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Organizational Behavior Term paper

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Kasr Al-Ainy Faculty of Medicine-Cairo University …

Kasr Al-Ainy Faculty of Medicine-Cairo University
1-Company Profile
2-My Contribution to KA
3-Analysis and recommendation
4-Conclusion
5-A story of Transformation
(Most of the above info is the personal opinions of the author)

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  • 1. Kasr Al-Ainy Faculty of Medicine-Cairo University “175 yrs of Medical Education” ClinChem Department Organizational Behavior Term paper Instructor: Dr. Nada Basset Submitted by: Nelly Abulata ESLSCA 32 May. 2010
  • 2. Page 2 Table of Contents 1. Introduction……………………….…………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………..3 2. Part I :Company Profile………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...4 Historical Highlights………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….4 Who we are…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……5 Mission…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...5 Vision……………………………………………………………..,……………………………………………………………………………..5 Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5 SWOT analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...6 Organizational structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7 Management style…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7 What we do…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..8 Healthcare services…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….9 Teaching & training……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10 Research activities……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...10 Customer profile and expectations………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..11 3. Part II: My contribution to Kasr Al-Ainy Faculty of Medicine…...……………………………………………………………………………………...12 My Department……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12 My Titles & main duties……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………12 How my role affects the overall performance of the Faculty………………………………………………………………………………………….12 4. Part III: Analysis and recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………13 Employee attitudes, personality and perception………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13 Organizational culture……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...13 Basic Management skills…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13 Effective leadership………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...14 Change Management……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...14 Team work as opposed group think……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...15 5. Conclusion……………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………15 6. A story of transformation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..16 7. References………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………..16
  • 3. Page 3 Introduction In a simple term organizational behavior refers to the behavior of persons in an organization. Everybody wants to understand others behavior. Understanding others behavior help the persons to influence them. The human behavior is guided by the internal and external forces. The analysis of these forces provides an insight for understanding the behavior. Organization is a place where two or more people work together in a structured way to achieve a specific goal or set of goals. The study of OB can be said to be most important contributor towards building managerial skills. After studying the whole subject we realized that OB contributes towards building the following skills and values: • Self development • Personality development • Development of human values and ethical perspective • Managing stress and achieving mental hygiene • Creative use of emotions • Creating learning individual and learning organization • Managing creativity and innovation • Motivation and morale • Job satisfaction • Effective communication • Interpersonal effectiveness including persuasion, coaching, counseling, mentoring, goal setting, decision making, politicking, negotiation, conflict handling • Team building • Leadership • Creating effective organizational culture • Managing change • Continuous development through behavioral interventions.
  • 4. Page 4 Part I: Company Profile Historical highlights: The first School of Medicine in Egypt was inaugurated in 1827 and attached to a military hospital in Abu Za’abal directed by was the French doctor Antoine Klute or Klute Bey. In 1837, the Medical School and Hospital was moved to 'Kasr Al Ainy’ in Cairo. The hospital was renamed as "Kasr Al Ainy Hospital after Ahmed Ibn-Al-Ainy who built the palace in the 15 century to receive royalty. One way in which Kasr El-Aini contributed to the advancement of medicine in Egypt was by setting up the School of Midwives in 1838. The well-trained midwives graduating from this school gradually replaced the ignorant midwives who had hitherto practiced from experience, often making fatal mistakes until they gained such experience. In 1908, When Saad Pasha Zaghloul became Minister of Education , he suggested that education in high schools should be in Arabic and that the teaching staff should consist of Egyptian professors. The case before him at that time was the fact that there were a very small number of qualified Egyptians. Thus he decided to resume scientific missions abroad. It is acknowledged that at that time, all professors and assistants of the Faculty of Medicine were foreigners. The first Egyptian professor, Dr. Bahgat Wahby was appointed. He headed the Anatomy Department after the famous learner Elliot Smith. Dr. Bahgat was a glory to Egypt. & he