Cinquecento Italy Renaissance Era Rome• Although other city-states remained outside of the control of thePope, in the Papal States (incl. Rome), the Pope increased inpower.• The brief period at the beginning of the century, betweenapproximately 1495 and 1527, is known as the High Renaissance.• The end of the High Renaissance is brought about by two factors:-The deaths of Leonardo (1519) and Raphael (1520)- The invasion of Rome in 1527 by troops made up of an alliancebetween France, Florence, Milan, and Venice.• Beginning of the notion of the “artist-genius” who was divinelyinspired (an idea originating with Plato).• Interest in classical culture, perspective, proportion, and humananatomy.• Although these interests continued through the rest of thecentury, the High Renaissance style was replaced by Mannerismaround 1530.
Materials Metalpoint Styluses• With the invention and proliferation of the printing press in the1500s, bookmakers began to develop paper made from wood pulp.• Before the invention of paper, drawings were done onparchment or vellum, coated in a white ground (such as gesso).This was expensive, so artists’ drawings were very carefullyrendered.• The artist used a technique called metalpoint, in which a smallpiece of soft metal (most often silver, referred to as silverpoint)was attached to a wooden handle, making a stylus that was theearliest precursor to the modern pencil.• As the artist drew, the metal would rub off, making a line.• Silverpoint drawings are not erasable. They begin greyish in color,but oxidize over the course of 6-12 months to brown.• Paper was a much cheaper material to draw on, freeing artists tosketch more loosely and prolifically, using materials such asmetalpoint, chalk, charcoal, ink, brush, and pen.• Disegno – the Italian word for drawing, which also became thebasis for the modern word design. During the Renaissance, a newlevel of importance was placed on drawing and design – it wasbelieved that drawings were external manifestations of internalideas.
Leonardo da Vinci’s Sketches Leonardo da Vinci c. 1510• Born in Vinci, a small town near Florence, Italy(1452-1519).• Trained by the sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio.• “Renaissance man” who was an artist and scientist• Kept a detailed journal of sketches, includingstudies of botany, geology, geography, cartography,zoology, military engineering, animal lore, anatomy,hydraulics, and mechanics.• Believed in close scientific observation, statingthat his scientific investigations made him a betterpainter.• Believed that reality in an absolute sense isinaccessible and humans can know it only throughits changing images.• Believed the eyes were the most vital organs andsight the most essential function.
Leonardo in Milan Scythed Chariot• In 1481, Leonardo chose to leave Florence, possibly Leonardo da Vincidue to political instability in Florence at the time.• He wrote a letter to Ludovico Sforza, the son of theDuke of Milan, offering his services.• In his letter, Leonardo emphasized his skill andexperience as a military engineer, as illustrated in thepicture on the right. He only briefly mentioned hisabilities as a sculptor and painter.• This emphasis of his military engineering skillsunderscores the importance of defense in the politicallyunstable climate of the time.• Sforza accepted Leonardo’s help, and Leonardo movedto Milan for the next 20 years.
Madonna of the Rocks Leonardo da Vinci. Began in 1483. Madonna of the RocksSan Francesco Grande, Milan. Oil on wood. • This is the central panel of an altarpiece that Leonardo made for the chapel of the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception in San Francesco Grande shortly after he moved to Milan. • Leonardo believed that there were two objectives to painting: to depict man and the intention of his soul. He believed the subjects “soul” could be depicted through their gestures and movement. • Leonardo also used chiaroscuro (the play of light and dark to create form) to model the figures and create mood/emotion. • Leonardo’s interest in atmosphere is evident in the gentle, dim light that envelopes his figures, revealing and obscuring them at the same time, and creating a sense of unity. • Figures are arranged in a pyramidal grouping • Figures are connected through a series of gestures and glances
Madonna and Child with St. Anne and the Infant St. John• This is an example of a cartoon, or a preliminary drawing done toprepare for a painting.• The robust figures resemble Greek statues, such as on theParthenon (although he never visited Greece, he had probablyseen Roman copies of Classical Greek statues).• Figures are organized with an intellectual pictorial logic, and litwith a gentle light to create a sense of form.• Some areas are left incomplete.Madonna and Child withSt. Anne & Infant St. JohnLeonardo da Vinci. C. 1505.Black & white charcoal onbrown paper.4’ 6” x 3’ 3”.
