Learning, perception and attribution

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  • 1. LEARNING is a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to experience. When a person behaves differently from what he previously did, it can be said that there is change in the person’s behavior. With change, there is learning. A change in behavior happens due to any or both of the following: 1. Learning 2. Other causes such as drugs, injury, disease and maturation
  • 2. Behavioral change starts with the mind when it accepts new knowledge. Sometimes, the mind orders the body to show some signs of behavior that is different from the previous one. Sometimes, the mind is just plain contented with new knowledge and do not make attempts to order the body to show some outward manifestations of behavior change.
  • 3. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING This is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. A stimulus is something that incites action. Example is ‘demotion in rank’. The respond could be ‘a law suit’. Original Stimulus Response Neutral Stimulus Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response
  • 4. OPERANT CONDITIONING Operant conditioning is a type of learning where people learn to repeat behaviors that bring them pleasurable outcomes and to avoid behaviors that lead to uncomfortable outcomes. Learning Repeat Behavior Pleasurable Outcomes Avoid Behavior Uncomfortable Outcomes
  • 5. Difference between the two theories: Classical conditioning involves adjustment to events (or stimuli, whether conditioned or otherwise) over which the person has no control. In contrast, operant conditioning involves adjustment to situations in which the actions of the person determines what happens to him.
  • 6. Social learning may be defined as the process of observing the behavior of others, recognizing its consequences, and altering behavior as a result. One of the ways by which people learn is through social contacts with other people. Social learning may be done in three ways: 1. By observing what happens to other people 2. By being told about something and 3. Through direct experience
  • 7. PERCEPTION Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. It may be defined as the process by which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve, and respond to information from their environment. Why is this important to the study of OB? This is important to the study of OB because people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION Perceiver Target Situation Factors that influence the perceiver’s perception: 1. His past experiences 2. His needs or motives 3. His personality 4. His values and attitudes Characteristics of the target: Contrast 1. Intensity 2. Figure-ground separation 3. Size 4. Motion 5. Repetition or novelty Situational factors that influence perception: 1. Time 2. Work setting 3. Social setting
  • 8. Attribution theory is the process by which people ascribe causes to the behavior they perceive. Our perception and judgment of a person’s actions are influenced by the following assumptions: - We make inferences about the actions of people that we do not make about inanimate objects. - Nonliving objects are subject to the laws of nature. - People have beliefs, motives, or intentions.
  • 9. 1. Internally caused behaviors are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual. 2. Externally caused behavior is seen as resulting from outside causes; that is, the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation.
  • 10. Factors That Influence Attributions Distinctiveness Distinctiveness – the consideration given to how consistent a person’s behavior is across different situations. Consensus Consensus - refers to the likelihood that all those facing the same situation will have similar responses. Consistency Consistency – refers to the measure of whether an individual responds the same way across time.
  • 11. 1. Fundamental Attribution Error – the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors in the behavior of others. 2. Self-serving Bias – the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes/achievements to their good inner qualities (internal factors) whereas they attribute their failures to adverse factors within the environment. Common Attribution Errors:
  • 12. Shortcuts Used in Forming Impressions of Others We use a number of shortcuts when we judge others. Those judgments or impressions constitute a database in our minds that we later use as aides in making decisions concerning others. An understanding of these shortcuts can be helpful toward recognizing when they can result in significant distortions.
  • 13. Selective Perception – happens when a person selectively interprets what he sees on the basis of his interests, background, experience, and attitudes. It is impossible for a person to assimilate everything he sees, hears, smells, touches or tastes. Only a limited number of stimuli can be taken in. As a result, people engage in selective perception, but the process is affected by personal interests, background, experience and attitude of the perceiver.
  • 14. Halo Effect – occurs when one attribute of a person or situation is used to develop an overall impression of the person or situation. In short, this occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic.
  • 15. Contrast Effects – evaluations of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. Here, we do not evaluate a person in isolation. Our reaction to one person is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered.
  • 16. Projection – attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings or motives to another. It is likely to occur in the interpretation stage of perception. This tendency to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people can distort perceptions made about others.
  • 17. Stereotyping – judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs. Generalization is not without advantages. It is a means of simplifying a complex world, and it permits us to maintain consistency. The problem, of course, is when we inaccurately stereotype.
  • 18. Specific Applications in Organizations Employment Interview Performance Expectation Ethnic Profiling Performance Evaluation Employee Effort
  • 19. THANK YOU! The End! Other reference: business.fullerton.edu/management/slpurkiss/MGMT%20340/OB5.doc