Value Flow Science - Fitter lifecycles from lean balanced scorecards (2011)

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Test Management Summit conference Jan 2011, London.

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Value Flow Science - Fitter lifecycles from lean balanced scorecards (2011)

  1. 1. UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011Value Flow Science – fitter lifecyclesfrom lean balanced scorecards Func Spec Reviewers Sys Test Analysts Tech Design Reviewers Int Test AnalystsNeil ThompsonThompson information Systems Consulting Ltd(material co-developed with Mike Smith, Learntesting / ©Thompson Testing Solutions Group) information Systemsv1.2 Consulting Ltd 1
  2. 2. “Quality is value to some person(s)” UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMITJerry Weinberg, 26 Jan 2011Quality Software Management 1992 Quality is Yes, but... Quality is value to me value to me Quality is Quality is value to me value to me Quality is value to me Quality is Quality is value to me value to me ©Thompson information “Summit” image from www.topnews.in Systems Consulting Ltd 2
  3. 3. To balance quality: UK FIFTH the Value Flow ScoreCard TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011 SIX VIEWPOINTS of what stakeholders want Supplier Process Product Customer Financial Improvement & InfrastructureObjectives WHY we do thingsMeasures WHAT (will constituteTargets success) HOW toInitiatives do things well It’s a simple table which we can use to help control our work: • do things “well enough” for an appropriate balance of stakeholders • in this presentation, test policy/strategy, test coverage, ©Thompson process improvement and process definition information • (but arguably can apply it to anything!) Systems Consulting Ltd 3
  4. 4. The software lifecycle as a flow of value UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011• Working systems have value; documents in themselves do not; so this is the RAW MATERIALS FINISHED PRODUCT quickest route! a b c Stated requirements Demonstrations & acceptance tests Programming• SDLCs are necessary, but introduce impediments to value flow: misunderstandings, disagreements… documents are like inventory/stock, or “waste” Implicit a b c a b d requirements ’ Documented ? Acceptance tests I I requirements ? Meeting / escalation to agree Intermediate documentation! ©Thompson information Programming Systems Consulting Ltd 4
  5. 5. To improve value flow: agile methods UK FIFTHfollowing principles of lean manufacturing TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011LEVELS OF DOCUMENTATION, FLOW OF FULLY-WORKINGpushed by specifiers SOFTWARE, pulled by customer demand + Test SpecificationsRequirements Accepted System- tested + Func Spec WORKING SOFTWARE Integrated + Technical Design Unit / Component -tested + Unit / Component ©Thompson information specifications Systems 5 Consulting Ltd
  6. 6. But can apply principles to any lifecycle... UK FIFTHThis material has been jointly developed with Mike Smith, who authored: TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011• white papers on test process (1999 & 2002)• keynote presentation to Ericsson on measurement in testing (2007)Neil Thompson’s earlier works:• Organisation before automation (EuroSTAR 1993, multidimensionality of test coverage)• Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints & Systems Thinking in process definition (STAREast 2003), SDLC (EuroSP3 2004), and process improvement (EuroSTAR 2006) Both of us: participation in the Software Testing Retreat – “Test entities” and “Appropriate Testing” (ApT) Holistic Test Analysis & Design, STARWest 2007 • a flexible tabular format used for test coverage Separating “what” from • relating this to Balanced ScoreCards (Kaplan & “how”, ICST 2008: Norton, business strategy etc) • Test Conditions as the keystone test entity SIGiST 2008:Value Flow ScoreCards for better ©Thompsonstrategies, coverage and processes Next Generation Testing 2009: information Balancing SDLC Value Flow Systems Consulting Ltd 6
