Gothic Context• As in the Romanesque period, the innovations of the Gothic agewere in large part the outgrowth of widespread prosperity.• As people continued to move into towns, those towns developedinto large urban centers, further freeing people from the feudalsystem of old.• Within these cities, prosperous merchants formed guilds(professional associations), scholars founded the first modernuniversities, and vernacular (in the local language) literature(especially courtly romances) became popular.• Although the church was still extremely powerful, the secular(not tied to any exclusive religion) nations of modern Europe werebeginning to take shape, such as England, Spain, and France.• The Gothic era varies depending upon country, but it is dividedroughly into three periods: Europe around 1200 CE-Early Gothic (1140 – 1194)-High Gothic (1194 – 1300)-Late Gothic (1300 – 1500)
Pointed Arches• One of the most significant technical innovations to • Furthermore, the height of a rounded arch is dictated byinfluence architecture was the invention of the pointed its width, so the height of the transverse arches across thearch. nave were always higher than the height of the arcades• Unlike the rounded arches of old, the pointed arch down either side of the nave.sent the weight of roof more directly downward, instead • By contrast, an architect could change the height of aof outward, and thus needed less buttressing. pointed arch to any height by altering how quickly it tapered• This allowed the architect to put in more windows in up to the top point. This enabled the architect to make all ofthe church, making the interior lighter. the arches in the nave (both transverse, diagonal, and side arcade) equal in height, raising the total height of the nave.• The pointed shape of the pointed arch also draws theeye upward, creating the illusion that the vault is taller,even when it is not.
Gothic Architecture1. Pinnacle – A sharply pointed ornament capping the piers or flying buttresses; also used on facades.2. Flying buttress – Masonry struts that transfer the thrust of the nave vaults across the roofs of the side aisles and ambulatory to a tall pier rising above the church’s exterior wall.3. Vaulting web – The masonry blocks filling the area between the ribs of a groin vault.4. Diagonal rib – In plan, one of the ribs forming the X of a groin vault.5. Transverse rib – A rib crossing the nave or aisle at a 90-degree angle.6. Springing – the lowest stone of an arch. In Gothic vaulting, the lowest stone of a diagonal or transverse rib.
Gothic Architecture7. Clerestory – The windows below the vaults in the naveelevation’s uppermost level. By using flying buttressesand rib vaults on pointed arches, Gothic architects couldbuild huge clerestory windows and fill them with stainedglass held in place by ornamental stonework calledtracery.8. Oculus – A small, round window (not to be confusedwith a rose window).9. Lancet – A tall, narrow window crowned by a pointedarch.10. Triforium – The story in the nave elevation consistingof arcades, usually blind arcades but occasionally filledwith stained glass.11. Nave arcade – The series of arches supported bypiers separating the nave from the side aisles.12. Compound pier (cluster pier) with shafts (responds) –A pier with a group, or cluster, of attached shafts, orresponds, extending to the springing of the vaults.
St. Denis, Paris • Originally a Carolingian church, St. Denis was remodeled under the supervision of Abbot Suger (SOO-zher), who was the head of the abbey at the time, as well as an advisor to the French Kings Louis VI and VII. • At the time, the French kings only truly ruled an area called the Île-de-France, which encompassed only the area within about 100 miles of Paris, but they had pretensions to rule all of France. • As St. Denis had been the burial place of most French kings since Merovingian times, it was decided that rebuilding the church would help to increase the prestige of the monarchy. • The new renovations included pointed arches, equalized ceiling heights, and stained glass windows, which is why the new St. Denis is considered the first truly Gothic structure. • The abbey is named for Saint Denis who brought Christianity to Gaul in third century, and was martyred. According to legend, after his execution, Denis miraculously stood up andSt. Denis (Abbey Church) marched to his grave, carrying his severed head in his hands. Near Paris, France The abbey houses his tomb.
