contains lots ofcapillaries. Mesentary.
  19. 19. Large Intestine All proteins,carbohydrates, andlipids have beenremoved from food bythe time it gets here. Water is absorbed(diarrhea). Vitamins are absorbed. Feces is undigestedfood passes out rectumand anus.

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