represented the Egyptian government in London in the International Medical Conference in 1913. People went on private missions to get more education. There were 9 Egyptian studying Medicine abroad in 1910 (40 in France - 7 Germany - 8 in America - 8 in England - 4 in Switzerland and 4 Austria). Some of these were Ahmed Shaffek Pasha, and Abd El-Az, Ismail Pasha, who both went abroad and were able to get the higher, Certificates on their own. In 1919, Dr. Keating gave up being the President of the School. The British surgeon, Professor Richard, succeeded him. He began to revive the school. He tried to set a system to increase the number of those who wished to join the school to fulfill the country's need for doctors. He lengthened the time of practical education. He appointed some Egyptians as professors. In April 1925, the School of Medicine was incorporated into the Egyptian University and was called the Faculty of Medicine; and a school of dentistry was attached to it. The faculty was now ready for graduating doctors with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in Medicine and Surgery, after a period of study of five-years-and-a-half. The faculty was capable of granting a doctorate in Medicine. The Schools of Dentistry, Pharmacology, Nursery and Midwifery were joined to the Faculty of Medicine. In 1928 , female students were admitted to medical studies. In 1929, true Egyptian administration returned to Kasr El- Aini School when Dr. Aly Pasha Ibrahim was appointed the first Egyptian Dean of the Faculty and the Director of the hospital. Aly Pasha Ibrahim did not only build the new hospital, but he also developed the old hospital and carried out changes till Kasr El-Aini became one of the up-to-date hospitals at that time. He supplied it with elevators and hot water. He changed kitchens and laundries, and made them work with electricity. He and his colleagues laid the foundation for a hospital with 2000 beds, and also a possible future expansion in the form of a fourth floor to contain 360 beds. He established the administrative building, the exam hall, and the School of Pharmacology. He bought the building of the Child-Protection Society and transferred it into the Children's Department with 120 beds.
  • 5. Page 5 Who we are ? Mission • To Develop an outstanding and honorable primary care physician, who follows medical ethics and is ready for lifelong learning. • To train a Professional, specialized graduate able to conduct research and apply national and international standards of medical care. • To serve the community through enhancing specialized projects which share in solving national health problems Vision “To be recognized as a Faculty of excellence to support and enhance the Mission and Vision of Cairo University” Objectives 1. To provide excellent Healthcare Services for the patients of Kasr Al-Ainy Hospital in a timely & professional manner. 2. To provide an atmosphere of respect for our staff while encouraging continued personal growth, education and development. 3. To provide excellent teaching to a broad spectrum of Health care professionals, Health care workers and Faculty personnel in conjunction with the University. 4. To provide the physical facilities and atmosphere where Research activities can flourish, in collaboration with other affiliated institutions. 5. To promote health, treatment and prevention of disease in the diverse population which we serve.
  • 6. Page 6 SWOT Analysis Strengths Weakness • Well known for its provision of Medical Care over the years • Weak Nursing staff • Medical service is free of charge • Limited resources in comparison to the flow of patients (in patients service& outpatient clinic) • Location (being in the center of Cairo accessible by all forms of transportation) • Lack of Capital • 9 specialized University Hospitals • Need to modernize our information systems technologies. • Huge no. of manpower ( 10,000) • The degree of employee commitment • Highly qualified Healthcare professionals (3,000) • No accreditation or certification has been granted nether for the Healthcare service itself or for Medical the Education. • Huge no. of inpatient beds (5,200) • • • The capacity to serve 1.5 million patients a year. The New management system Opportunities Threats • New Hospitals are opening soon e.g. the new Maternity Hospital & the Psychiatric Hospital. • Competitive models of healthcare delivery e.g. Ain Shams Faculty of Medicine • Easier accessibility to foreign scientific grants & scholarships eg with the EU & DAAD. • Free medical service provided by the polyclinics attached to Mosques, Churches & Charity organization such as Resala. • The new research budget that funds research projects. • Increasing cost of Medical supplies with the shortage of funding. • The new Student support system. • Outdated instruments • The effect of the Leadership roles that were given to Junior Doctors. • Long waiting list for operations . • • Limited availability of IT based documentation Lack of Technology particularly in the areas of training/ continuing education and recruitment • Internet availability • The new digital library with free access to international publication.
  • 7. Page 7 Organizational structure of Kasr Al-Ainy Faculty of Medicine Management style It is an authoritative style of management with a tinge of democracy i.e. people are allowed to express themselves but not when it comes to decision making. But, there is a growing tendency towards changing it into a democratic one where people are allowed to express themselves and to participate in the decision-making process of the organization. And in some Departments Like mine (Clinical & Chemical Pathology Department) where teams were recently built major changes have taken place and people have become more motivated and more committed.