St. Denis, Paris • The features of the new structure included: -A remodeled choir and ambulatory, surrounded with seven consecutive radiating chapels. The use of pointed arches enabled higher ceiling height and thinner piers, making the ambulatory seem more connected to the choir as one large room. -Extensive use throughout of large, stained glass windows, which Abbot Suger believed let in lux nova (“new light”). -A taller nave and tower which used pointed arches with ribbed vaulting, creating a greater sense of heavenly lift. -An array of gem-encrusted and golden furniture, most importantly the main altar in front of the saint’s tomb. • In Suger’s eyes, his splendid new church, permeated with light and outfitted with gold and gems, was a place halfway between Heaven and Earth. • He regarded a lavish investment in art as a spiritual aid, notSt. Denis (Abbey Church) as an undesirable distraction for the pious monk, setting the Near Paris, France stage for the proliferation of costly and elaborately decorated cathedrals in the Gothic age.
Laon Cathedral, Laon • Begun about 1160, finished shortly after 1200. • Sexpartite rib vaults similar to Romanesque St. Etienne. • Included a new feature, the triforium, a row of arcades below the clerestory. The triforium occupies the space corresponding to the exterior strip of wall covered by the sloping timber roof above the galleries. • The insertion of the triforium into the Romanesque three- story nave elevation increased the number to four: nave arcade, vaulted gallery, triforium, and clerestory. • The façade includes the very Gothic large rose window, as well as deep porches in front of the doorways, and open towers. • The architecture at Laon exemplifies the Gothic inclination to reduce sheer mass and replace it with intricately framed voids (negative spaces).Laon Cathedral Laon, France
The Rise of Paris • French capital moved to Paris by Louis VI in 1130. • Around 1200, Philip II Augustus, who was at the time experiencing success in expanding French territories, made significant improvements to Paris by paving the streets, building its walls, and constructing the Louvre as his palace (which is today a famous museum). He became known as the “maker of Paris.” • Construction of the University of Paris attracted the best thinkers in Europe, making Paris the intellectual center of the West (although Rome remained the religious center). • A group of thinkers known as Schoolmen developed a philosophy called Scholasticism. They were introduced to the teachings of Aristotle by the Arabic scholars of Islamic Spain,Notre Dame on the and sought to use Aristotle’s method of logical inquiry and “Île-de-la-Cité” argument to prove the central articles of Christian faith. Paris, France • Peter Abelard (1079-1142)- the most influential early Schoolman who helped develop Scholasticism. • Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)- Italian monk, moved to Paris, taught at University of Paris, and wrote Summa Theologica, a model of Scholastic approach to knowledge with five ways to prove the existence of god by argument. Later made a saint.
Notre Dame, Paris • Notre Dame is French for “Our Lady,” and is a name given to several Gothic cathedrals due to the rise in popularity of the Virgin Mary at the time. We will distinguish between the various Notre Dames by their cities of location. • After Louis VI moved to Paris, the city needed a major cathedral. This cathedral replaced a previous Merovingian basilica. • Built on an island in the Seine river that flows through Paris known as the Île-de-la-Cité. • Built in parts over the course of about 100 years. The choir and transept were finished in 1182, but the façade was not done until about 1250 or 1260. • First use of flying buttresses on a major urban cathedral. • Oculus windows over each of the clerestory lancets. • Spire was added much later. • Sexpartite vaulting on ceiling.Notre DameParis, France
Notre Dame, Chartres• The original cathedral at Chartres was built around 1145 in theEarly Gothic style, but much of it burned down in 1194.• The westwork and the crypt (which housed the cathedrals mostprecious relic, the mantle of the Virgin Mary) remained, but therest of the church was rebuilt in the new High Gothic style.• The west portal, part of the original structure, is known as theRoyal Portal (because of the sculptures of kings and queens thatadorn it).• The north and south portals (on either end of the transept) arepart of the new structure, and are stylistically different from thewest portal.