  7. 7. (a) Taking Balanced ScoreCard beyond UK FIFTH strategy TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011www.balancedscorecard.org (Financial)© Paul Arveson 1998version after valueKaplan & Norton Efficiency Productivity On-time, in budget Customer Improve Process (User) (“Manufact’g”) ment Compliance Benefits eg TPI/TMM… Acceptance eg ISO9000 Predictability Satisfaction Repeatability Learning - Complaints Innovation - Mistakes Product Risks - Faults Software Quality version - Failures published by Isabel Evans www.testing-solutions.com, adapted here by Neil Thompson • We can apply these (complementary) WHY Objectives views of quality WHAT Measures Targets to testing HOW Initiatives ©Thompson informationAlso acknowledging Philip B. Crosby, David A. Garvin, Robert M. Pirsig... Systems Consulting Ltd 7
  8. 8. (b) Treating each part of lifecycle as a UK FIFTHlink of value chain TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011• Value chain ≈ Supply chain: Financial Efficiency – in the IS SDLC, each participant Productivity On-time, should try to ‘manage their in budget - Cost of quality supplier’ Supplier Customer VALIDATION Upward – for example, development management Risks Benefits supplies testing Information gathering Acceptance Satisfaction (in trad lifecycles, at least!) - Complaints Improve- – we add supplier viewpoint to the ment other 5, giving a 6th view of quality eg TPI/TMM… Predictability• Now each step in Learning Innovation the value chain can manage its inputs, outputs and other stakeholders Process Product Compliance VERIFICATION eg ISO9000 Risks Repeatability Test coverage - Mistakes - Faults - Failures ©ThompsonSix-Sigma Business ScoreCard published by informationPraveen Gupta (2nd ed. McGraw Hill 2007), but Systems 8this slide shows Neil Thompson’s version Consulting Ltd 8
  9. 9. A sample link in value chain: UK FIFTHtest analysis for Acceptance Testing TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011RAW MATERIALS FINISHED Requir- PRODUCT Implicit ements requirements reviews Acceptance testing Documented STATIC TEST TEST TEST TESTING ANALYSIS DESIGN EXECUTION requirements Financial (Main Supplier is (Main Customer is static testing) test design) Supplier Improv’t Customer Process Product (Intermediate (Intermediate documentation levels) test levels) ©Thompson information Programming Systems Consulting Ltd 9
  10. 10. Scorecards may be cascaded through UK the lifecycle, so they “flow” four ways FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011 i Organisation & Project Objectives from TEST POLICY, STRATEGY, PROJECT TEST PLANCoverage iiObjectives Financialfrom TEST iii Test Analysts’REQUIREMENTS, ANALYSIS own ObjectivesFUNCTIONAL SPEC,TECHNICAL DESIGN, FinancialMODULE SPECS and Supplier Improv’t Customer TEST Test Designers’reviews of them DESIGN own Objectives Supplier Improv’t Customer Initiatives Process Product for next stage of test processFeedback iv Process Productobjectives (etc)for InitiativesBusiness Analysts, for nextArchitects & level down theDevelopers SDLC (etc) ©Thompson information Systems Consulting Ltd 10
  11. 11. Potential number of ScoreCards depends UKon how your SDLC is handled by FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011different rolesBusiness Analysts Requirements Reviewers Acceptance Test Analysts AT Designers & Scripters Acceptance Testers Architects Func Spec Reviewers Sys Test Analysts ST Designers & Scripters Sys Testers Designers Tech Design Reviewers Int Test Analysts IT Designers, Scripters & Executers Component Test Analysts, Designers & Executers?Pieces of a jig-saw! via pair programming?This example is a “full-ish” set:• higher-level tests are Developers scripted – other staff ©Thompson may then execute information SystemsBut you don’t necessarily need all these Consulting Ltd 11
  12. 12. The Value Flow ScoreCard in action UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011 Financial Customer Financial Improv’t Supplier Process ProductSupplier Improv’t CustomerProcess Product • Yes – it’s just a table! …Into which we can put useful things… • We start with repositionable paper notes, then can ©Thompson put in spreadsheet(s) information Systems Consulting Ltd 12
  13. 13. Use #1: alignment of testing with UK FIFTHorganisation TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011 • Organisation’s WHY objectives WHAT HOW WHY • Organisation’s WHAT HOW Test Policy WHAT HOW WHY • Project Test Strategy WHAT HOW (etc) (etc) A top-down view: down the business / organisation ©Thompson information Systems Consulting Ltd 13