Last Supper • The window behind Jesus, with its arched pediment and• Commissioned by the church of Santa Maria delle Grazzie in diffused light, acts as a halo.Milan (for the refectory). • Disciples are arranged in four groups of three. Outermost• Portrays the moment at the Last Supper when Jesus reveals to disciples are calmest, to create a sense of framing.the 12 disciples that he knows one of them will betray him, and • Judas’ face is in shadow, his right hand clutches his moneythe disciples react in shock, asking, “is it I?” purse, his left reaches out on the table.• Jesus appears calm and isolated from the turmoil around him. • Leonardo attempted to make this fresco more like an oil• Jesus’ head is the vanishing point of the 1 pt perspective. painting by mixing oil and tempera, and painting on top of dried plaster, hence the deterioration. The Last Supper Leonardo da Vinci. C. 1495. Oil and tempera on plaster. 13’ 9” x 29’ 10”.
Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci. Mona Lisa C. 1505. Oil on wood. 2’ 6” x 1’ 9”.• The identity of the woman is not known for sure, butLeonardo’s biographer asserted she was Lisa di AntonioMaria Gherardini, hence Mona (a contraction of madonna “our lady”) Lisa.• This is a portrait of an individual, not an idealization.• She wears no jewelry or symbol of wealth.• However, she does gaze out toward the viewer, a signof self-assuredness in a time when etiquette dictatedthat a woman should not look directly into a man’s eyes.• The combination of a self-assured young womanwithout the trappings of power but engaging theaudience psychologically is thus remarkable.• Example of Leonardo’s sfumato (“smoky”) technique,in which he gently blurred the edges to create a sense ofatmosphere.• Seated in front of a mysterious landscape background(originally was seated in a loggia, but a later owner hadthe painting trimmed, so that only the bottoms of thecolumns are still visible).
Marriage of the Virgin• Raphaello Santi, or Raphael as he is now known, was from a smalltown near Umbria, and was taught the basics of painting by hisfather, and later joined the studio of Perugino (Keys).• This early painting was done for the chapel of St. Joseph in thechurch of San Francesco in Citta di Castello, SE of Florence.• According to the Golden Legend, a 13th century collection ofstories about the lives of the saints), Joseph competed with othersuitors for Mary’s hand. The high priest was to give the Virgin towhichever suitor presented to him a wooden rod that hadmiraculously bloomed.• Joseph holds his blooming rod in his left hand, and a wedding ringin his right, which he places on Mary’s finger.• Other virgins are on the left, and other suitors are on the right.• One frustrated suitor breaks his wooden rod on his knee, givingRaphael an opportunity to show off his skill at foreshortening. Marriage of the Virgin Raphael. Chapel of St. Joseph, San Francesco, Citta di Castello, Italy, 1504. Oil on wood. 5’ 7” x 3’ 10”.
Madonna of the Goldfinch1506. Oil on wood. 4’ 6” x 2’ 5”. Madonna of the Goldfinch • Raphael lived in Florence between 1504 and 1508, where he was introduced to the work of Leonardo. • During this period, Raphael made a series of Madonna paintings, where he blended the styles of Leonardo and Perugino. -Leonardo: draperies, triangular arrangement of figures, robust figures -Perugino: lighter colors, feathery background trees, imaginative landscape setting The Small Cowper • In Madonna of the Goldfinch, Raphael used a parting of clouds to Madonna emphasize the centralized placement of Mary. • Symmetrical stability is created through using a horizontal and vertical central axis. • The shallow cup on John the Baptist’s belt symbolizes his role as a giver of baptisms. • The goldfinch in John’s hand was a symbol for Christ’s death on the cross, explaining his pose of retreat to the security of his mother’s lap. Madonna in the Meadow
Philosophy (School of Athens) Philosophy (School of Athens) Raphael. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome.• Raphael was commissioned by Pope Julius II to paint frescoes in 1510. Fresco, 19’ x 27’.some of the rooms of the Vatican Palace.• On each of the four walls in the Stanza della Segnatura (“Room ofthe Signature,” a library in which the pope signed documents),Raphael painted images symbolizing the four branches of humanknowledge and wisdom under the headings Theology, Law(Justice), Poetry, and Philosophy (also commonly called School ofAthens). These were the learning required of a Renaissance pope.• The fresco depicts a congregation of the great ancient scientistsand philosophers, discussing their famous ideas under the cofferedbarrel vaults which recall the ancient Roman Basilica Nova.• Many of the ancient philosophers are also portraits ofRenaissance artists and architects, equating the greatness of theRenaissance luminaries with the ancient thinkers they so admired.• In the center are Plato and Aristotle. Plato points upward to therealm of ideas and pure forms that were at the center of hisphilosophy. Aristotle gestures to the world around them, signifyingthe empirical world that for him served as the basis forunderstanding.
