2. Chapter OverviewName of Period of Greek Art Approximate Date Significant Historical EventsGeometric 750 BCEOrientalizing 650 BCEArchaic 550 BCE (c. 600-500 BCE)Severe (Early Classical) 480 BCE (c. 500-480 BCE) Greeks win Second Persian War 480 BCEClassical 450 BCE (c. 480-404 BCE) Peloponnesian Wars end 404 BCE4th Century (Late Classical) 350 BCE (c. 404-323 BCE) Death of Alexander the Great 323 BCEHellenistic 250 BCE (c. 323-80 BCE) Romans make Greece a colony c. 80 BCEBecause of the large size of this chapter,we will approach it in three parts:Sculpture, Architecture, and Pottery
3. Geographical Context• Climate of Greece is warm with a moderateamount of rainfall.• Terrain is hilly and rocky, with significantaccess to sea. Grapes and olives grow well, butnot grains such as wheat (Egypt becomes“breadbasket of Greece”).• Skilled artisans produced metal and ceramicwares to trade abroad for grain and rawmaterials.
4. Religious Context• The Greeks believed in a pantheon of gods.• The Olympian gods (so-called because theywere believed to live atop Mt. Olympus) werenot the first gods. They were believed to havedescended from, and eventually overthrew,another group of gods known as the Titans.• The Olympian gods were believed to beimmortal and imbued with supernatural powers.• Although physically idealized, the gods werebelieved to be subject to weaknesses andemotions, just like humans.• The Greeks built sanctuaries dedicated tospecific gods.
5. Historical Context• Between 900-800 BCE, after Mycenae had fallen frompower, autonomous Greek city-states began to develop.• Each city-state was comprised of a region with a majorcity (Athens, Corinth, Sparta, etc.) as its political,economic, religious, and cultural center.• Each had its own form of government and economy.• Power/wealth of city-state depended on manufacturing,commercial skills, and military might.• By the 500s Athens had developed a representativegovernment, in which all citizens had the right to vote andown property (however, only free Athenian men could becitizens… about 20% of the population in 309 BCE).• Greater emphasis on the individual and independence.
6. Funerary KraterFrom Dipylon Cemetery, Geometric PeriodAthens • 900-700 BCEc. 750 BCECeramic, 42” tall • Characterized by decoration of ceramic vessels with linear motifs, such as spirals, diamonds, and cross-hatching. • Even the figures are stylized as simple shapes • Kraters were large ceramic vessels designed to be grave- markers for those who had been cremated. • This krater shows a funerary ritual of a man on a funeral bier about to be cremated, with onlookers raising their arms to their heads in grief • The Man and Centaur sculpture uses the same simplified geometric forms as the figures on the krater. It depicts a man and centaur fighting. • Most figurines like the one on the right were found in Man and Centaur sanctuaries, and thus may have been votive offerings. Perhaps from Olympia c. 750 BCE Bronze, 4 5/16”
7. Mantiklos ApolloFrom Thebes, Greecec. 650 BCE Orientalizing PeriodBronze, 8” high • Around 650 BCE, artists began moving away from the linear designs in favor of more open compositions around large motifs that included real and imaginary animals, abstract plant forms, and human figures. • The source of these motifs can be traced to the arts of the Near East, Asia Minor, and Egypt, but instead of simply copying the motifs, the Greeks modified them and invented an entirely new style. • The repeated flower motifs are called rosettes. • The Mantiklos Apollo is a votive offering from an otherwise unknown man named Mantiklos to the god Apollo. • The inscription on his leg reads: “Mantiklos dedicated me as a tithe to the far-shooting Lord of the Silver Bow; you, Olpe (Pitcher) Phoibos [Apollo], might give some pleasing favor in return.” Corinth, Greece c. 650 BCE • It is unclear if the figure is Mantiklos or Apollo (or neither) Ceramic, 13” tall
8. “Lady of Auxerre” korec. 650 BCE. Limestone. 29.5”Probably from Crete Kore and Kouros • This is an example of a kore (Greek for “young woman”). • Male version of the same thing is a kouros (“young man”). • Made of brightly painted (except for the skin)wood, terra cotta, limestone, or marble. • Sometimes bore inscriptions identifying them as having been commissioned by individual men or women for a commemorative purpose. • Korai and kouroi (plural) were often found marking graves (replacing the kraters of the geometric period) and lining the entry ways of sanctuaries. • Korai (always clothed) represented deities, priestesses, or nymphs. • Kouroi (almost always nude) represented deities, warriors, and victorious athletes. Young athletic males were associated with familial continuity, so kouroi may also represent anscestors.
