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Early Greek Temples• In the Geometric period (c. 750 BCE) Greeks worshiped atoutdoor altars within walled sanctuaries; their templessheltered a statue of a god.• Few remain today, and those are mostly just foundationsand fallen columns (mud brick and wood walls and roofsare gone).• Fortunately, a ceramic model of a temple (from about 750BCE) survived, decorated with the geometric designscharacteristic of the period.• Early temples followed the style of the Mycenaeanmegaron, with an inner cella (or naos) that housed thestatue.• The structure also features a rectangular base, with aprojecting porch supported on two sturdy posts. Model of a Temple Found in the Sanctuary of Hera,• The steeply pitched roof forms a triangular area, or gable, Argos (Greece)in the façade, or front wall. c. 750 BCE. Terra cotta.
Typical Greek Temple• During the Archaic period, Greeks began enlarging theirtemples and making them out of stone.• At right is a typical Greek temple plan. The smaller threeplans show the same basic temple, but with differing outercolonnades.• Greek temples were typically a little over twice as long asthey were wide.• Temples were thought of as a “house” for the deity beinghonored, and a statue of the deity was placed in the naos. Peristyle (peripteral)However, worship happened outside of the temple. Peristyle (dipteral) amphiprostyle prostyle
Architectural Orders• During the Archaic period, two standardized elevationdesigns emerged: the Doric order and the Ionic order (theCorinthian order is a variant of the Ionic order developedduring the Hellenistic period).• The level of ornate decoration on the columns increases,as the proportional width of the column decreases, fromDoric to Ionic to Corinthian. Architectural Orders
Temple of Artemis at Corfu Scale of humans on end of • An early example of Doric architecture is the Temple of pediment Artemis on the island of Korkyra (present day Corfu). reduced to fit • Columns are fluted with no base resting directly on the them into the stylobate. Capitals are made up of 3 distinct parts: the smaller space. necking that makes the transition from the shaft, the round echinus, and the square abacus. • Doric columns are proportionally the widest of the three styles (height = 4x width), giving a sense of stability and permanence. They swell towards the middle, then taper Gorgon Medusa towards the top (called entasis), giving a sense of upward West pediment of the lift.Temple of Artemis, Korkyra (present day Corfu) • The three part entablature consists of a plain flat bandArchaic Period (c. 600 BCE) called the architrave, topped by a decorative and called the Pediment relief 9’ 2” tall frieze, and capped with a cornice. • In the Doric frieze, flat areas called metopes alternate with projecting blocks with 3 vertical grooves called triglyphs.
Temple of Artemis at Corfu • The relief of the Gorgon Medusa in the pediment was carved on a separate slab of limestone, then installed on the temple. • The figures are high relief, and actually break into the architectural frame above. • Medusa had snakes for hair and could turn humans to stone by looking at them. • She was beheaded by the legendary hero Perseus, and from her blood rose Pegasus (the winged horse, visible on the left) and the giant Chrysaor (on the right). • Flanking Pegasus and Chrysaor are felines, and past them Gorgon Medusa are dying humans, tucked into the corners of the pediment. West pediment of theTemple of Artemis, Korkyra (present day Corfu)Archaic Period (c. 600 BCE) Pediment relief 9’ 2” tall
Temple of Hera I • Another early example of Doric architecture is the Temple of Hera I, in Paestum, Italy (a Greek settlement). • This temple is unusual because its short side has an odd number of columns (9), as well as a second chamber behind the naos (which contained the statue of Hera), called the adyton, which may have held a second statue of a god (possibly Zeus). • Another unusual feature is the row of columns down the center of the naos, which helped support the roof.Temple of Hera I, • Proportionately wide columns that were closely spaced Paestum, Italy held up what was probably once a very heavy roof. c. 550 BCE • No entablature sculpture has been found, but small Archaic Period pieces of painted terra cotta have been found, which probably were once part of the decoration. Porch Adyton Naos (cella) (portico)