Royal Portal, Chartres• Royal Portal named for the kings and queens on either sideof the door jambs.• Central tympanum depicts the second coming of Christ. He issurrounded by the signs of the 4 evangelists. The 12 apostlesare on the lintel below, and the 24 elders on the archivolts.• Left tympanum depicts Christ’s Ascension into Heaven,surrounded by signs of the Zodiac in the archivolts,symbolizing the cosmic and earthly worlds.• Right tympanum depicts the Virgin with the infant Jesus inher lap. She maintains a central role due to the popularity ofthe Cult of the Virgin, who held her in high esteem and sawher as the kindly Queen of Heaven, standing compassionately Royal Portalbetween the last judge and the horrors of Hell, interceding for West façade, Notre Dame of Chartresall her faithful.
Royal Portal, Chartres• The capitals are decorated with scenes from the life of theVirgin and Christ, creating a kind of frieze that unites thethree doorways visually and iconographically.• The taller figures are the royal ancestors of Christ,although some people may have regarded them as the kingsand queens of France (which was the motivation for thedamage done to the similar figures at St. Denis during theFrench revolution).• They are different from classical caryatids in that they aremerely attached to the columns behind them, they are notthemselves the columns.• Style: The figures stand rigidly upright, arms held in tightly,linear folds of their garments and their elongatedproportions (inherited from Romanesque style) echoing theverticality of the columns behind them.• Faces appear more naturalistic than Romanesque faces.Kindly facial expression. Initiated an era concerned withpersonality and individuality.• Originally brightly painted. Jamb figures, Royal Portal, Notre Dame, Chartres c. 1150
Jamb Figures, South Transept• Although still attached to columns, the jamb figures on thesouth transept (built after the fire) are less column-like intheir pose, and project further out from the wall.• Faces are more expressive and individualized, and robesare more natural than the Early Gothic style.• St. Theodore, depicted on the Porch of the Martyrs, standswith his head turned to the left, and his hips to the right,creating a sense of curved classical contrapposto (recallingPolykleitos’ Spear Bearer).• Theodore is dressed as an idealized, youthful Christianknight, clad in the chainmail of the 13th century crusaders,with one hand resting on his decorated shield, and the otherhis spear.• Transition from Early to High Gothic style was similar totransition from Archaic to Classical Greece. St. Theodore, Porch of the Martyrs, Jamb Figures, Porch of the Confessors South Transept Notre Dame, Chartres c. 1230
Chartres Plan Chartres’ New Nave Nave Interior, Notre Dame, Chartres• After the fire of 1194, the nave and transept of Chartres Begun 1194was rebuilt. It had several distinctive changes in style, whichis why it is considered the first example of High Gothicarchitecture.• It was the first cathedral to have the flying buttressesincluded in its original inception, allowing the architects toremove the gallery from the nave elevation (which used toserve as part of the buttressing). Laon Plan• The removal of the gallery left only 3 levels (nave arcade,triforium, and clerestory), instead of the Early Gothic four.• The nave ceiling was divided into rectangles that onlyspanned one bay, instead of the previously typical two bays.• Each ceiling rectangle was simple in design, consisting ofonly four parts instead of six (compare plans to the right).This helped to unify the interior.
Making Stained Glass• Stained glass was first used in the fourth century, but it wasduring the Gothic era that it became the most popular.• Stained glass is made by following a number of steps,involving several people:- First, a master designer draws the design on a wooden panel,indicating all the linear details and noting the colors for eachsection.- Glass-blowers provided flat sheets of colored glass to glaziers(glassworkers) who cut the glass into the various shapes.- Painters added details (such as on the face on the right) withenamel on the glass, using the designer’s wooden panelunderneath the glass as a guide. The glass pieces were heatedin a kiln to fuse the enamel.- Glaziers then joined the glass panels together using thin,flexible strips of lead. The leading held the glass piecestogether, and served to separate the colors to heighten theeffect of the design as a whole.- Finally, the glaziers strengthened the completed window withan armature of iron bands, which in the 12th century formed agrid over the entire design. In the 13th century, the bandsfollowed the outlines of the medallions and surrounding areas.