  • 8. Page 8 What we do? Kasr Al-Ainy Faculty of Medicine constitutes: • More 9 University Hospitals • More than 5,200 beds • More than 10,000 employees • • More than 3,000 staff members. The hospitals accept more than 1.5 million patients every year. Main roles Healthcare services
  • 9. Page 9 Healthcare services Kasr Al Ainy Hospital is the largest and oldest hospital in Egypt and the Middle East. It provides it services through several university hospitals: • Al Manial University Hospital: Constitutes three floors, 36 departments 36 operation theatres, 1494 beds, 1422 doctors, 235 pharmacists, more than three thousands staff members. Gynecology & Obstetrics Hospital: 3 floors, 258 beds, 4 operation theatres. • New Kasr Al-Ainy Teaching Hospital (French Hospital): 9floors, 1000 beds. • Emergency Hospital: 9 floors 198 beds, 3 operation • Internal Medicine, Hospital: 7 floors, 339 beds. • Specialized pediatric Hospital : 7 floors, 374 beds, 8 operation theatres. • Mounira Pediatric Hospital (Abou El Rish): 6 floors, 258 beds, 6 operation theatres. • Preventive Medicine Center: 7 floors, 23 beds. • Oncology & Nuclear Medicine Center: 103 Beds, one operation theatre. • Critical Care Unit: 53 beds. • Nephrology Unit (King Fahd Unit): 93 beds, 4 operation theatres. • Specialized Manial Hospital: (Fourth floor): 283 beds, 10 operation theatres. • Students Hospital: 4 floors, 100 beds, 4 operation tables. Basic services in all hospitals: • Emergency room services • Short-term hospitalization • General and specialty surgical services • Out patient clinics • Radio-diagnostic services • Laboratory services • Blood bank services • Pharmaceutical supplies
  • 10. Page 10 Teaching ,Training & Research Activities Teaching & training services at both the undergraduate & postgraduate levels & Research activities in the following fields: • Anatomy • Physiology • Biochemistry • Histology • Pathology • Microbiology • Parasitology • Pharmacology • Community Medicine • Ophthalmology • E.N.T. • Forensic Medicine • Pediatrics • Obstetrics & Gynecology • General Surgery • Internal Medicine • Urology • Orthopedics • Cardiothoracic Surgery • Anesthesia • Tropical Diseases • Cardiology • Skin Diseases • Andrology • Clinical & Chemical Pathology • Radiodiagnosis • Neurology • Psychiatry • Rheumatology • Chest Diseases • Oncology & Nuclear Medicine
  • 11. Page 11 Customer profile and expectations Customer Profile: • Simple • Low- income • The majority of which come from urban areas. • Not having medical insurance • Not very demanding Customer expectations: patients expect to be satisfied as regards all aspects of the Healthcare service: 1. Pre– examination phase patient expect:s • Free healthcare services or minimal fees • Minimal waiting time till seen the physician • Suitable waiting area 2. Examination phase: • To be treated with respect , empathy and courtesy. • To be examined by a competent & polite physician • To be listened to by the examining physician • To be offered free medicine or medicine at a minimal fees • To be reference to a laboratory and / or Radio-diagnostic Unit that is free of charge or one that is easily accessible & charges low fees 3. Post examination phase: • To be disease free • Not to develop complications (eg. hospital acquired infections) • To be able to contact the physician when needed • To have a follow up consultation
  • 12. Page 12 Part II: My contribution to Kasr Al-Ainy faculty of Medicine My Department: Clinical & Chemical Pathology Department Titles & main duties of each: • Lecturer of Clinical Pathology (Subspecialty Hematology with special interest in Coagulation defects) Technical responsibilities: 1. Implementing daily quality controls & maintaining QA and QC records for their assigned lab section i.e. laboratory specialty which complies with regulations. 2. Supervising the daily documentation of workload and calibration and maintenance of equipment. 3. Providing technical and scientific oversight in their assigned lab section i.e. laboratory specialty; including verification of test procedures performed, obtaining difficult samples, examining smears & reviewing of test results. 4. Supervising the work of Assistant lecturers, Residents, Technologists, technicians & other lab personnel within the laboratory specialty. Academic responsibilities: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Preparing & delivering lectures, tutorials, practical classes and demonstrations for undergraduate & postgraduate students. Participating in academic administration activities of their assigned lab section i.e. laboratory specialty e.g. examination preparation, examination supervision & examination correction. Participating in the seminars that are conducted weekly. Participating in the CME of the Lab personnel. Supervising M.Sc. & M.D. research degrees. Research responsibilities: Participating in the research development which yields measurable outcomes such as international publications which is consistent with School’s research goals. • .Technical Development Officer 1. Collaborating in the upgrading of the organizational structure of the Department in order to meet the objectives and performance plans of the Faculty. 2. Liaising with Lab. Directors, Heads of Labs. Heads of Units & other Project Directors so as to understand all necessary aspects of Departmental development. 