Temple of Aphaia (model)• The Temple of Aphaia (dedicated to a local nymph namedAphaia)• The cella was raised one step higher than outer porch.• Columns more widely spaced and more slender.• Six columns (an even number) on short side, twelve onlong side.• Cella had a double colonnade (one down each side)instead of one central one like the Temple of Hera I. Thecella columns were two-stories.• Use of an even number of columns on the front and thedouble colonnade in the cella allowed the statue to beplaced on the central axis, and provided a clear view of itfrom the pronaos. The Temple of Aphaia Aegina, Greece, c. 500. Marble. Transition to Severe (Early Classical)
Temple of Hera II• Similar to plan of Aphaia: 6 columns in front (though 14down side), 2 columns in antis, and 2 rows of columns in 2stories inside cella.• Echinuses are more tapered, form a smoother transitionto the entablature than on Hera I. Temple of Hera II Paestum, Italy, c. 460. Severe (Early Classical) Temple of Hera I
Hippodamos of Miletos• After the Persian invasion, the Greeks had to rebuild theircities. Instead of building them irregularly (as dictated bythe geography of the site), they began using a grid system.• The first Greek to do this was Hippodamos, who planneda rigidly gridded system for the rebuilding of his townMiletos. All streets, regardless of terrain, met at rightangles.• This came to be known as a Hippodamian plan (alsoknown as an orthogonal plan).• Also, the city itself was divided into separate quarters forpublic, private, and religious functions.• This desire to impose order on nature and to assign anproper place in the whole to each of the city’s constituentparts was very much in keeping with the philosophicaltenets of the fifth century BCE. Miletos City Plan
The Acropolis• Under the leadership of Pericles (an elected official),Athens began rebuilding the Acropolis after the defeat ofthe Persians in 480 BCE.• The Athenians built four new buildings under Pericles’leadership (in chronological order):-The Parthenon (447-438)-The Propylaia (437-431, left unfinished due to theoutbreak of the Peloponnesian War)-The Temple of Athena Nike (427-424)-The Erechtheion (421-405) minaret• A civic center and marketplace calledthe Agora was located at the base ofthe Acropolis. apse The Acropolis of Athens Classical Period (c. 480 – 400 BCE)
The Parthenon Parthenon Iktinos & Kallicrates Acropolis, Athens, Greece• The first major Acropolis building constructed under Classical period (438 BCE)Pericles’ program was the Parthenon.• The architect of the Parthenon was Iktinos, assisted, it isbelieved, by Kallicrates.• Phidias was the head sculptor of the artworks decoratingthe Parthenon, and was noted by the writer Plutarch to bethe overseer of the whole project.• Iktinos attempted to make the “perfect” temple, based onPythagoras’ theories about harmonic ratios.• Most of the building is based on the equation x = 2y + 1(such as the proportion of the short side to the long side, orthe distance between two columns vs. the distancebetween the center of two columns).• The façade is approximately the samedimensions as the “Golden Rectangle”
Parthenon• Although the Parthenon was highly symmetrical andfollowed a strict set of mathematical rules, the designersdid make some adjustments to counter-act optical illusions:-The stylobate (floor) and subsequently the roof are slightlyhigher in the middle (domed), because a perfectly levelfloor and roof would appear to sag in the middle.-The pillars in the four outer corners are two inches wider,because the sunlight surrounding them when viewed froma distance would make them appear thinner than theothers.-The four corner pillars are slightly tilted inward.• Although it is a mostly Doric temple, it does have someIonic elements (such as the inner Ionic frieze, and the fourIonic columns in the back room/treasury). Use of bothstyles may have symbolized that Athens was the leader ofall the Greeks.
