General Information
• What makes a circulatory system necessary?
-small organisms lack a circulatory system
because diffus...
Functions of Circulatory
System
• Delivery jobs:
-nutrients
-oxygen
-water and vitamins
-hormones
• Pick up jobs:
-CO2 and...
Composition of Blood
• 55% plasma, 45% cells
Composition of Blood
• Plasma:
-non-living
-90% water
-10% proteins, waste, dissolved gases, salts,
nutrients, and hormone...
Composition of Blood
Cellular Portion
• Red blood cells
-“erythrocytes”
-transport oxygen
-contain hemoglobin
protein that...
Composition of Blood
Cellular Portion
• White blood cells
-“leukocytes”
-destroys pathogens
-makes antibodies
-stored in s...
Composition of Blood
Cellular Portion
• Platelets
-cell fragments
-useful clotting blood
• *Hemophiliacs problems
with blo...
Blood Clotting
• Platelets contact edge
of broken blood vessel
“stick”= platelet plug
• Platelets release
clotting factor ...
Blood Vessels
• Blood travels through the body inside of vessels
(closed circulatory system)
• 3 Types of blood vessels
1)...
Blood Vessels cont.
3) Capillaries
-connect veins and arteries
-extremely thin, only 1 cell thick
-O2/nutrients diffuse fr...
Blood Vessels
Human Heart
• Muscular
organ- pumps
blood
• Enclosed in a
protective sac
called
pericardium
Structures of Heart
• Mammals have a 4 chambered heart
• Atria (atrium)- “upper chambers” collect
blood coming to heart
• ...
Flow of Blood Through Heart
• Right Side (oxygen-poor)
-enters vena cava
-collects in the right atrium
-through tricuspid ...
Flow of Blood Through Heart
• Left Side (oxygen-rich)
-leaves lungs, carried to heart by
pulmonary veins
-enters left atri...
Heartbeat
• Muscle fibers through out heart
stimulate contraction
• Right atrium (sinoatrial node) sends
electrical impuls...
Pathways of Circulation
• Pulmonary circulation- carries blood
between heart and lungs
• Systemic circulation- carries blo...
Blood Pressure
• Measure of the force blood against
the walls of arteries
• Pressure helps blood circulate body
• Systolic...
Cardiovascular Disease
• Disease of heart and blood vessels
• High levels of blood lipids may indicate high risk
of heart ...
Lymphatic System
• Network of vessels, nodes, and organs
• Function:
1) collects fluid lost by blood and returns
back to c...
Components of
Lymphatic System
• Lymph = “fluid”
• Lymph vessels – collect
fluid and return to vena
cava (circulatory
syst...
Respiratory System
• Respiration- process of gas exchange
(carbon dioxide/oxygen) between the
cells, blood, and lungs and ...
Mechanism for Breathing
• Involves the movement air into and out of lungs
• Diaphragm- muscle separates thorax (chest
cavi...
Structure of Lungs
Circulatory
Circulatory
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Circulatory