Statues of Apollo & Athena Raphael’s self Pythagoras portrait is next writes as a too Ptolemy servant holds up (geographer, the harmonic holding a scale. terrestrial globe) and Zoroaster (astronomer, holding a celestial globe). Philosopher Heraclitus is shownbrooding, and is also a portrait of the The crowd stormy-tempered around Euclid Michelangelo, who represent the was painting the stages of Sistine Chapel next understanding: door. His literal learning, stonecutter’s boots dawning signify him as a comprehension, Socrates reclines on the steps, Euclid, father of geometry, bends over asculptor more than a anticipation of representing his teaching from his prison slate with a compass, and is also a portrait painter. the outcome, bed. The cup next to him could refer to of Bramante, the architect who was at the his death by a drink of poison (hemlock). time working on rebuilding St. Peter’s. and assisting the teacher.
Galatea, by Raphael.Sala di Galatea, Villa Farnesina, Rome. Galatea C. 1513. Fresco, 9’ 8” x 7’ 5”. • Agostino Chigi, a wealthy banker who managed the Vatican’s financial affairs, commissioned Raphael to decorate his palace with scenes from classical mythology. • Based on Stanzas for the Joust of Giuliano de’ Medici by Angelo Poliziano, whose poetry also inspired Birth of Venus. • Galatea flees on a shell drawn by dolphins to escape her uncouth lover, the cyclops Polyphemus (painted on another wall by a different artist). • The painting praises human beauty and zestful love • Compositionally, Raphael enhanced the liveliness of the image by placing the sturdy figures around Galatea in bounding and dashing movements that always return to her as the center. • How is this stylistically different from Botticelli’s Birth of Venus? • To which period of ancient Greek art is this most stylistically similar?
Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de’ Medici and Luigi de’ Rossi. Raphael. c. 1517. Oil on wood. 5’ x 3’10”. Pope Leo X • Succeeding Julius II as Raphael’s patron was Pope Leo X. • Leo, whose name before becoming pope was Giovanni de’ Medici, was the second son of the famous Lorenzo de’ Medici. • Leo became pope just after the Medici family returned to Florence after twenty years of exile, and he used his power to advance their interests. • The cardinal on the left is Giulio de’ Medici, who became “Pope Clement VII, and the man seated behind Leo’s chair is Luigi de’ Rossi, Leo’s cousin on his mother’s side. • The pope is depicted seated at a table in his study, with an illuminated 14th century manuscript (the detail of which is so accurate that it can be identified as folio 400 verso of the Hamilton Bible), with a magnifying glass and an engraved bell, items signifying him as a man of learning and collector of beautiful objects, rather than as head of state. • The three men do not look at each other or the viewer, but look outward in different directions, as if lost in thought. • How is this painting similar to earlier Netherlandish painting, such as those of Van Eyck?
Baldassare Castiglione Baldassare Castiglione by Raphael. c. 1514.• Most of Raphael’s portraits are of the wealthy members of PopeLeo X’s court, such as Count Baldassare Castiglione.• Castiglione was an author and philosopher, who wrote the Bookof the Courtier, a treatise on what it meant to be the perfectgentleman.• The book depicts a series of conversations, which take place overfour days among a group of wealthy people at a princely court. Thebook is Castiglione’s argument that the “perfect gentleman” shouldbe well-learned in the philosophies of the ancients, instead ofbeing a brutal warrior or a chivalrous but illiterate knight.• Raphael’s portrait is posed in half-length and ¾ view, as madepopular by the Mona Lisa.• Raphael sought not only to depict Castiglione realistically, butpsychically as well. What about this painting conveys Castiglione’srole as a philosophical author?
Michelangelo• Michelangelo Buonarroti was an architect, poet, engineer, andpainter, but he considered himself first and foremost a sculptor.• He believed that sculpture was better than painting because thesculptor shares in the divine power to “make man.”• He believed that the sculptor needed to find the image trapped inthe stone, then remove the excess stone to reveal the form within.• Michelangelo did not believe in using mathematical formulas toachieve the “perfect form.” Instead he believed the artist’s owneye was the best judge of proportion and beauty.• Michelangelo felt that the artist must not be bound by traditionalrules, but should have freedom of self-expression.• Michelangelo’s earlier years were spent in Florence, training andmaking artworks for the Medici family. He later went to Rome,where he completed projects for the papacy.
