Biochemistry ii

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Biochemistry ii

  1. 1. The Chemistry of LifeThe Chemistry of Life(Part II)(Part II)Presented By:Mrs. Nelson
  2. 2. Chemistry of CarbonChemistry of Carbon Can form fourbonds. Basis of “organiccompounds.” Compounds thatcontain carbon
  3. 3. Which is organic?
  4. 4. ““Organic Compounds” All living things are composed offour types of organic compounds.1. Carbohydrates2. Lipids3. Proteins4. Nucleic Acids* Each organic molecule is made ofdifferent “subunits.”
  5. 5. What arecarbohydrates?Subunit = sugarSugars aremade of C,H,and O in a 1:2:1ratio.The more “C’s,”the more energyin the sugar.
  6. 6. 3 Kinds of3 Kinds ofCarbohydratesSimple Sugars1) Monosaccharides – “single sugar”ex) Glucose and fructose2)Disaccharides- “double sugar”ex) sucrose-Both are a short termenergy source
  7. 7. 3 Kinds ofCarbohydrates(cont.)Complex sugars3) Polysaccharides- long chains of three or more sugars-“Long term” energy storage.- Ex.) Starch (potatoes, corn, wheat,rice)Cellulose (found in plant cell walls)
  8. 8. “Lipids”Elements C,H, ONot soluble inwater.Subunit = fattyacid andglycerol.Fats, oils,waxes.
  9. 9. Types of LipidsSaturated- solid at room temperatureex) butter, fat on meatUnsaturated- liquid room temperatureex) cooking oil Diets high in saturated fats lead toheart disease
  10. 10. glycerolFatty acid chain
  11. 11. Double bonds!
  12. 12. “Importance ofLipids”Long term energy storage. Containmuch more energy than carbs.Major component of cell membranes.Sex hormones.
  13. 13. Proteins Contain C, H, O, andN. Subunit- amino acid Two types ofproteins Food proteins vs.cell proteins1) Hemoglobin-blood2) Collagen-skin
  14. 14. Function of Proteins There are many different functions of proteins.1. Structural component of organisms.- Collagen: Gives strength to skin.- Keratin: Composes hair and nails.- Hemoglobin: Found in blood.2. Act as Enzymes.- Catalysts that speed up reactions in the body.Ex.) Amylase – found in saliva. Helps break downfood in the mouth.
  15. 15. Nucleic Acids Contain C, H, O, N,and PTwo types: DNA,RNASubunit- NucleotideFunction- geneticinformation

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