The Parthenon Parthenon Iktinos & Kallicrates Acropolis, Athens, Greece• The Parthenon symbolized: Classical period (438 BCE)-Athenian wealth (through its use of costly materials andextensive decoration)-Athenian victory against Persians (in its sculptures andreliefs)-Athenian values of rationality and logic (in its use ofPythagorian harmonic ratios to determine proportions aswell as balanced symmetry)-Athenian belief in ideal beauty and perfection-Athenians themselves (depicted in the ionic frieze showingthe Panathenaic procession)
Propylaea • The Propylaea was intended to be a grandiose entrance- way to the top of the Acropolis. Unfortunately, due to the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, it was left unfinished. • The two central columns were spaced farther apart, to allow horses and chariots to go through during processions. • The site was difficult due to the steep slope, but the architect Mnesikles resolved the problem by creating an eastern and western sections (front and back), each one resembling the façade to a Doric temple. • The exterior columns were Doric; interior were Ionic. • Two side-wings were planned, but only the northwest one was completed. In Roman times, it housed paintings by thePropylaea most popular artists of the day. If that was its originalMnesikles purpose, it would be the first public art museum (“home forAcropolis, Athens, Greece the muses”).Classical period (431 BCE)
Temple of Athena Nike • Another building in the Acropolis complex is the Ionic, amphiprostyle Temple of Athena Nike (Athena as goddess of victory in war) • Stands on what used to be a Mycenaean bastion next to the Propylaea. • The frieze depicts the battle of Marathon, an important victory against the Persians (a human, and specific, event).Temple of Athena NikeKallicratesAcropolis, Athens, GreeceClassical period (424 BCE)
Erechtheion • Replaced the Archaic Athena temple that the Persians destroyed. • The Erechtheion honored multiple persons, including: -Athena (housed the wooden statue used in the festival) -Erechtheus (an ancient king of Athens) -Kekrops (the legendary half-man, half-serpent original king of Athens who judged the contest between Poseidon and Athena) • The contest between Athena and Poseidon was said toErechtheion have been done on that spot, and the temple houses a markMnesikles that bears the marks of Poseidon’s trident, as well as theAcropolis, Athens nearby olive-tree of Athena.Classical period(405 BCE) caryatid
Erechtheion ErechtheionMnesiklesAcropolis, Athens • • The layout of the temple is irregular, to accommodate theClassical period uneven landscape (which could not be leveled out due to(405 BCE) sacred sites in the area), and to incorporate the existing tomb of Kekrops, Athena’s olive tree, and Poseidon’s rock. • Each side of the temple is on a different ground level, and bears different ornamentation. • The south porch contains six caryatids, known as the Porch of the Maidens. • The caryatids all stand in contrapposto poses, with one leg bent forward as if relaxed. The caryatids on the left stand on their left legs, and the caryatids on the right stand on their right legs, creating a sense of balance and symmetry. • The folds of their dresses resemble the flutes of a column. • Their hair falls next to their neck in a thick braid, helping to subtly thicken and reinforce the weakest part of the column.
The Theater at Epidauros• Architect was Polykleitos the Younger, possibly thenephew of the sculptor Polykleitos.• Greek dramas were closely associated with religious rites,and would be performed during certain yearly festivals.• The shape of the amphitheater (amphi = both sides,theater = place to see) enabled everyone to have a goodview of the actors. The shape also provided good acousticsso that everyone could hear the actors. The Theater at Epidauros Epidauros, Greece Polykleitos the Younger 4th Century (Late Classical) c. 350 BCE
Mausoleum at Hallicarnassos • Tomb for Mausolos (from whom we derive the word “mausoleum”), prince of Karia and Persian governor of the region, at Halikarnassos in Asia Minor. • Mausolos admired Greek culture and brought to his court Greek writers, entertainers, and artists, as well as the greatest sculptors to decorate his tomb. • One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, it was destroyed in the Middle Ages. • The building featured over 250 life-size or larger statues of people and lions, as well as several friezes, all of which were originally brightly painted.Mausoleum at Hallicarnassos 4th Century (Late Classical) c. 350 BCE, appx. 150’ tall
Mausoleum at Hallicarnassos • Built in 3 sections: 1.a plain surfaced podium, decorated with friezes depicting battle scenes of the Greeks vs. the Amazons, and the Lapiths (legendary pre-Hellenic warriors from Thessaly) vs. the centaurs. 2.an Ionic colonnaded section. Between each column was a Mausoleum at statue of one of Mausolos’ relatives and ancestors. Hallicarnassos4th Century (Late 3.a stepped roof, topped with marble statues of a chariot Classical) and horses. c. 350 BCE • Bottom row of free-standing statuary depicts battle appx. 150’ tall between Greeks and Persians, second row depicts unknown standing figures, third row depicts hunters killing boar, lions, and deer.
Altar of Zeus at Pergamon• The spread of Greek culture during the MacedonianEmpire remained strong in the regions outside of mainlandGreece even after the death of Alexander. The architecturereflected the valuing of a more worldly, sophisticated,varied, and complex style.• The original altar complex was a single-story structure The reconstructed westwith an Ionic colonnade raised on a high podium reached front of the Altar of Zeusby a monumental staircase (68’ wide). Hellenistic period (c. 150 BCE)• The frieze surrounding the temple broke the conventionsof sculpture by having the figures reach out into the spaceof the spectator, in a theatrical and complex interaction ofspace and form.