Our Lady of the Beautiful Windows Chartres Stained Glass (Notre Dame de la Belle Verriére), Detail of a window in the choir of Chartres Cathedral, FR• The stained glass windows at Chartres were paid for by workers’ c. 1170 with 13th century side panelsguilds and royalty.• The lancet window referred to as Our Lady of the BeautifulWindows was one of the originals to survive the fire of 1194.• The central section, with the red background, depicts the VirginMary enthroned, holding the Christ child on her lap. The dove ofthe Holy Spirit is above.• The surrounding angels (blue backgrounds) are not originals;they were added when the window was reinstalled in the choirafter the fire.• How is this depiction of Mary with a baby Jesus similar ordifferent from some of the others we have seen?• “The glass windows in a church are Holy Scriptures, which expelthe wind and the rain, that is, all things hurtful, but transmit thelight of the True Sun, that is, God, into the hearts of the faithful.” - William Durandus, bishop of Mende (c. 1250)
Chartres Stained Glass Rose window and lancets North transept,• This window is from the 13th century, after the fire. Notre Dame• Because the builders of the new nave planned from the outset to Chartres, FRuse flying buttresses, they were able to also include plans for c. 1220expansive stained glass windows (this one is 43’ wide).• This rose window and its lancets were commissioned by QueenBlanche of Castile, around 1220.• Reflecting the royalty of the patron is the inclusion of the yellowcastles and fleur-de-lis (a three-petaled iris flower that was asymbol for French royalty as well as the Virgin Mary, and later theHoly Trinity).
Chartres Stained Glass • In the roundel in the middle is another enthroned Virgin Mary, again holding the Christ child. • Above her are four doves, and below are eight angels. • Twelve square panes contain images of Old Testament kings, including David and Solomon. These are the royal ancestors of Christ.Rose window detailNorth transept,Chartres
Chartres Stained Glass• The central lancet below the rose window depicts Saint Anneand the baby Virgin.• Flanking St. Anne are four of Christ’s Old Testamentancestors: Melchizedek, David, Solomon, and Aaron.• Almost the entire mass of wall opens up into stained glass,held in place by intricate stone tracery. The designers tried tosubtract as much stone as possible, just short of destabilizingthe building, which has proven itself successful by lasting over800 years so far. Lancet detail North transept, Chartres
Laon Notre Dame, Amiens • Architects: Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de Cormont, and Renaud de Cormont • Began in 1220, nave finished 1236, radiating chapels finished 1247, choir finished 1270. • Significantly taller than Laon, Paris, or Chartres, the nave of Amiens is 144 feet tall. • Façade similar in style to Laon, with three deep portals. • However, the stone carvings on Amiens is more intricate and detailed, and the greater height of the nave is apparent by the height of the rose window. • The row of figures below the rose window is the king’s gallery. • The shorter tower was added in the 1300s; the taller tower was added in the 1400s. West Façade,Notre Dame, Amiens, FR Began in 1220 Beau Dieu (Beautiful God) Trumeau
Nave,Notre Dame, Amiens, FRc. 1220 Notre Dame, Amiens • The architects borrowed the rectangular vaulting system of Chartres, but pushed it to go even higher, on even more slender piers. • They eliminated as much stone from the structure as possible, and replaced it with open space or windows, creating a sense of buoyant lightness. • The crossing and the choir are the exception to the otherwise regular rectangle vaults. • From below, the vaulting over the choir looks like a canopy. • The clerestory and the triforium are filled with large stained glass windows. Not since Hagia Sophia had light played such an important role in the visual effect of a church.
Reims CathedralReims, France, c. 1225-1290 Notre Dame, Reims • Reims is pronounced like “rance” or “rass” • Architects: Gaucher de Reims and Bernard de Soissons • King’s gallery located above the rose window and placed in taller and more ornate frames. • Generally, the components of the façade are similar to Amiens, but “stretched” taller. • Rose window set in a pointed arch. • Pinnacles above the portal tall and elaborate. • Stained glass windows in the tympana. • Statues and reliefs on the west façade focus on the Virgin Mary. • Paid for in part by indulgences – indulgences were pardons for sins committed that could be purchased (with money) from the clergy.
