Where are we? Latinos in NYC High Schools


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A presentation on Latino students in NYC high schools presented at the annual RISLUS forum along with several colleagues.

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  • In red, we see the neighborhoods which have the highest concentrations of Latino High School students, accoridng to the 2006-8 American Community Survey, up to 86% in Washington Heights. In green, we see the areas of highest percentages of high students who speak Spanish at home, up to 77% in Washington Heights.
  • Although 37% of all New York City High School student are Latino, most schools have percentages lower or higher than 37%.
  • The age of large comprehensive high schools as the norm in New York City has ended. More than half of New York City High Schools are small schools with a student population of less than 450. Altogether, 79% of New York City schools report having less than 850 students. These numbers are expected to rise as more large schools are expected to be phased out.
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  • Compare Small (top) and Large schools. Small schools are skewed toward high. Large schools skewed toward lower concentrations. This relationship is statistically significant.
  • There is a statistically significant relationship between the ELL program offered and school size. (p<.000). TBE programs are mostly found in large schools while ESL programs tend to be more evenly distributed.
  • There is a statistically significant relationship between the size of the school and 4 year graduation rates for all schools and for Latino majority schools. One possible explanation for this is that the standard deviation for large schools is greater than both small and medium schools indicating that large schools have more of a spread. It should also be noted that 70 new schools do not have graduation rate data yet which may also explain why this data is higher than the state reported graduation rates. The same trend was found for 6 year graduation rates. Again, we need to remember that 149 small schools do not have 6 year graduation rates yet and the graduation rates of low performing large schools that are being phased out be having an impact on the large school results.
  • There is also a statistically significant relationship between Latino and ELL credit accumulation and the size of the school. highest credit accumulation (52% for Latinos and 65% for ELLs), followed by medium schools (46% for Latinos and 59.5% for ELLs), then large schools (41% for Latinos and 57% for ELLs). (p<.000). However, for both small and medium schools the standard deviation is much greater than for larger schools indicating that there may be very successful small and medium schools in terms of Latino and ELL credit accumulation but also schools that have very low success rates. In Latino majority schools Latino credit accumulation and ELL credit accumulation was also statistically related to the size of the school. Small schools reported the most success in terms of credit accumulation for both Latinos (53%) and ELLs (66.5%) followed by medium schools (46% for Latinos and 58% for ELLs), then large schools (41% and 54%) (p<.001). Interestingly, all schools report higher success with ELL credit accumulation then Latino credit accumulation.
  • There just aren’t enough TBE programs to draw conclusions
  • The distribution of Latino graduation rates by school appears almost bimodal, with one modal interval between 64% and 68% and two other peaks: one between 36% and 39% and another between 48% and 52%. The aggregate graduation rate for Latinos in cohorts 2001-4 is 47.6%, which is in between these two peaks. When comparing different schools, the mean graduation rate for schools is 54.1%.
  • Where are we? Latinos in NYC High Schools