9. “Lady of Auxerre” korec. 650 BCE. Limestone. 29.5”Probably from Crete Orientalizing Period • Greeks established a trading colony in Naukratis, Egypt, bringing Greeks into contact with the monumental stone architecture of Egypt. • Example of Daedalic style, after mythical Greek artist Daedalus. • Uncertain if mortal or deity. • Gesture probably one of prayer. • Originally painted with encaustic (pigment mixed with wax)
10. New York (Metropolitan)KourosFrom Attica, c. 550 BCE Archaic PeriodMarble, 6” high • “Archaic” means old-fashioned or antiquated. This period is called Archaic because it seems antiquated in comparison to the later Classical period, but really the Archaic period was full of great new achievement for Greece. • Pose heavily influenced by Egypt • Unlike statue of Menkaure, this sculpture is free-standing. • Large eyes and head, hair knotted into tufts. Anatomy less life-like, shown with a few linear ridges. • Example of Daedalic style. • This kouros was a grave-marker. Menkaure and Queen From Egypt, c. 2500 BCE
11. Archaic Period• Found in fragments on the Acropolis (Athens)• Dedicated by a man named Rhonbos to Athena inthankfulness for his prosperity.• Depicts Rhonbos giving a sacrifice of a calf to Athena.• Dressed with a robe but no other clothes, which is nothow people would have dressed. This enables the “nobleperfection” associated with male nudes, while at the sametime showing the man in clothing, as any respectable The Calf-Bearercitizen would be in this context. (Moschophoros) Acropolis, Athens. Marble.• Beard denotes older age. Restored height 5’ 5”• Calf’s legs and man’s arms create a bold X on chest,physically and formally uniting the man and calf.• Expression known as an Archaic smile, which probablyused to indicate that subject was alive.
12. Peplos KoreMarble. 4’Acropolis, Athens Archaic Period • This kore is named after the peplos (a rectangular cloth draped over the shoulders and belted for a bloused effect) she was originally thought to be wearing. • Missing forearm was carved separately and fitted into the socket that is visible. • Dress (recently determined not to be a peplos) originally was painted animals, identifying her not as a young girl but a goddess (perhaps Athena or Artemis). • This statue, as well as many others (including the Calf- Replica of what the Peplos Kore Bearer) were knocked over during the Persian sack of the would look like Acropolis in 480 BCE, after which the Athenians buried the with original damaged statuary, helping to preserve traces of the paint. coloring. • Softer, more natural looking flesh than Lady of Auxerre.
13. Archaic Period• Which of these two statues is the original Anavysoskouros, and which is a forgery? What makes you think so?
14. Anavysos KourosCemetery at Anavysos,near Athens. 6’ 4” Archaic PeriodMarble • The statue on the LEFT is the original Anavysos Kouros. • The Anavysos Kouros was a grave-marker for a young man named Kroisos who died a hero’s death in battle. • Inscription reads, “stay and mourn at the tomb of dead Kroisos, whom raging Ares destroyed one day as he fought in the foremost ranks.” • Although the posing is the same as the New York Kouros, the shaping is much more realistically proportioned and rounded. • This is not meant to be a specific portrait, but rather a symbolic type.
15. Transition to Severe pediment• The Temple of Aphaia (dedicated to a local nymph namedAphaia) was decorated with two pediments (the triangulararea below the roof on either end of the building) full offigural sculptures.• Both pediments were completed at the same time, anddepict soldiers from the Trojan war (Athena in the centeron both), but the east side was damaged and replaced adecade or two later.• On both sides, the artists were able to keep the scale ofthe humans (Athena is larger, as she is a deity) consistentby changing their poses to accommodate the decreasingheight of the pediment. Pediments from Temple of Aphaia Aegina, Greece, c. 480. Marble.