Annunciation and Visitation • The columns are of decreased significance and size, serving to detach the sculptures from their architectural background. • The pair to the left depict the Annunciation, in which the angel Gabriel visits Mary to announce to her that she will bear a child. • The pair to the right depict the Visitation, wherein Mary visits her older cousin Elizabeth (who is pregnant with John the Baptist) to inform her of the news. • These sculptures were made over a period of about 25 years, and involved several different sculptors. • Compare the right pair with the left pair. How are they stylistically different? What artistic period were the sculptors of the pair on the right more familiar with and how can you tell? • In the pair on the left, how is Gabriel stylistically different from Mary? Annunciation (left) and Visitation (right)Jamb statues on the right side of the central doorway of the west façade, Reims Cathedral, France, c. 1230
Sainte-Chapelle, Paris • Built by Louis IX as a chapel joined to the royal palace as a repository for the crown of thorns and other relics of Christ’s passion he had purchased in 1239 from his cousin Baldwin II, the Latin emperor of Constantinople. • A masterful example of the Rayonnant (“radiant”) style • Stained glass makes up 75% of the structure. • Suffered some damage (now restored) during the revolution • Although most of the windows depict scenes from the Old Testament depicting the royal ancestors of Jesus, there is one window depicting scenes from the life of Louis IX.Sainte-Chapelle,Ile-de-la-Cite, • “Sainte-Chapelle” translates as “Holy Chapel”Paris, France • Louis IX (ruled 1226-1270) was considered an ideal king,c. 1245 revered for his piety, justice, truthfulness, and charity. He was famous for his diplomacy, and under his rule France was peaceful and prosperous. He lead two unsuccessful crusades, and died during the second. He was made a saint less than thirty years after his death.
The Virgin of Paris The Virgin of ParisNotre Dame, Paris, FR • From the Late Gothic period.Early 14th Century • Located in Notre Dame, Paris, hence its name. • Mary is depicted as a worldly queen, wearing a large, gem-encrusted crown. • The baby Jesus reaches toward his young mother in a tender moment, an example of the continued humanization of religious figures in the Late Gothic period (similar to Hellenistic Greece). • Pose is an exaggerated S-curve
The Virgin of Paris The Virgin of ParisNotre Dame, Paris, FR • From the Late Gothic period.Early 14th Century • Located in Notre Dame, Paris, hence its name. • Mary is depicted as a worldly queen, wearing a large, gem-encrusted crown. • The baby Jesus reaches toward his young mother in a tender moment, an example of the continued humanization of religious figures in the Late Gothic period (similar to Hellenistic Greece).S-curve • Pose is an exaggerated S-curve
The Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreaux • Much smaller in scale than the Virgin of Paris . • Wealthy patrons would commission statuettes of religious figures such as this one for private worship, or to donate to churches. • This statue was commissioned by the French queen JeanneVirgin of Jeanne d’Evreux d’Evreux, and donated to the abbey of St. Denis.St. Denis, France, 1339Silver gilt and enamel, • Mary stands on a rectangular base that is decorated with enamel2’ 3.5” high scenes of Christ’s passion. • Despite the subject matter depicted on the base, Mary does not appear to mourn. Instead, she gazes tenderly at Jesus, who playfully reaches up to touch her face. • Originally depicted with a crown, a sense of royalty is also communicated through the scepter shaped as a fleur-de-lis (a symbol of the French monarchy). • The statuette is also a reliquary. The scepter contained several hairs believed to be from Mary’s head. • As with the Virgin of Paris, Mary stands with an exaggerated S- curve pose.