Pietá PietáMichelangelo. C. 1500. • Commissioned in Rome by the French cardinal Jean de BilheresMarble, 5’ 8” high. Lagrualas for the rotunda attached to the south transept of OldSt. Peter’s, Vatican Saint Peter’s, in which he was to be buried. • Pietá images were popular in France and Germany, and the cardinal probably chose the subject. • Upon the unveiling of the sculpture, the youthfulness and beauty of Mary was controversial. Michelangelo explained that her ageless beauty was integral to her purity and virginity. • Christ also seems youthful and beautiful. Michelangelo minimized the appearance of his wounds. He seems almost to have drifted to sleep. • The textures of skin, hair, and fabric are part of what made this statue so famous. The glossy polish on the skin makes the figures seem almost radiant.
DavidMichelangelo Davidc. 1504. Marble. • After finishing the Pieta, Michelangelo returned to Florence,17’ high where the Florence Cathedral building committee invited him toPiazza della Signoria, create a statue of David for the front of the Palazzo della SignoriaFlorence, Italy (city hall), to accompany those of Donatello and Verrocchio. • Michelangelo’s David stands 17’ tall, and was referred to as the Giant by Florentines. • Instead of showing the moment of David’s victory, Michelangelo shows him just before the fight, sternly watching his enemy approach, his muscles tense in anticipation. • Although this statue recalls the proportions and contrapposto of Classical Greece, the psychological intensity and attention to an outside presence are more Hellenistic. • David’s rugged torso, sturdy limbs, and large hands and feet alert viewers to the triumph to come. • In this statue, Michelangelo presented towering, pent-up emotion, rather than calm, ideal beauty.
MosesMichelangelo Mosesc. 1515. Marble. • Pope Julius II associated himself with the humanists and with7’ 8” high Roman emperors. As such, when he saw Michelangelo’s David, heTomb of Pope decided to commission him for many projects.Julius II, • His first commission was for his own tomb, which was to beRome, Italy placed in St. Peter’s. The original plan was a huge monument, which included 28 statues. • Unfortunately, the project was halted (to divert funds to the rebuilding of St. Peter’s), and gradually diminished in size, until it had only 1/3 of the original number of statues. It was ultimately placed, not in St. Peter’s, but San Pietro in Vincoli, where Julius II had served as cardinal. • This statue of Moses was originally planned to be a part of a larger cluster of statues, and seen from below. • He is depicted with horns (a misinterpretation of “rays”), the stone tablets under one arm, and his hands gathering up his long beard. • As with David, he appears to suddenly turn his head to look at something, his tense expression and taut muscles expressing a swelling anger. His legs appear to move, as if he is about to rise. • Not since Hellenistic Greece was so much energy and emotion shown in a seated statue.
Bound Slave Bound Slave (Rebellious Captive) Michelangelo• The original design for the tomb included over 20 slaves or c. 1515captives, in various stages of revolt and exhaustion. Marble,• Although traditionally, historians have believed this statue to 7’ highhave been one of the slave statues intended for the tomb, the From the tomb oftruth is unclear. Pope Julius II, Rome, Italy• Regardless, the statue is an example of Michelangelo’s ability tocreate figures that embody powerful emotional states.• This figure’s violent contrapposto is the image of frantic butimpotent struggle.
Medici Tomb in New Sacristy Tomb of Giuliano de’• After Pope Julius II died, his successor Leo X decided to not let MediciMichelangelo finish Julius’ previously planned tomb. Instead, Leo Michelangelocommissioned Michelangelo to build for him a tomb in the New c. 1525Sacristy of San Lorenzo. Marble.• Unfortunately, Michelangelo also did not finish this tomb, and his Central figure is 5’ 11” highoriginal plans for the tomb are the subject of debate. New Sacristy• Some scholars believe he intended to place a pair of recumbent (Medici Chapel),river gods at the bottom of the sarcophagus, balancing the pair San Lorenzo,above. Florence, Italy• Each level of figures would have represented the soul’s ascentthrough the Neo-Platonic universe:-River gods (not completed) = underworld of brute matter, evil-2nd level = human world of time. Left figure = night, right figure =day. Depicted chained into never relaxing tensions. Nightrepresents sleep, but seems troubled. She is surrounded with anowl, poppies, and an ugly mask representing nightmares. Thefigures allude to the life cycle and the passage of time leading todeath.-Upper figure is Giuliano de’ Medici, seated above worldly matters.Clad in Roman emperor armor and holding a commander’s baton.He is not a true likeness, but an idealized figure representative ofan active life.