3. Monitoring, evaluating and reporting on operational issues, projects under development and achievements. 4. Designing, implementing & managing the CLINCHEM website, database and other computer based applications. 5. Moderating and coordinating the Annual conference pre-conference, conference & post– conference activities. • Secretary General of the Council of the Dept 1. Supervising the administration and typing of all correspondences for the Council. 2. Maintaining and updating meetings schedule for the Council /Committees / Subcommittees, made sure that all members were informed with the meeting date & time and kept and distributed notes and records. 3. Preparing agendas and minutes and all the documents & presentations for the Council meeting, Committees & Subcommittees. How my role contributes to the overall performance of my Department and in turn the overall performance of Kasr Al-Ainy Faculty of Medicine: l strongly believe that if we want our organization to excel we have to start by ourselves. Doing my job well with energy, excellence and integrity is my golden rule. No matter what needs to be done or with whatever resources available even if they are limited, things have to come around one way or another whether the task was a technical task, a Research study or an Administrative one .
  • 13. Page 13 Part III: Analysis and recommendation Introduction In my opinion an organization can not be effective, without a strong study of organizational behavior. Organizational behavior should be well established in the organization. Employee attitudes, personalities and perception: Knowledge of an individual’s value system can provide insight into his/her attitudes. Work attitudes are collections of feelings, beliefs, and thoughts about how to behave, that people currently hold about their jobs and organizations. Work attitudes are more specific than values, and not as long lasting. Personality is the enduring ways a person has of feeling, thinking, and behaving, it is the first determinant of how people think and feel about their jobs or job satisfaction. Perception is the process by which individuals select, organize, and interpret the input from their senses (vision, hearing, touch, smell, and taste) to give meaning and order to the world around them. Accordingly Managers should be interested in their employees’ attitudes because attitudes give warnings of potential problems and because they influence behavior. At the same time satisfied and committed employees, for instance have lower rates of turnover and absenteeismManagers should do things that generate the positive attitudes that reduce absenteeism and turnover and they should focus on helping employees become more productive to increase job satisfaction. Managers should also bare in mind that Job satisfaction and turnover are related to the match between personality and job for any individual. In addition unpopular decisions are easier to accept when they are perceived to be derived fairly and with integrity. This will enhance the over all performance of the employees which will be reflected on the performance of the organization. Organizational culture To measure cultural attributes and connect them to particular performance measures we need to look at four cultural traits-mission, involvement, adaptability, and consistency. Mission and consistency are linked to financial performance, while involvement and adaptability can be linked to customer satisfaction and innovation. The highest performing organizations are those that excel in all four areas. Such organizations have developed cultures that meet the paradoxical demands facing them. Culture does matter and a strong, effective culture will outperform a weak culture every time. Basic Management Skills Basic management skills include a set of abilities that an ideal manager needs to possess. They include: Leadership: This is one of the most important management skills. Leadership comprises of the efficient organization of the resources in achieving a company goal. Leadership involves the management of human resources with an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of each member of the team. It is about leading the people and guiding them towards the accomplishment of a common goal. Leadership includes a just allocation of work to the resources, planning of the implementation of tasks assigned and helping the team with task completion. Team Building: This is another basic management skill that includes dealing with people, the most important asset of an organization. Encouraging the team members to speak up, come up with ideas and allowing them to make mistakes and learn from them can be described as a team building skill. To build a team, one needs to foster the team spirit in all of the team members. For the team to feel motivated to work, it is important for a manager to cater to their expectations, recognize their strengths and understand where they lack. The building of a team is about building the team spirit in members and maintaining it. The skill lies in knowing the team and encouraging them to take initiative and enthusiastic a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n e v e r y v e n t u r e o f t h e c o m p a n y .