The Castle of Love• During the Gothic period arose the popularity of thecourtly romance, in which a brave, honorable knightpolitely courted a virtuous lady.• The secular theme of the courtly romance was oftenincorporated into private artworks, such as this jewelrybox lid. Items such as this might have been given by asuitor to his lady of interest.• This jewelry box was based off of an allegorical poemcalled the Romance of the Rose.• On the lid, knights are laying siege to a castle ofmaidens by shooting flowers from their bows, andhurling baskets of flowers over the castle walls withcatapults. Castle of Love Jewelry box,• In the central panel, two knights joust as the maidens From Paris, FRlook on over the castle wall. c. 1330-1350• On the right, a knight receives his reward: a bouquet Ivory and ironof roses from a chastely dressed maiden on horseback. 4.5” x 9.75”• The side of the box includes the legend of the unicorn,a medieval allegory of female virtue (only a virgin couldattract the unicorn, thereby proving her moral purity.
House of Jacques Coeur, Reims• Jacques Coeur (pronounced “kerr”) was a wealthy financier whoowned banking houses in several major cities in France and abroad,and was the friend of Pope Nicholas V as well as the treasurer of Inner façadeKing Charles VII. and Courtyard• Unfortunately, Coeur was framed by his enemies for having of the House ofpoisoned the king’s mistress, Agnes Sorel. The judges who Jacques Coeursentenced him to prison and confiscated his wealth were among Bourges, FR,those who owed him money. Coeur escaped to Rome, where the c. 1450pope warmly received him.• His townhouse in his native city of Bourges (Boorj) is the bestsurviving example of Late Gothic domestic architecture.• The parts of the house are arranged around an open courtyard.• Ground level: included maintenance shops, storage rooms,servants’ quarters, and baths (a rare luxury at the time)• Upper stories: offices, family rooms, a private chapel (over theentrance), and a treasury (in one of the towers).• Decoration: large pointed-arch stained-glass windows, steeppyramidal roofs of varying heights, and a canopied niche facing thestreet that once housed a royal equestrian statue.
Salisbury Cathedral, England • By the second half of the 13th century, the French Gothic style was spreading throughout western Europe. • Because each area had its own style of Romanesque architecture, each area then blended its local style to the French Gothic style to create its own variety of Gothic architecture. • The English Gothic style emphasized linear pattern and horizontality instead of the French structural logic and verticality. • Salisbury was begun the same year as Amiens. • The façade includes some French Gothic features (such as pointed lancet windows) but is structurally just a flat, wide screen for the nave. The levels do not match the interior levels.Salisbury Cathedral • Instead of emphasizing the height of the façade, the focus is onSalisbury, England the great crossing tower (added around 1330). 1220-1258 • Only a few flying buttresses, and an unusual double-transept. • The pier responds stop at the springing of the nave arches, and do not continue upwards to the vault ribs. • Contrast between the light stone of the walls and vaults and the dark marble used for the moldings.
Chapel of Henry VII, England • Since Romanesque times, the use of elaborate architectural pattern for its own sake had been a distinguishing characteristic of English architecture. The use of patterns became increasingly complex, culminating in what is known as the Perpendicular style. • The Perpendicular style takes its name from the emphasis on verticality of its decorative details, in contrast with earlier English Gothic churches such as Salisbury. • A late example of the Perpendicular style is the Chapel of Henry VII, adjoining Westminster Abbey in London. • Architects: Robert and William Vertue • Use of fan vaults (vaults with radiating ribs forming a fanlike pattern) and large hanging pendants. • • •Chapel of Henry VIIWestminster Abbey London, England c. 1500
Strasbourg Strasbourg Cathedral Strasbourg, France c. 1230• Located in present-day France, but at the time was part ofthe German Rhineland part of the Holy Roman Empire, ruledby Ottonian successors.• The apse, choir, and transepts were begun in 1176, andcompleted by 1230. Stylistically, these sections areRomanesque, but the decorations, especially the portals of thesouth transept, are markedly Gothic.• Of all buildings built entirely within the Gothic period, thiscathedral is the tallest one still standing.
