Mannerism • A reaction to classicism of the High Renaissance • Called “Mannerism” because it was considered mannered, stylish, cultured, elegant. • Characterized by sense of artifice -Imbalanced compositions -Unusual complexities -Ambiguous space -Departures from expected conventions (shock-value) -Aristocratic, sumptuous courtly taste
Entombment of Christ Entombment of Christ Jacopo da Pontormo• Jacopo da Pontormo did not include the tomb or the cross, so Capponi Chapel, Santait is unclear if this is the Entombment or Descent from the Felicita, Florence, Italy.Cross. 1525. Oil on wood.• Figures arranged vertically instead of horizontally. 10’ 3” x 6’ 4”• Center of the painting is an empty void, representing loss andgrief. Hands clustered in the void call attention to it.• Figures glance around anxiously (figure on the right isprobably self-portrait).• Significant amount of movement, bodies bending and twistingin different directions.• Contrasting colors (mostly blues and pinks) add to thedynamism and complexity of the work.
Madonna with the Long Neck • Parmigianino was a prodigious artist even in his teens. At 21, he saw his reflection in a barber shop’s convex mirror, and created a self-portrait (painted upon a curved piece of wood) that replicated the “fish-eye” distortion of the mirror. • Parmagianino’s most famous artwork is Madonna with the Long Neck, which exemplifies the emphasis on elegant stylishness. • Madonna’s elongated physique creates sense of elegance,Madonna with the sumptuousness, courtliness.Long Neck • She is flanked by a group of angelic figures on the left, who fawnParmigianino. over the baby with sweetness.Baiardi Chapel,Santa Maria dei • The smooth column on the right referenced medieval hymns thatServi, compared the Virgin’s neck with a great ivory tower or column.Parma, Italy • A mysterious figure, probably St. Jerome, holds a scroll in the1540. Oil on wood. bottom right. The distance between the figure and Mary is7’ 1” x 4’ 4”. ambiguous. • Despite the overall sweetness of the image, it is somewhat unsettling, as the pale Christ child echoes images of a pieta (also, the jarringly small St. Jerome, the column holding up nothing, and Mary’s not visible throne).
Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time Bronzino. C. 1546. Oil on wood. 4’ 9” x 3’ 9”.• Bronzino (student of Pontormo), was known for his formal portraiture.• Cosimo I de’ Medici (not to be confused with Cosimo de’ Medici)commissioned this painting as a gift for King Francis I of France.• Bronzino demonstrated the Mannerists’ fondness for familiar allegoriesthat often had lascivious undertones, a shift from the simple andmonumental forms of the High Renaissance.• A teenage cupid fondles his mother, Venus, who pulls an arrow from hisquiver, while holding the Golden Apple of Discord.• A putti representing Folly prepares to throw petals at them, while Truth(left) and Time (right) pull back the curtain to reveal the couple.• Behind Folly a monster (either Fraud or Pleasure) with the head and armsof a beautiful girl, the legs of a lion, and the body of a snake, holds ahoneycomb in one hand and her stinger in the other.• The man behind Cupid represents a patient just diagnosed with syphilis, asexually transmitted disease that was rampant at the time. It was thenbelieved to be spread through sex, breast-feeding, and kissing, which arereferenced in the painting.• The two masks in the bottom right represent duplicitousness.• Meaning is unclear - could be the folly of lovers is revealed over time, or itcould be a warning against the dangers of illicit sexual liaisons.• Emphasis on hands, which were considered indicators of skill & grace.
Self-PortraitSofonisba Anguissola. Sofonisba AnguissolaC. 1550. 2.5” x 3.5” • Northern Italy produced a number of gifted women artists,Oil on parchment on cardboard. including Lavinia Fontana and Sofonisba Anguissola. • Anguissola was unusual in that her father was not an artist, but he did insist upon a humanistic education for all his children. • Anguissola specialized in portraits, especially miniatures, which were popular as a way to record the image of a loved one. • Her portraits are characterized by a relaxed, familial warmth. • In the miniature self-portrait on the left, she depicted herself holding a medallion, the border of which spells out her name and home town 9Cremona). The interlaced letters at the center pose a riddle, seeming to form a monogram with the first letters of her sister’s names. • In 1560, Anguissola became a lady-in-waiting and court painter for the queen of Spain, a position she held for 20 years. • After ending her time at the Spanish court, she moved to Sicily (then a Spanish territory), where she died at age 92. Portrait of the Artist’s Sisters and Brother Sofonisba Anguissola. Oil on Wood. 2’ 5” x 3’ 1”.