  14. 14. Use #1, eg Test Policy UKFIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011Organisation’s Organisation’s ScoreCardsGoals & Supplier Process Product Customer Financial Improvement & InfrastructureObjectives Upward Compliance VERIFICATION VALIDATION Efficiency management eg ISO9000 Risks Risks Productivity eg TPI/TMM… Repeatability Test coverage Benefits On-time, Predictability Information Acceptance in budget Learning gathering - Faults Satisfaction Innovation - Mistakes - Failures - Complaints - Cost of quality • ConstantObjectives improvement of development & test processesMeasures and for • TMM levels development? • TMM level 2Targets at least, now • TMM level 3 within 2 yearsInitiatives ©Thompson (for Test Strategy / Strategies) information Systems Consulting Ltd 14
  15. 15. Example 1, Test Policy: UK All views included? FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT Why-What-How (G-Q-M) thought through? 26 Jan 2011Organisation’s Organisation’s ScoreCardsGoals & Supplier Process Product Customer Financial Improvement & InfrastructureObjectives Upward Compliance VERIFICATION VALIDATION Efficiency management eg ISO9000 Risks Risks Productivity eg TPI/TMM… Repeatability Test coverage Benefits On-time, Predictability Information Acceptance in budget Learning Why gathering - Mistakes - Faults - Failures Satisfaction - Complaints - Cost of quality Innovation • IS actively • Products • Products • Proj Mgr is • Staff must be • Constant • Use TestFrameObjectives supports to satisfy to be fit responsible certified improv’t of for test analysis employees specified for purpose for quality dev & test & execution GOAL requirements processes • Indep- • (comprehensive • Automate regr • Bus Mgt is • Testing endence scope) • Detect tests as much responsible prioritised & increases defects as possible for enforcing managed with early Test PolicyWhat test type • Defect source analysis • Both static • Defect • Product • TMM levelsMeasures & dynamic Detection risks • ISTQB • Freq of process adjustments • Planning, Percentage QUESTION preparation • Importance heeding metrics & evaluation of req’ts • Software & • Advisors • TMM level 2 • Twice per yearTargets related work Expert at least, now products • Managers METRIC Advanced • TMM level 3 • Analysts within 2 years How FoundationInitiatives ©ThompsonSource: summarised from an example in TestGrip by Marselis, van Royen, Schotanus & Pinkster (CMG, 2007) information Systems Consulting Ltd 15
  16. 16. Use #2: testing as measurement within UK FIFTHthe lifecycle TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011 System development starts with TEST BASIS (EG TEST TEST TEST SYSTEM SPEC) ANALYSIS DESIGN EXECUTION the logical (“what”) before specifying the physical (“how”), so let’s do this for testing also! WHY WHAT HOW WHY WHAT HOW (etc) (etc) A left-to-right view (across a W-model)NB it’s not only for waterfall or V-model SDLCs, rather iterative / incremental go down & up through layers of stakeholders, specifications & system integrations ©Thompson information Systems Consulting Ltd 16
  17. 17. Use #2, eg test coverage: UK FIFTHTest conditions as measures & targets (not test cases!) TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011 (from Supplier Process Product Customer Financial Improvement & LEVEL TEST PLAN Upward Compliance VERIFICATION VALIDATION Efficiency Infrastructure management eg ISO9000 Risks Risks Productivity eg TPI/TMM… and Info from other Repeatability Test coverage Benefits On-time, Predictability TEST BASES) levels of Acceptance in budget Learning Treble-V model - Faults Satisfaction Innovation - Mistakes - Failures - Complaints - Cost of quality Test Items Product Constraints (level of benefits Objectives Features to be integration) Test Basis Features to be tested References tested Product Product Product Product Product Risks Risks Risks Risks Risks Measures Areas we could cover Agreed Test Conditions with Targets we intend to cover stakeholders Objectives for Initiatives (to next level Test Cases of sys design) ©Thompson (to test design information & execution) Systems Consulting Ltd 17