  • 14. Page 14 Communication and Presentation Skills: After having achieved the knowledge of a certain domain and on having imbibed the technical skills and more importantly self-confidence needed to be a manager, what one may lack are the soft skills, which are equally important in management. The soft skills encompass the communication and presentation skills. A manager should be open to his/ her team. A manager should be able to accept constructive criticism. It is important for the manager to communicate his/ her plans to the team and accept the team members' inputs on the plan of action. Communication is a two-way activity and for it to remain so, a manager needs to possess listening skills. They help a manager understand his/her team members, invite their participation and earn their regard. Good presentation skills help a manager impressively communicate with the team. Decision-making Skill: Sometimes, quick decisions have to be made. In such cases it becomes necessary for a manager to grasp the situation, think about what can be done and thoughtfully analyze the consequences of the decision to be made. A problem-solving approach is also considered as one of the basic management skills. To look at a situation analytically, one needs to bear a problem-solving approach. One needs to reason every consequence and come up with the pros and cons of the decision. A manager needs to be a quick thinker. For taking the right decision, one cannot afford to panic. One has to keep his/her cool, be aware of the results of the decisions and be prepared for them. A manager can get opportunities to celebrate a business success. But it is equally probable that a manager is forced to handle the consequences of a wrong decision. Hence while it is necessary to distinguish between the 'right' and the 'wrong', it is also necessary to be ready to accept the 'wrongs' and deal with them. In short management skills are about making the right decisions and getting them executed by the right people. Effective Leadership Leadership creates the vital link between organizational effectiveness and people’s performance at an organizational level. Leadership behaviors can facilitate the improvement of both leaders’ leadership capability and induce or encourage employees to work better improve their commitment and satisfaction. This ultimately contributes to enhancing organizational performance. Change management Change management entails thoughtful planning and sensitive implementation and above all consultation with and involvement of, the people affected by the changes. If change is forced on people normally problems arise. Change must be realistic, achievable and measurable. The employee does not have a responsibility to manage change, the employee's responsibility is no other than to do their best, which is different for every person and depends on a wide variety of factors (health, maturity, stability, experience, personality, motivation, etc). Responsibility for managing change is with management and executives of the organization, they must manage the change in a way that employees can cope with it. Managers have a responsibility to facilitate and enable change and then to help people understand reasons, aims, and ways of responding positively according to employees' own situations and capabilities. The Manager's role is to interpret, communicate and enable - not to instruct and impose, which nobody really responds to well. Management training, empathy and facilitative capability are priority areas and are crucial for the change process. They must enable and facilitate, not merely convey and implement policy from above, it does not work that way. Management and leadership style and behavior are more important than a clever process and policy and employees need to be able to trust the organization. Change management principles include: 1. All the time involve and agree to support people within system (system = environment, processes, culture, relation2. 3. 4. ships, behaviors, etc., whether personal or organizational). You must understand where the organization is at the moment. You must understand where you want to be, when, why, and what the measures will be for having got there. A plan has to be developed in an appropriate, achievable and measurable way.
