““Organic Compounds” All living things are composed offour types of organic compounds.1. Carbohydrates2. Lipids3. Proteins4. Nucleic Acids* Each organic molecule is made ofdifferent “subunits.”
What arecarbohydrates?Subunit = sugarSugars aremade of C,H,and O in a 1:2:1ratio.The more “C’s,”the more energyin the sugar.
3 Kinds of3 Kinds ofCarbohydratesSimple Sugars1) Monosaccharides – “single sugar”ex) Glucose and fructose2)Disaccharides- “double sugar”ex) sucrose-Both are a short termenergy source
3 Kinds ofCarbohydrates(cont.)Complex sugars3) Polysaccharides- long chains of three or more sugars-“Long term” energy storage.- Ex.) Starch (potatoes, corn, wheat,rice)Cellulose (found in plant cell walls)
“Importance ofLipids”Long term energy storage. Containmuch more energy than carbs.Major component of cell membranes.Sex hormones.
Proteins Contain C, H, O, andN. Subunit- amino acid Two types ofproteins Food proteins vs.cell proteins1) Hemoglobin-blood2) Collagen-skin
Function of Proteins There are many different functions of proteins.1. Structural component of organisms.- Collagen: Gives strength to skin.- Keratin: Composes hair and nails.- Hemoglobin: Found in blood.2. Act as Enzymes.- Catalysts that speed up reactions in the body.Ex.) Amylase – found in saliva. Helps break downfood in the mouth.