  18. 18. Use #3: process improvement, eg using UK Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints: FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011 “Swimlane” symptoms, causes & proposed remedies Supplier Process Product Customer Financial Improvement & Upward Compliance VERIFICATION VALIDATION Efficiency Infrastructure management eg ISO9000 Risks Risks Productivity eg TPI/TMM… Repeatability Test coverage Benefits On-time, Predictability Information Acceptance in budget Learning gethring - Faults Satisfaction Innovation - Mistakes - Failures - Complaints - Cost of quality CURRENT ILLSObjectives CONFLICT RESOLUTION FUTURE REMEDIESMeasures PRE- REQUISITESTargets TRANSITIONInitiatives ©ThompsonNote: this is similar to Kaplan & Norton’s “Strategy Maps” (Harvard Business School Press 2004) information Systems Consulting Ltd 18
  19. 19. Use #4A: context-driven testing, eg UKGoldratt conflict resolution on process areas with choices FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMITFrom 26 Jan 2011 Supplier Process Product Customer Financial Improvement &Context / Upward Compliance VERIFICATION VALIDATION Efficiency InfrastructureCircumstances management eg ISO9000 Repeatability Risks Test coverage Risks Benefits Productivity On-time, eg TPI/TMM… Predictability Information Acceptance in budget Learning gathering - Faults Satisfaction Innovation - Mistakes - Failures - Complaints - Cost of quality Legal: Process Application Sector Job type & size • regulation constraints, eg: characteristics Resources:Objectives • standards • quality mgmt Culture • money ( skills, environments) CURRENT • configuration Technical • time SITUATION Moral: mgmt risks Business risks • safety Technology CHOICE AREAS... Test specifications Handover & acceptance etc (about 30 criteria categories)Measures informal formal informal formal CONFLICT RESOLUTION Where in the range Where in the range DESIREDTargets (specific aspects) (specific aspects) SITUATION ©Thompson informationInitiatives Appropriate Testing in this context / circumstances Systems Consulting Ltd 19
  20. 20. Use #4B: lifecycle methodology selection UK/ design, Value Flow ScoreCard as unifying framework FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011 Supplier Process Product Customer Financial Improvement & Upward Compliance VERIFICATION VALIDATION Efficiency Infrastructure management eg ISO9000 Risks Risks Productivity eg TPI/TMM… Repeatability Test coverage Benefits On-time, Predictability Information Acceptance in budget Learning gathering - Faults Satisfaction Innovation - Mistakes - Failures - Complaints - Cost of qualityObjectives Risks Risks Risks Risks Risks Risks BALANCE Game Theory...................................................................................................... “METHODOLOGY PER PROJECT” ...........................................(any other approaches?)...........................................Measures Conflicts & balances One hand The otherTargets Appropriate lifecycle methodology in this ©ThompsonInitiatives information context / circumstances Systems 20 Consulting Ltd
  21. 21. Discussion (1) UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011• Examples from attenders’ experience & current situations? ©Thompson information Systems Consulting Ltd 21
  22. 22. Discussion (2) UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011• How the concept extends to “Value Flow Science”... further than might initially be obvious! (SOME SPECULATIVE SLIDES FOLLOW) ©Thompson information Systems Consulting Ltd 22
  23. 23. Testing has a hierarchy, eg... UK FIFTH Levels of TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011 system & Risks & Levels of Levels of service testing specification stakeholders integration responsib’s + Business Users may Business, processes Acceptance be unhappy (so Requirements Users, Testing generate Business Analysts, Acceptance Testers confidence) System may contain Functional & Architects, bugs not found by System NF specifica- “independent” Testing lower levels (so seek tions testers bugs of type z) Technical Designers, Integration Units may not interact spec, Hi-level properly (so seek bugs integration Testing design testers of type y) Individual units may Detailed Developers, Unit designs Testing malfunction (so seek bugs unit testers of type x)Remember: not only for waterfall or V-model SDLCs, rather iterative / incremental go down & up ©Thompson through layers of stakeholders, information specifications & system integrations Systems Consulting Ltd 23