  • 15. Page 15 Team work as opposed to group think In a team the Leader has to make sure that each member feels free to speak his or her mind. Accommodating team members who express strongly dissenting or contrasting views can be challenging. Encouraging team members to express contrasting viewpoints can be highly beneficial if you handle it correctly. This may be surprising, but it is the team in which everyone agrees with everyone else and does not question a single assumption or course of action that is in the greatest danger of failing its mission. Team members and leaders mistakenly believe that if no one is expressing dissent, then there isn't any, and that the project is on track. This kind of harmony is usually a sign of a dangerous problem within the team called Groupthink. ‘Groupthink’ often occurs in teams where everyone has got to know each other well, hold similar opinions and very rarely disagree. It doesn’t always mean that the team is effective. Some teams develop such a degree of self-assurance and belief in themselves that they feel they no longer need any input from the ‘outside world’. This then leads to a level of unanimous and unchallenged agreement within the team and a declining ability to explore other options. Avoiding groupthink is absolutely crucial when teams engage in innovation. Teams strive for intense smooth collaborative interaction. Often, friction, disagreement and contentiousness are frowned upon. Yet, when consensus is sought too quickly and too single-mindedly, the creative juices arising from fierce debate and conflict evaporate. Conclusion Organizational behavior deals with the understanding, prediction and control of human behavior in an organization. It is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human behavior. The study of behavior can be viewed in terms of various main disciplines like Psychology, Sociology, Social Psychology, Anthropology, Political Science, Economics, Engineering, Medicines, Semantics; etc. The study of organizational behavior helps to improve functional behavior which leads to productivity, effectiveness, efficiency and organizational citizenship. At the same time, it also helps to reduce dysfunctional behavior at work place like absenteeism, employee turnover, dissatisfaction, tardiness. The study of OB is the most important contributor towards building managerial skills. The major goals of OB are : understanding behavior, predicting behavior and controlling behavior. OB basically deals at individual level, group level, and organizational level. However one more dimension has been added to it, i.e., integrative dimension, because study of impact of environmental factor on behavioral aspect of organization is gaining more importance. A study of OB is beneficial in many ways. Some of the benefits of studying OB are following: • It helps an individual understand oneself. It is a systematic study of the actions and attitudes that people exhibit within organization. • It helps managers in getting the work done through effective ways. • It emphasizes the interaction and relations between the organization and individual behavior, thus making an attempt to fulfill psychological contract between individuals and the organization. • It helps to develop work-related behavior and job satisfaction. • It helps in building motivating climate. • It helps in building cordial industrial relations. • It helps in the field of marketing through deeper insight of consumer behavior, and managing and motivating field employees. • It helps in predicting behavior and applying it in some meaningful way to make organizations more effective. • It implies effective management of human resources. • It helps to improve functional behavior leading to productivity, effectiveness, efficiency, organizational citizenship, and also helps to reduce dysfunctional behavior a work place like absenteeism, employee turnover, dissatisfaction, tardiness etc.
  • 16. Page 16 A story of transformation Today my Department is in its Golden days, its Chair is an Administrative genius with outstanding leadership skills. Since his appointment last August a dramatic change came over the Department. And luckily, l am one of the change agents who participated and is participating in bringing around this change. The Department entered the era of transformation from traditional concepts to new innovative ones that boost creativity, accelerate agility and improve performance. Key changes included; the modification in the Organizational structure and building effective teams both aiming for a more qualitative workplace and also introducing the “we” culture. l personally believe that teams work to define and create the culture necessary for the success not only of the Department but of the whole organization. We anticipate a steady expansion in our three major missions; Laboratory Services, Teaching & Training and Research Activities. One big surprise was the great success of our 1st Annual Scientific Conference “CLINCHEM 2010” which was held from the 31st of March to the 2nd of April at CICC. A major reason for that success was the harmony between the members of the Organizing Committee. Several teams were built which include: an Executive Management team, a Quality Assurance team, a team for Examination Affairs, a team for Teaching and Training Affairs, a team for Scientific Research Development. We are at an early stage of its incremental growth and we hope that in collaboration with our colleagues in the Faculty and Hospital we can upgrade our research, teaching and clinical enterprise in a fashion that melds with the programmatic directions not only of Kasr Al-Ainy Faculty of Medicine but of Cairo University as a whole. OBM can increase and maintain desirable behavior, but it is necessary to define the behaviors that need to be avoided and those that need to be increased. The effective and achievement-focused technology of OBM enables the development of this type of culture within the context of continuous learning and beneficial behavior change. We have a long road ahead of us but it looks like a bright beginning………. References: 1. www.kasralainy.edu.eg 2. www.clinchemcairo.org 3. www.buzzle.com 4. www.businessballs.com 5. www.bschool.pepperdine.edu 6. International Business & Economics Research Journal, May 2008 7. Shift Organizational Culture to Improve Organizational Performance by Bryan Adkins, Sr., and Cindy Stewart 8. Organizational Behavior Management in Health Care: Applications for Large-Scale Improvements in Patient Safety by Thomas R. Cunningham, MS, and E. Scott Geller, PhD

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