16. Transition to Severe West• Comparing the east and west pediments (done bydifferent artists) demonstrates the transition that washappening to the new Severe style.• The dying soldier from the west pediment is done in theArchaic style: frontal torso, direct gaze at viewer, archaicsmile (despite being shot by an arrow), no sense of emotion• The dying soldier from the east pediment, by contrast, isposed in a more complex and natural way, twisting his torsoand leaning on his shield to rise. He looks downward,concerned with his plight instead of the viewer. East• In the 10-20 years separating these two statues, a stylisticrevolution had occurred. Pediment Sculptures from Temple of Aphaia Aegina, Greece, c. 480. Marble.
17. Early Classical (a.k.a. Severe)• Art historians date the beginning of the Early Classicalperiod from the date of the defeat of the Persian invaders(lead by Xerxes) of Greece by the allied Hellenic city-states.• The war had been brutal, and the Greeks considered theinvaders barbarians due to the atrocities committed duringthe war. Kritios Boy• The Greeks’ narrow victory nurtured a sense of Hellenic From Acropolis, Athens Marble. 3’ 10”identity so strong that from then on the history of c. 480 BCEEuropean and Asian civilizations would be distinct.• Greeks began to value the triumph of reason and law overbarbarous crimes, blood feuds, and mad vengeance.• Lead to emphasis on humanism, rationalism, and idealism
18. Kritios Boy• No more Archaic smile, replaced with serious expression• Softer, more lifelike musculature• Instead of stiff, frontal pose of kouros, artist has usedcontrapposto – the convention of presenting standingfigures with opposing alterations of tension and relaxationaround a central axis. Kritios Boy From Acropolis, Athens• Notice how he appears to be putting his weight on his left Marble. 3’ 10”leg, letting his right leg relax. This causes his left hip to be c. 480 BCEslightly higher than his right hip. Also, his head is slightlyturned.• Originally (incorrectly) attributed to the artist Kritios
19. Hollow-Cast Bronze• During this time period, the Greeks developed atechnique known as hollow-casting.• The sculpture would originally make a statue of clay,which was then converted into a mold to pour moltenbronze into.• The result was a hollow bronze statue, which could bemade in parts and assembled after the pieces had beenremoved from the molds. Bronze Charioteer• The advantage of bronze statues is that they were less Hollow-cast bronzeprone to breakage, especially on extended appendages Sactuary of Apollo, Delphisuch as arms. This enabled artists to attempt much more 5’11” highcomplex, “action” poses• Unfortunately, because bronze is easily melted down andrecycled, many bronze statues have been lost. For somesculptures, all we have are marble copies of bronzeoriginals.
20. The Bronze Charioteer• This Charioteer survived because it was buried in anearthquake.• The inscription indicates that this statue was made tocommemorate the winner of a chariot race during thePythian Games (similar to the Olympic Games).• According to Roman historian Pliny the Elder, three timewinners in Greek competitions had their featuresmemorialized in stone (or in this case, bronze). Bronze Charioteer• The image depicts the charioteer not during the race, but Hollow-cast bronzeafter, calmly holding the reins of his horses while standing Sanctuary of Apollo,in the winners circle. Delphi 5’11” high• The folds of his garment emphasize both the verticalityand calm of the figure, and also recall the flutes of a Greekcolumn.• Eyes are onyx, lips and eyelashes are copper, and silver isinlaid in his headdress.
21. Classical Philosophy • Humanism - philosophies that emphasize the value of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally place more importance on rational thought than on strict faith or adherence to principle. • Rationalism - Reason & logic = main source of knowledge. Greeks believed that reason and logic were behind natural processes, and dedicated themselves to closely observing and learning about their world. • Idealism – 1. The cherishing or pursuit of high or noble principles, purposes, goals, etc. 2. A treatment of subject matter in a work of art in which a mental conception ofThis painting is called School of Athens, by beauty or form is stressed.Raphael. Its from the Renaissance, so don’tworry about it… yet.