Dormition of the Virgin, Strasbourg• The tympanum of the left doorway of the south transept is anexample of the classical revival style of the French Gothic era thathad spread to the Rhineland.• It depicts Mary on her deathbed. The 12 apostles gather aroundMary, forming an arc of mourners well-suited to the semicircularframe.• At the center, Christ receives his mother’s soul (depicted as thedoll-like figure in Christ’s hands).• Mary Magdalene crouches in front of the deathbed in sorrow.• The figures express profound sorrow through dramatic poses andgestures.• The sculptor’s objective was to imbue the sacred figures withhuman emotions and to stir emotional responses in observers.• The figures wear rippling drapery, with deeply incised folds. Dormition (or Death) of the Virgin• The figures on the edges are smaller, and those in the back of the Tympanum of the left doorway of the south transeptcrowd do not have feet. Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France c. 1230
Naumburg Cathedral• Although he is not the patron of the whole NaumburgCathedral in northern Germany, Bishop Dietrich II of Wettindid commission the western choir, and oversee thecompletion of the building.• The bishop built the choir as a memorial to the twelvedonors of the original 11th-century church.• The artist who oversaw the team of sculptors responsiblefor building the choir screen is known as the NaumburgMaster.• In the center of the screen is the crucified Christ. On eitherside are the grieving John the Evangelist and Virgin Mary. Crucifixion Naumburg Cathedral• John weeps openly, unable to look at Jesus. Mary also does Naumburg, Germanynot look at Jesus, but instead gestures towards the c. 1250worshippers of the church, seemingly offering to intercede on Figures aretheir behalf at the last judgment. painted limestone• Continues the emphasis on heightened emotion.• Figures retain their original paint, giving a sense of what theoutdoor sculptures (also typically painted) would haveoriginally looked like.
Ekkehard and Uta, Naumburg• Within the choir are statues of the original donors, carvedagain by the Naumburg Masters’ workshop of sculptors.• Two of these figures are the military governor Ekkehard II ofMeissen and his wife, Uta.• The statues are attached to columns and stand beneatharchitectural canopies, following the pattern of French Gothicportal statuary.• Ekkehard appears as an intense Christian knight. Uta, bycontrast, is aloof yet beautiful, pulling her cloak partially infront of her face. The sculptor has convincingly indicated theform of her arm and hand underneath her cloak.• The realistic draping of the clothing as well as theindividualized expressions and features imply that thesculptor probably viewed a live model (since Ekkehard andUta would have died several hundred years before these Ekkehard and Uta Naumburg Cathedralstatues were made, and thus could not have posed for the Naumburg, Germanysculptor themselves). c. 1250 Painted limestone 6’ 2” high
Röttgen Pietà Röttgen Pietà• The confident 13th-century portraits at Naumburg contrast Rhineland, Germanygreatly with the haunting 14th-century German painted wooden c. 1300statuette of the Virgin Mary, holding the dead Christ in her lap. Painted wood• “Pietà” is Italian for pity or compassion, and is the word used to 2’ 10.5” highdescribe an artwork that depicts Mary cradling the dead body ofChrist.• Named after an art collector, not the original patron.• The artist has stylized the bodies to emphasize the level ofemotional suffering. Christ’s body is twisted and full of gapingwounds, his head thrown back with an expression of pain. Maryleans forward to cradle him, an expression of anguish on her face.• The artist made the heads disproportionately large to accentuatethe emotions on the faces, as well as to make Christ’s body seemeven more emaciated by contrast.• The work seems to challenge the viewer to compare their ownsuffering to the suffering of Mary and Christ.