Creation of Adam, detail from the Sistine Chapel Sistine Chapel Ceiling by Michelangelo• After Julius II stopped production on his tomb, he offered the Vatican City, Rome. 1508-12. Fresco. 9’2” x 18’ 8”.bitterly disappointed Michelangelo the job of painting the ceiling ofthe Sistine Chapel. Michelangelo accepted in the hopes that workon the tomb would eventually begin again.• The project was challenging for several reasons:-Large size (total size of the ceiling is 128’ x 45’)-Height (ceiling is 70’ off the floor)-Challenging foreshortening problem caused by the curvature andpendentives of the ceiling-Michelangelo was inexperienced at frescoes• The central panels are broken into three sets of three scenes totell the story of the creation of humankind (story of Noah & theflood, Story of Adam/Eve/Eden, and story of God’s creation of theworld)• The most famous panel is Creation of Adam, in which Adam, who,unanimated, is still part of the earth, receives the spark of life fromGod, who rises above the earth.• Woman under God’s left arm is either Eve or Mary (with Jesus)• Exemplary of Michelangelo’s style: 1. large, muscular bodies and2. diagonal, twisted poses. The eye follows the implied line acrossthe arms of Adam and God to off-center focal points.
Last Judgment by Michelangelo Last Judgment Altar wall of Sistine Chapel, 1526-1541. Fresco, 48’ x 44’.• Pope Leo X was succeeded by Pope Clement VII, who wassucceeded by Pope Paul III in 1534.• By this time, the Reformation that started in the North hadbecome widespread, and the Catholic Church began takingmeasures to counteract it, known as the Counter-Reformation.• During the Counter-Reformation, popes such as Paul IIIcommissioned artwork as propaganda for the Church.• One such artwork is Michelangelo’s Last Judgment, which PopePaul III commissioned for the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.• In the center, Christ judges humankind, raising his hand in agesture of damnation.• Although a few righteous people ascend to Heaven, mosttumble towards Hell, where grotesque demons attack them.• In the bottom left, the dead come to life.• The figure to the bottom right of Jesus is St. Bartholomew, whowas martyred by being skinned alive. He holds the skin (which isalso a contorted self-portrait of the artist), as well as the flayingknife.
Unfinished Pietá Unfinished Pietá Michelangelo c. 1550• In his seventies, Michelangelo set a new challenge for himself: to Marblesurpass the sculptors of Laocoön by carving four figures out of a 7’ 8” highsingle block of marble. He intended the statue for his own futuretomb in Santa Maria Maggiore.• Unfortunately, Christ’s now missing left leg broke off due to aflaw in the marble. Enraged, Michelangelo gave up on the project,and began to smash the marble.• His assistants intervened, and eventually began to repair andfinish the statue in part.• This grouping is technically a deposition group, as it also includesMary Magdalene (left) and Nicodemus (top).• Mary Magdalene does not directly make contact with Christ’sflesh, underscoring the sacredness of his body. Nicodemus,however, does. Since Nicodemus is also a self-portrait of the artist,this direct concept would have been heretical in Counter-Reformation Italy (another possible reason the statue was notcompleted).• A more vertical composition than most Michelangelo artworks.
Tempietto Bramante TempiettoSan Pietro in Montorio, • Tempietto means “Little Temple” as it is designed after ancient Rome, Italy Roman temples by Donato d’Angelo Bramante, who was originally trained as a painter before becoming an architect. • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain commissioned the temple on the Janiculum hill overlooking the Vatican, which was the presumed location of St. Peter’s crucifixion. • Although the Tempietto is now located in the rectangular cloister of the church of San Pietro in Montorio, Bramante’s original design was for it to be surrounded by a circular colonnaded courtyard, with columns aligned to the columns on the Tempietto. • One of the main differences between the Early and High Renaissance styles of architecture is the former’s emphasis on detailing flat wall surfaces versus the latter’s sculptural handling of architectural masses. • Tuscan order columns • Decorative niches in upper drum create a visually interesting interplay of light and shadow. • This building ushered in the High Renaissance style, which was more similar to classical Greece/Rome.