22. Classical Philosophy• The three following statements were inscribed on theTemple of Apollo: • “Man is the measure of all things” = seek an idealbased on the human form. • “Know thyself” = seek inner significance • “Nothing in excess” = reproduce only essential forms• Apollo himself represents the balance that Greeks valuedbetween body and mind. He was an athlete, healer, andmusician.• Greeks believed that reason and logic were behindnatural processes, and dedicated themselves to closelyobserving and learning about their world. (Rationalism)• AFTER close observation, Greeks reduced images to theirpurest form, attempting to capture their fundamentalessence. (Idealism)
23. The Riace Warriors• Riace Warriors were discovered by a scuba diver 300meters off the coast of Riace, Italy. They were probably ontheir way from Greece to Italy when they were, for somereason, thrown overboard (since no evidence of ashipwreck is nearby).• Striking balance between idealized anatomical forms andnaturalistic detail• Mature face contrasts with youthful physique• Originally had a shield and spear, and may have been apart of a monument memorializing victory over the Persians• Eyes are bone and colored glass, teeth are silver• Underwent extensive restoration to correct damage ofsaltwater Riace Bronze Warriors From sea off of Riace, Italy 6’6” high. Bronze.
24. Zeus (or Poseidon)• Found in a shipwreck off coast of Greece• Could have originally held a thunderbolt (Zeus), trident(Poseidon), or a javelin. Zeus or Poseidon• Observe the pose that the use of hollow-cast bronze Found off coast of Capeallowed: arms extended, one heel off the ground. This Artemision, Greecewould not have been attempted with marble. trident Bronze, 6’ 10”.• What does this statue tell us about the values of theGreek culture at the time?
25. Diskobolos • This is a marble of the bronze original by Myron • Romans frequently purchased copies of famous Greek statues for their own. • Because this is a marble copy, the craftsman who made this copy had to add a tree-trunk behind to support the heavy, fragile marble. The original bronze would not have the tree trunk. • He faces away from us, concerned with the task at hand • Figure is in “action pose,” his body twisted around like a tense spring, his arm at the apex of its pendulum-like swing,Diskobolos (Discus Thrower) about to unleash his discus.By Myron • Formally, Myron utilized the crossing of two arches toMarble copy of original bronze create the sense of movement and dynamism.5’ 1”
26. Diskobolos • This is a marble of the bronze original by Myron • Romans frequently purchased copies of famous Greek statues for their own. • Because this is a marble copy, the craftsman who made this copy had to add a tree-trunk behind to support the heavy, fragile marble. The original bronze would not have the tree trunk. • He faces away from us, concerned with the task at hand • Figure is in “action pose,” his body twisted around like a tense spring, his arm at the apex of its pendulum-like swing,Diskobolos (Discus Thrower) about to unleash his discus.By Myron • Formally, Myron utilized the crossing of two arches toMarble copy of original bronze create the sense of movement and dynamism.5’ 1”
27. Classical • Greek philosopher/mathematician Pythagoras believed that the key to harmony and beauty were to be found in harmonic ratios and proportions. • The sculptor Polykleitos (of Argos) applied Pythagoras’ theories to a sculpture of the human form, the result of which is Doryphoros (he explained his ideas in a treatise called The Canon).Doryphoros (Spear Bearer) • Exaggerated use of contrappostoBy Polykleitos • Polykleitos attempted to make the sculpture beautifulRoman copy from the and perfect through the use of cross-balance.palaestra (gymnasium), • Figure balances on his right leg and left arm (leaning onPompeii, Italy, of the spear), with his right arm and left leg resting.original bronze.6’11” • Head turns right, hips turn left. • Proportionately larger head • Straightness of right limbs balance bending of left limbs • Appears in motion though at rest
28. Parthenon• Atop the Acropolis (a hill in Athens) was the Parthenon, atemple dedicated Athena Parthenos (“Athena the Virgin”).• Although badly damaged in the Persian invasion in 480BCE, it was rebuilt under Athenian leader Pericles under thesupervision of head craftsman Phidias.• The rebuilding was paid for by an alliance of Greek city-states called the Delian League, who had given the funds to Parthenonbe used for the continuing war effort against Persia. The Acropolis, Athens, Greecemisuse of the funds by Pericles to rebuild the Acropolisangered the other cities.• We will get into more detail on the Acropolis during ourarchitecture unit. For now, we will focus on the sculpturesdecorating the Parthenon, and other buildings of the Replica of Athena Parthenos Originally stood inside theAcropolis. Parthenon (lost in fire). Chryselephantine. 38’ tall.