  24. 24. ...Quality and Science can also be seen UK FIFTHas hierarchies, which testing can parallel TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011 Levels of system & Layers of Levels of service Layers of quality stakeholders integration science + BusinessStatic values: Business, processes• Intellectual Users, Philosophy Business Analysts,• Social Acceptance Testers Social sciences Architects, Biology (& systems• Biological “independent” thinking) testers Chemistry: Organic Designers, integration Chemistry: Inorganic testers• Inorganic Developers, ©Thompson unit testers Physics information Systems Consulting Ltd 24
  25. 25. Value flows down through, UK FIFTHthen up through, these layers TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011 Levels of system & Desired Levels of service Tested (“known”) quality stakeholders integration quality + Business Business, processes Users, Business Analysts, Acceptance Testers Architects, “independent” testers Designers, integration testers Developers, ©Thompson unit testers information Systems Consulting Ltd
  26. 26. Test appropriately to your scale UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT (Ouroboros: Greek Οὐροβόρος or 26 Jan 2011 οὐρηβόρος, from οὐροβόρος ὄφις "tail-devouring snake”) Physics Physics (gravity (quantum end) end) Chemistry: Inorganic Organic Biology Systems Social sciences thinking) Understanding of solution Image from ©Thompson http://www.aaas.org/spp/dser/ information 03_Areas/cosmos/perspectives/ Systems Essay_Primack_SNAKE.GIF Consulting Ltd 26
  27. 27. Value flow must be maintained through UK FIFTHiterations TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011  Understanding of solution ©Thompson information Evolution 2nd law of thermodynamics! Systems Consulting Ltd 27
  28. 28. Discussion (3) UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011• How this might help bridge the (arguably) growing divide between traditional & agile software practitioners, eg: - waterfall, V-model, W-model, iterative, incremental... - “schools” of software testing, eg Analytic, Standard, Quality, Context-Driven, Agile... Factory, Oblivious...? - scripted (or at least pre-designed) & exploratory testing ©Thompson information Systems Consulting Ltd 28
  29. 29. Four, five, six... schools of UK FIFTH software testing? TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011 (Updated version) March 2007 Copyright © 2003-2007 Bret Pettichord. Permission to reproduce granted with attribution Emphasis on Oblivious / policing developers and Groucho? acting as “gatekeeper”Emphasis on analytical methodsfor assessing the qualityof the software, includingimprovement of testability byimproved precision of specifications Factory: Emphasis on reduction ofand many types of modeling testing tasks to (Control): routines that can be Emphasis on automated or standards and delegated to cheap labour processes that enforce or rely heavily Emphasis on on standards (Test-Driven): adapting to emphasis on the circumstances code-focused testing under which by programmers Holistic? Axiomatic the product is (like C-D) developed and used ? ©Thompson informationAnnotations by Neil Thompson after the Bret Pettichord ppt (blue text), Systemsthe list in Cem Kaner’s blog December 2006 (black text), and other sources! (red text) Consulting Ltd 29
  30. 30. Appendix A: Amendment history UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011The version presented at Test Management Summit(11:45, Wed 26 Jan 2011, Trafalgar 2 room, Institute ofDirectors, 116 Pall Mall, London, UK) was v1.1 – thisversion 1.2 contains amendments since:• slide 26 attribution added• slide 29 key clarified• appendices added: • this Amendment history, plus • the References which follow ©Thompson information Systems Consulting Ltd 30
  31. 31. Appendix B: References & acknowledgements UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011 Good • ScoreCards: Enough – Kaplan & Norton; Bournes; Evans; Gupta Quality (+BSC): • Lean & agile: - James Bach, – Toyota; Poppendiecks; Alistair Cockburn; + Kaner & Pettichord David Anderson • Goldratt: Factors affecting – Jens Pas; William Dettmer ; , Greg Daich choices: • Systems Thinking: - Matt Archer – Jerry Weinberg; Dennis Sherwood Colour-coded sources of testing ideas: • Appropriate Testing (ApT) & test entities: - Rob Sabourin – the Software Testing Retreat ©Thompson information • Balance......................... Systems Consulting Ltd 31 31