    1. 1.   Where Are We? Latinos in New York City High Schools
    2. 2. Latinos in New York City High Schools <ul><li>A Collaborative Research Project of: </li></ul><ul><li>The Ph.D. Program in Urban Education, Graduate Center, CUNY </li></ul><ul><li>The Research Institute for the Study of Language in Urban Society </li></ul><ul><li>New York City Department of Education </li></ul><ul><li>  Dr. Ofelia García </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Haiwen Chu </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Nelson Flores </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Suzanne Dikker </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Ulla Jensen </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Laura Kaplan </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Heather Woodley </li></ul>
    3. 3. “ Where are we?” <ul><li>Concentration in schools and neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Educational achievement and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Local changes in policy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mayoral control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rollback of bilingual education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small schools </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Latino and Spanish-Speaking Public High School Students in NYC SOURCE: 2006-8 ACS Percentage Latino mean = 38% max = 86% Percentage Speaking Spanish at Home mean = 31% max = 79%
    5. 5. Percentage of Latinos by High School SOURCE: 2008 CEP
    6. 6. Educational Outcomes By Subgroup SOURCE: NYC DOE 2009
    7. 7. Small School Movement <ul><li>The phasing out of large high schools and their replacement with small high schools have been one of the major overhauls conducted by the Bloomberg/Klein administration since 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Supporters cite research on how small schools can improve academic outcomes through the creation of more personalized relationships in contrast to the anonymity of large schools (Meier, 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>Critics have raised issues in terms of access for ELLs/emergent bilinguals and availability of bilingual programs in these small high schools (Advocates for Children & New York Immigration Coalition, 2006). </li></ul>
    8. 8. New York City High Schools SOURCE: 2008 PR
    9. 9. Distribution of Students by High School Sizes
    10. 10. Distribution of Latinos and ELLs/EBs by High School Size
    11. 11. Percentage of Latinos and ELLs by High School Size SIZE Average Percentage Latino* Average Percentage ELL/ Emergent BIlingual Small 43.7% 13.6% Medium 45.7% 11.0% Large 36.2% 11.8% Total 42.3% 12.7%
    12. 12. Percentage of Latinos by High School Size SOURCE: 2008 CEP Large High Schools (>850) Small High Schools (<450)
    13. 13. School Size by ELL/EB Program Type SOURCE: 2008 CEP
    14. 14. How are graduation rates different by high school size?
    15. 15. High School Size and Latino and ELL Credit Accumulation
    16. 16. Words of Caution <ul><li>The fact that large schools are underperforming as compared to small/medium schools cannot be attributed to the existence of Transitional Bilingual Education programs in these schools as other factors contribute to the underperforming of these schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Research has demonstrated time and again the superiority of high quality bilingual programs to high quality ESL programs (Thomas and Collier, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>We also do not have information specifically on Latino ELLs, who are most likely to receive Transitional Bilingual Education. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Implications <ul><li>The large schools cannot simply be ignored as the majority of students, including Latinos and ELLs/Emergent Bilinguals continue to attend these schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational programs, such as bilingual education, can no longer be based solely on a large school model since large schools are no longer the norm in New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary results indicate more positive outcomes for Latinos and ELLs at small schools. However, issues of access for Latino ELLs must be explored. </li></ul><ul><li>The high standard deviations in outcomes indicates a need to study more closely successful schools for Latinos and ELLs/Emergent Bilinguals to disseminate these practices to other schools. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Four-year Latino Graduation Rates in Cohorts 2005-2009 SOURCE: 2005-9 DOE
    19. 19. Percentage Latino in Cohorts 2005-2009 SOURCE: 2005-9 DOE
    20. 20. ELLs/Emergent Bilinguals in Graduating Cohorts of 2005-2009 SOURCE: 2005-9 DOE
    21. 21. Sample Selection Latino 4 Year Graduation Rate Percentage of cohort Latino Percentage of cohort “ELL” 50% 36% 37% 13%
    22. 22. Characteristics of Selected Schools
    23. 23. <ul><li>How do NYC high schools educate Latino students? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are NYC Latino students with different characteristics being educated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergent bilinguals? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General education students? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the differences between those high schools where Latinos do well, somewhat well, or not well? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language use throughout the school </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogical approaches </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions with teachers, school staff, and other students </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School structures, policies, and activities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Data Sources and Collection <ul><li>Two days of observations at each school following a student’s schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>advanced or proficient English speaking Latino student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beginner Latino ELL/emergent bilingual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interviews were conducted with the following staff at each school: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>administrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teacher selected as successful with Latino students by administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guidance counselor or social worker </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Preliminary Findings <ul><li>In schools where Latinos and ELLs/EBs are doing well, Spanish is &quot;seeping in.&quot; Spanish is being used to educate in programs that are &quot;officially&quot; either bilingual or ESL </li></ul><ul><li>There is committed leadership, teachers and counselors who have designed creative and innovative programs to help Latino students and ELLs/EBs make a difference. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Our Ultimate Destination