Plans for St. Peter’s• In 1506, Pope Julius II decided to demolish Old St. Peter’s, which • Successive plans by Raphael and Antonio da Sangallo changed ithad been built by Constantine in the fourth century, and had been to a Latin cross (one arm longer than other 3 to make a nave).the most important sacred site in Europe. • Michelangelo returned the plan to a Greek cross in 1546.• Julius commissioned Bramante to design the new church. • In the early 1600s, the Counter Reformation emphasized• Bramante’s design was a central plan Greek cross, with four communal worship, and so they needed more space for people.equal length arms crowned with one large dome, which • Pope Paul V in 1606 commissioned architect Carlo Maderno tosymbolized the perfection of God. extend one side, creating a Latin cross shape with a nave and a• In 1513 and 1514, Julius and Bramante died (respectively). new façade.
Dome of St. Peter’s Dome of St. Peter’sMichelangelo & Giacomo della Porta • In 1546, Michelangelo became in charge of the building of St. Vatican City, Rome, Italy, Peter’s. He shared Bramante’s belief that a central plan church was c. 1546-1590. ideal. • As a sculptor, he believed that architecture should follow the form of the human body, with units symmetrically arranged around a central axis, as the arms relate to the body. • Michelangelo’s design was a Greek cross inscribed in a square, with a double-colonnaded portico in the front. • Used the “colossal order” of pilasters in which the pilasters stretched over several stories (similar to Alberti’s Sant’Andrea) to create a sense of cohesion. • Michelangelo’s initial design for the dome was for it to be based on an ogival arch (pointed arch). However, he later chose to use a hemispherical dome instead, to create a greater sense of balance between the lower and upper portions of the building. • After Michelangelo’s death, Giacomo della Porta took over the project, and chose to instead use Michelangelo’s earlier ogival dome, creating the sense that the dome seems to rise from its base, rather than rest firmly on it.
Campidoglio Capitoline Hill (Campidoglio)• In 1537, Pope Paul III commissioned Michelangelo to redesign the MichelangeloCapitoline Hill, or Campidoglio. Designed c. 1537. Rome, Italy.• In ancient times, the Capitoline Hill housed the greatest templeto Jupiter in the Roman Empire.• The challenge was that he had to work around two existingbuildings: the Palace of the Conservators (south) and the Palace ofthe Senators (east), which opposed each other at an awkward 80degree angle.• Using his belief that architecture should be symmetrical like thehuman form, Michelangelo chose to build a third building, on thenorth side of the square, which would mirror the Palace of theConservators, thus creating a symmetrical group.• In the center, Paul III placed the Equestrian Statue of MarcusAurelius, which was by then correctly identified as Marcus Aurelius,but still carried an association with Constantine.• Façades feature the giant/colossal order pilasters, which serve assturdy structural support for the buildings.• The fourth side of the square was left open, leaving a view acrossthe roofs of the city to the Vatican.
Vestibule of the Laurentian Library Laurentian Library Michelangelo• This vestibule (entryway) was designed by Michelangelo for the Florence, Italy, c. 1530.Medici library adjoining the Florentine church of San Lorenzo.• He had to unite the long horizontal of the library with the narrowvertical of the vestibule.• The space is taller than it is wide, a narrowly compressed shaft.• By this point in his long career, Michelangelo was movingtowards a Mannerist style, disposing of High Renaissance rules ofproportion and balance.-He sank double columns into the walls, where they served noload-bearing purpose.-He placed scroll corbels into the wall, where they seem to simplyhang from the moldings-His pilasters were sculpted to taper downwards-He broke through cornices arbitrarily• The last part to be added was the wide, flowing stairway (c.1560), which foretold the coming dramatic movement of Baroquearchitecture.
Palazzo Farnese• Before he became Pope Paul III, the then Cardinal AlessandroFarnese commissioned Antonio da Sangallo the Younger to designa lavish private palace, the Palazzo Farnese.• After Antonio’s death in 1546, the Pope gave the remainder ofthe project to Michelangelo.• Antonio, the youngest of a family of architects, went to Rome in1503 and became Bramante’s assistant and draftsman.• Corners of the building and doorway are rusticated masonry.• Large entrance with balcony and coat of arms cartouche abovecreate a vertical central axis, which indicates the interior centralcorridor axis running through the entire building to the gardenbeyond, with rooms branching off the sides. Palazzo Farnese• 2nd story windows alternate triangular and curved pediments. Antonio daWindow frames protrude, creating sense of three-dimensionality. Sangallo the Younger• Interior courtyard features arcades separated by columns (completed by(inspired by Colosseum), and pilasters on the top story. Michelangelo)• Building designed to convey wealth, power, intimidation, and Rome, Italyfamilial identity. 1517-1550
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