Assumption of the Virgin Assumption of the Virgin Correggio. 1530. Fresco, 35’ 10” x 37’ 11”. Parma Cathedral, Parma.• Correggio (Antonio Allegri) created an illusionistic ceiling inthe dome of the Parma Cathedral.• Adopted Mantegna’s foreshortening, Leonardo’s sfumato,and Raphael’s idealism.• Painting depicts concentric rings of clouds filled with saintsand angels, who swirl, dance, and soar upwards toaccompany the Virgin on her ascent into heaven.
Palazzo del Tè Palazzo del TèGuilio Romano. Mantua, Italy.• Comissioned by Federigo II Gonzaga commissioned the Roman c. 1530.artist and architect Guilio Romano to Mantua to build a palace,which was to be a summer home for him and a stud farm for hisfamous stables of horses.• Federigo and his well-educated friends would have knownClassical orders and proportions, so they could appreciate theplayfulness with which they are used here.• The building is full of visual jokes:-Voussoirs included in the lintels above square openings-Triglyphs and voussoirs that slip sloppily out of place• Interior contains the Fall of the Giants• Part of the reason for building the palazzo was to create a placefor Federigo to meet with his mistress, Isabella Boschetti, awayfrom the gaze of her husband.
Fall of the Giants• Inside the Palazzo del Te, Romano created a trompe l’oeil • Romano took Mantegna’s Camera Picta (painted forroom called the Sala del Giganti, or “Room of the Giants” Federigo’s grandfather) a step further by dissolving all• In it, the entire building seems to be collapsing about the architectural elements, to create an illusion that isviewer as the gods defeat the giants. unbroken across all walls and ceiling. Fall of the Giants Giulio Romano. Sala del Giganti, Palazzo del Tè. c. 1530. Fresco.
Saltcellar of Francis I • Cellini was a Mannerist sculptor (primarily a goldsmith), who was an artist for the royal court of Francis I of France. • Francis I paid Cellini an annual salary as well as money for each work he completed (this item was worth about half of Cellini’s regular annual salary). • This is a saltcellar (salt dish) for Francis’ royal table. On it recline Neptune and Tellus (Sea, the source of salt, and Land). • On the ebony base are figures representing Dawn, Day, Twilight, Night (representing mealtimes or festive seasonal celebrations), and the four winds. • The small dish to Neptune’s right held the salt, and the triumphal arch by Tellus’ leg held the pepper. • The legs of Tellus and Neptune intertwine, just as the land and sea intertwine along a meandering coastline. Saltcellar of Francis I • Cellini was also known for writing a scandalous autobiography, Benvenuto Cellini. C. 1540. evidence of the Renaissance era’s elevation of the artist to highGold, enamel, and ebony. 10” x 1’ 1”. society (a medieval artist’s autobiography would have been inconceivable).
Abduction of the Sabine Women• Jean de Boulogne (or Giovanni da Bologna in Italian) was a Abduction of theFlemish artist who moved to Italy. Sabine Women• With this sculpture group, Bologna aimed to create a Giovanni da Bologna. Loggia dei Lanzi,demonstration piece which achieved a dynamic spiral figural Piazza della Signoria,composition involving an old man, a young man, and a woman, all Florence, Italy.nude in the tradition of ancient statues portraying deities and c. 1580.mythological figures. Marble, 13’ 5” high.• The three figures interlock on a vertical axis, creating anascending spiral movement and a Michelangelo-esque flexibilityand potential for action.• The sculpture was intended to be seen from all directions(walked around), as opposed to most other sculptures of the time,which were intended to be seen only from one side.• Although Bologna did not intend this to represent a specificevent, it has been popularly dubbed Paris Abducting Helen (afterthe myth of the beginning of the Trojan War) and Abduction of theSabine Women, after the legendary history of early Rome in whichRomans abducted wives for themselves from the neighboringSabines.