29. Parthenon Pediment• East pediment = birth of Athena, West pediment =contest against Poseidon to become the patron god ofAthens.• The Christians removed the center two sculptures(probably of Zeus and Athena) from the east pediment toadd an apse.• The remaining sculptures are the gods and goddesseswho gave witness to the birth.• Sculptor = Phidias Iris Dione• Fabric alternately reveals and conceals forms and unifies (messenger) Hestia (consortgroups of sculptures. Herakles or unknown of Zeus) Aphrodite Dionysos Helios (Sun) Selene (moon)
30. Parthenon Metopes• Metopes are square panels of relief imagery locatedunderneath the pediment. The metopes on the Parthenonwrap all the way around the building.• Each metope is separated by three vertical ridges called atriglyph.• Each side of the building depicts a different battle theme:Trojan War, Amazonomachy, gigantomachy, andcentauromachy (“machy” = battle), which were allallegories for the war against Persia.• The metopes on the Parthenon are done in very highrelief, with some elements coming completely off of thebackground. Parthenon Metopes (south) Acropolis, Athens, Greece Marble, 4’ 8”
31. Parthenon Ionic Frieze• Most likely depicted the Panathenaic Festival processionthat took place every four years in Athens• First time a human event was depicted on a Greek temple(shows Athenian self-importance)• The top stuck out farther than the bottom, to make iteasier to see from below. Marshals and Young Women East Ionic Frieze, Parthenon Horsemen Acropolis, Athens, Greece North Ionic Frieze, Parthenon Marble, 43” Acropolis, Athens, Greece Marble, 41 3/4”
32. Nike Adjusting her Sandal • Another building in the Acropolis complex is the Temple of Athena Nike (Athena as goddess of victory in war) • At one time, the temple had a parapet (low wall) surrounding it, with relief sculptures depicting Athena presiding over her winged attendants called Victories. • The parapet is now gone, but some of the reliefs, such as this one, remain. • The pose of Nike is balanced by her wings behind her. • The dress is rendered in a way that is overtly sensual, falling off of one shoulder and clinging to her form almost as if wet, revealing the shape of the body underneath.“Nike Adjusting her Sandal”Temple of Athena NikeAcropolis, Athens, GreeceMarble, 42”
33. Grave Stele of Hegeso • Fifth century commemorative cemetery markers were stone stelai, often depicting domestic scenes or departures. • Hegeso is depicted selecting a necklace from a box held for her by her handmaid.Grave Stele of Hegeso • Note the differences in the clothing styles of the twoDipylon cemetery, Athens women.Marble, 5’ 9” • Both women’s faces are idealized, but they are given some identity through hair and clothing details. • Gaze is inwards
34. 4th Century (Late Classical) • Sparta defeated Athens in 404 BCE, but Athenians rebelled and regained autonomy a year later. Still, Athens lost its power over rest of Greece, returning Greece to a collection of divided city-states. • In 387, Plato established a school outside of Athens. Aristotle, his student, also did later, and one of his students was Alexander of Macedon (Alexander the Great). • Greek artists still observed Classical approach to composition and form, but no longer adhered strictly to its conventions. • Artists experimented with new subjects and styles. Macedonian Empire • Alexander the Great conquered the Persians (lead by(under Alexander the Great) Darius III), and created what is known as the Macedonian Empire (since Alexander was from Macedon). • The end of the Late Classical era is marked by the death of Alexander the Great.
35. 4th Century• First known nude female statue by a well-known Greeksculptor (female nudes had been considered low-character)• Eventual wide acceptance of female nudes may be relatedto gradual merger of Greeks’ concept of Aphrodite withPhoenician goddess Astarte (Babylonian Ishtar), who wasalmost always shown nude.• Aphrodite is here depicted preparing for a bath. Aphrodite of Knidos• Legend was that Aphrodite herself heard how beautiful Composite of 2 similarthe sculpture was, and went to see it. Upon seeing it, she Roman copies of originalexclaimed, “Where did Praxiteles see me naked?” marble by Praxiteles. Marble, 6’ 8”••
36. 4th Century•••••• Hermes and Infant Dionysus
37. 4th Century•••••• Apollo Belvedere