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Circulatory

  1. 1. General Information • What makes a circulatory system necessary? -small organisms lack a circulatory system because diffusion is a sufficient means for exchanging gases and transporting materials -larger organisms need circulatory system because all of their cells are not in direct contact with the environment and they need to transport substances made in one part of organism to other areas • What are makes up human circulatory system? -heart, blood vessels, and blood
  2. 2. Functions of Circulatory System • Delivery jobs: -nutrients -oxygen -water and vitamins -hormones • Pick up jobs: -CO2 and carry to lungs -wastes and carry to kidneys • Other jobs: -maintain homeostasis (body temp.) -protect body from disease
  3. 3. Composition of Blood • 55% plasma, 45% cells
  4. 4. Composition of Blood • Plasma: -non-living -90% water -10% proteins, waste, dissolved gases, salts, nutrients, and hormones -3 Types Plasma Proteins: 1) albumin – regulates osmotic pressure, transports fatty acids, hormones, vitamins 2) globulin – helps fight infection (antibodies) 3) fibrinogen – helps clot blood
  5. 5. Composition of Blood Cellular Portion • Red blood cells -“erythrocytes” -transport oxygen -contain hemoglobin protein that carries iron which binds with oxygen • People with iron poor diets become anemic. Iron aids in production hemoglobin.
  6. 6. Composition of Blood Cellular Portion • White blood cells -“leukocytes” -destroys pathogens -makes antibodies -stored in spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes • -Leukemia is cancer of white blood cells (abnormal division of WBC’s).
  7. 7. Composition of Blood Cellular Portion • Platelets -cell fragments -useful clotting blood • *Hemophiliacs problems with blood clotting = excessive bleeding • *Stroke is an abnormal blood clot blocks blood flow to areas of brain
  8. 8. Blood Clotting • Platelets contact edge of broken blood vessel “stick”= platelet plug • Platelets release clotting factor called thromboplastin converts prothrombin thrombin • Thrombin (enzyme) converts fibrinogen  fibrin • Fibrin filaments create a “sticky mesh” acting like a net catching RBC to stop bleeding
  9. 9. Blood Vessels • Blood travels through the body inside of vessels (closed circulatory system) • 3 Types of blood vessels 1) Arteries -carry O2 rich blood away from the heart -thick walls to with stand pressure -largest artery is aorta 2) Veins -carry O2 poor blood back toward heart -contain valves help keep blood moving to heart (varicose veins) -largest vein is vena cava
  10. 10. Blood Vessels cont. 3) Capillaries -connect veins and arteries -extremely thin, only 1 cell thick -O2/nutrients diffuse from here into tissues and CO2/wastes diffuse back into here
  11. 11. Blood Vessels
  12. 12. Human Heart • Muscular organ- pumps blood • Enclosed in a protective sac called pericardium
  13. 13. Structures of Heart • Mammals have a 4 chambered heart • Atria (atrium)- “upper chambers” collect blood coming to heart • Ventricles- “lower chambers” pump blood out of the heart • Chambers separated by valves- prevent blood from flowing backwards • Septum- thick muscle divides right/left halves
  14. 14. Flow of Blood Through Heart • Right Side (oxygen-poor) -enters vena cava -collects in the right atrium -through tricuspid valve -into right ventricle -carried by pulmonary arteries to lungs ***Pulmonary artery is the ONLY artery in the body that carries oxygen poor blood
  15. 15. Flow of Blood Through Heart • Left Side (oxygen-rich) -leaves lungs, carried to heart by pulmonary veins -enters left atrium -through bicuspid valve into left ventricle -forced into aorta, carried rest of body
  16. 16. Heartbeat • Muscle fibers through out heart stimulate contraction • Right atrium (sinoatrial node) sends electrical impulses that starts wave of muscle contraction = pacemaker • Ventricular node receives contraction impulse and wave and spreads through ventricles
  17. 17. Pathways of Circulation • Pulmonary circulation- carries blood between heart and lungs • Systemic circulation- carries blood from heart to rest of the body
  18. 18. Blood Pressure • Measure of the force blood against the walls of arteries • Pressure helps blood circulate body • Systolic- measures force blood in arteries when ventricles contract • Diastolic- measures force blood in arteries when ventricles relax • Healthy blood pressure reading is about 120/80
  19. 19. Cardiovascular Disease • Disease of heart and blood vessels • High levels of blood lipids may indicate high risk of heart disease. • Cholesterol is a lipid. • 2 Types Cholesterol: -LDL “bad cholesterol” deposits on walls of arteries = “plaque” -HDL “good cholesterol” carried back to liver for removal from body • Atherosclerosis- condition caused by build up fatty deposits on wall arteries • Hypertension- condition in which blood pressure is constantly too high • Both conditions put person increased risk for heart attack and stroke
  20. 20. Lymphatic System • Network of vessels, nodes, and organs • Function: 1) collects fluid lost by blood and returns back to circulatory system 2) filter fluid 3) Absorb fats and vitamins from digestive tract and carry them to blood
  21. 21. Components of Lymphatic System • Lymph = “fluid” • Lymph vessels – collect fluid and return to vena cava (circulatory system) • Edema- swelling due to blocked lymph vessels • Lymph nodes- filter and trap bacteria and other microorganisms • “Swollen glands” • Thymus and Spleen
  22. 22. Respiratory System • Respiration- process of gas exchange (carbon dioxide/oxygen) between the cells, blood, and lungs and environment • Structures of Respiratory System: 1) Nose 2) Trachea (pharynx/larynx) 3) Bronchi 4) Lungs
  23. 23. Mechanism for Breathing • Involves the movement air into and out of lungs • Diaphragm- muscle separates thorax (chest cavity) and abdomen helps inhale and exhale air • Pathway air flow and gas exchange: 1) Air enters the nose and mouth (filtered, moistened, warmed) 2) Pharynx and larynx (vocal cords) 3) Trachea (wind pipe) 4) Bronchi (large tube leads to each lung) 5) Lungs  bronchioles  aveoli (air sacs where gas exchange occurs)
  24. 24. Structure of Lungs

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