Cologne Cathedral, Germany• Original Architect: Gerhard of Cologne• Although Gothic style sculptures could be found earlier, itwas not until the mid-1200s that the French Gothic stylefound its way into the architecture of the Holy RomanEmpire.• Construction of this church lasted over 600 years.• Work halted entirely from the mid-16th to the mid-19thcenturies, when church officials unexpectedly discoveredthe 14th-century design for the façade. Gothic Revivalarchitects then completed the building according to theoriginal plans, adding the nave, towers, and façade to theeast end, which had stood alone for several centuries.• Large in size, the nave is 422 feet long, and the choir is 150feet high (based on the design for Amiens).• The structural strength of the building was proven during Cologne CathedralWorld War II, during which there was severe aerial bombing Cologne, Germanyin Cologne. Aside from the windows blowing out, the church Begun 1248suffered no other damage. Nave, façade, and towers completed 1880
Shrine of the Three Kings Shrine of the Three Kings• Artist: Nicholas of Verdun, the leading Mosan artist (from the Nicholas of VerdunMeuse River valley in present-day Belgium), known for his work in Cologne Cathedralprecious metals and enamels. Germany• Patron: Philip von Heinsberg, archbishop of Cologne, c. 1190 5’ 8” x 6’ x 3’ 8”commissioned the shrine to contain relics from the three magi. Silver, bronze,• The relics of the magi had been acquired by the Holy Roman enamel, gemstonesEmperor Frederick Barbarossa in the conquest of Milan in 1164.Possession of the magi’s relics gave the Cologne archbishops theright to crown German kings.• It is a large reliquary at six feet long, and is made of silver,bronze, enamel, and various gemstones.• Overall shape is that of a basilican church.• Repoussé figures of the Virgin, the three magi, Old Testamentprophets, and New Testament apostles in arcuated frames.• Deep channels and tight bunches of drapery folds are hallmarksof Nicholas’ style.
Orvieto Cathedral, Italy • Architect: Lorenzo Maitani • Characteristically French Gothic aspects are:Orvieto Cathedral -the pointed gables over the three doorwaysOrvieto, ItalyBegun 1310 - the rose window and statues in niches in the upper zone - the four large pinnacles dividing the façade into three bays • The larger outer two pinnacles serve as miniature substitutes for the large towers of a Gothic westwork. • The façade is a Gothic overlay masking a basilican structure in the Tuscan Romanesque tradition. Few Italian architects fully embraced the Gothic style.
Orvieto Cathedral, Italy• The interior of Orvieto reveals a timber roof and rounded archesin the nave arcade and chancel arch, more closely related to earlyChristian churches than Gothic.• Only two levels to the nave elevation: the nave arcade and theclerestory.
Florence Cathedral, Italy • Primary architect: Alfonso di Cambio • Florence Cathedral is also called Santa Maria del Fiore (Italian for Holy Mary of the Flower). • The cathedral was intended to be the most beautiful church in all of Tuscany, and it reveals the competitiveness Florentines felt with cities such as Siena and Pisa. • Outer surface decorated with geometric marble-encrusted designs. The revetment (decorative wall panels) was designed to match the revetment of the 11th century baptistery of San Giovanni in front of it. • The campanile (bell tower) is free-standing. • The emphasis is on horizontality, not verticality like the Gothic Florence Cathedral churches of France.Florence, Italy, c. 1300 • The façade was not completed until the 19th century, and then in a form altered from its original design. Italian builders had little concern for the facades of their churches, because they considered the façade to be a decorative screen, instead of an integral part of the architecture.
Doge’s Palace, Italy • Venice was ruled by a tightly-knit corporation of ruling families , instead of a central king. It was a republic instead of a monarchy. • The Doge’s (duke’s) seat of government was the Doge’s Palace. • The bottom row is an arcade of pointed arches. • The second row is made up of ogee arches (arches made up of double-curving lines). • Above the ogee arches are medallions pierced with quatrefoils. • Each story is taller than the one below it. The top story isDoge’s Palace larger than the two bottom stories combined. Venice, Italy • The upper story’s wall is patterned using white and rose-Begun c. 1340 colored marbles. • Colorful, decorative, light and airy in appearance, this Venetian palace is ideally suited to this unique Italian city that Ogee Arch floats between water and sky.
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