  32. 32. References (further details) UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011• Kaplan, RS & DP Norton: The Balanced Scorecard – Translating Strategy into Action (Harvard Business School Press 1996)...• Also Strategy Maps (Harvard Business School Press 2004)• Bourne, M & P Bourne: Balanced Scorecard in a Week (Chartered Management Insititute via Hodder Arnold 2002)• Kaner, C, J Bach & B Pettichord: Lessons Learned in Software Testing – a Context- Driven Approach (Wiley 2002)• Evans, I: Achieving Software Quality through Teamwork (Artech House 2004)• Gupta, P: Six Sigma Business Scorecard – Creating a Comprehensive Corporate Performance Measurement System (2nd ed, McGraw Hill 2007)• Liker, JK: The Toyota Way – 14 Management Principles… from the company that invented Lean Production (McGraw Hill 2004)• Poppendieck, M & T Poppendieck: Lean Software Development – an Agile Toolkit (Addison Wesley 2003)• (also same authors, Implementing Lean Software Development – from Concept to Cash (Addison Wesley 2007)• Cockburn, A: Agile Software Development (Addison Wesley 2002)• Anderson, DJ: Agile Management for Software Engineering – Applying the Theory of Constraints for Business Results (Prentice Hall 2004)• Boehm, B & R Turner: Balancing Agility and Discipline ©Thompson (Addison Wesley 2005) information Systems Consulting Ltd 32
  33. 33. References (further details cont’d) UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011• Dettmer, HW: Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints – a Systems Approach to Continuous Improvement (ASQ 1997)• Daich, G: Software Documentation Superstitions (STAREast 2002, http://www.stickyminds.com/s.asp?F=S5857_CP_2 )• Weinberg, GM: Quality Software Management Vol 1 – Systems Thinking (Dorset House 1992)• Sherwood, D: Seeing the Forest for the Trees – a Manager’s Guide to Applying Systems Thinking (Nicholas Brealey, 2002)• Guckenheimer, S. with Perez, JJ: Software engineering with Microsoft Visual Studio Team System (Addison-Wesley Pearson Education 2006)• Thompson, N & M Smith: Holistic Test Analysis and Design (STARWest 2007, http://www.stickyminds.com/s.asp?F=S13265_CP_2 )• Smith, M & N Thompson: The Keystone to Support a Generic Test Process – Separating the “What” from the “How” (ICST 2008, http://www2.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/ICSTW.2008.46 )• Thompson, N & M Smith: Value Flow ScoreCards for better strategies, coverage & processes (BCS SIGiST 2008, www.bcs.org/upload/pdf/value-flow-scorecards.pdf• Sabourin, R: Just in Time Testing (course, eg via http://www.testing- solutions.com/library/downloads/e/Enabling%20Test%20Maximisation%20- %20Rob%20Sabourin.pdf )• Archer, M: A Thinking Framework for Context-Driven Test Documentation (SQC conference London 2008, http://www.ivarjacobson.com/resources/ ©Thompson module/publications_action-download/file_id-190/ information Systems 33 Consulting Ltd 33
  34. 34. References: “science” additions UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT Cosmic Ouroboros: 26 Jan 2011 • Glashow, SL: Physics’ Newest Frontiers (interview sketch reproduced by Ferris, T: New York Times Magazine, 1982) • Rees, M: Just Six Numbers – the Deep Forces that Shape the Universe (Weidenfeld & Nicolson 1999 - also see lecture http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLc6NEuec3E ) • Primack, JR & Abrams, NE: The View From the Center of the Universe: – Discovering our Extraordinary Place in the Cosmos (Riverhead 2006)Evolution:• Dennett, DC: Darwin’s Dangerous Idea – Evolution & the Meanings of Life (Simon & Schuster 1995)• Smolin, L: The Life of the Cosmos (Oxford University Press 1997)“Individual” sciences (the quote-marks are deliberately tongue-in-cheek):• Mathematical foundations – Penrose, R: The Road to Reality – a Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe (Jonathan Cape 2004)• Physics – Smolin, L: The Trouble with Physics – the Rise of String Theory, the Fall of a Science and What Comes Next (Houghton Mifflin 2006)• Chemistry – [vacant, candidates sought]• Biology – Dawkins, R: The Extended Phenotype – the Long Reach of the Gene (Oxford University Press 1982) ©Thompson• (jumping to software for now) Kaner, C: Software Testing as a Social Science information (STEP 2008, www.kaner.com/pdfs/KanerSocialScienceSTEP.pdf ) Systems Consulting Ltd 34
  35. 35. References: “value” additions UK FIFTH TEST MANAGEMENT SUMMIT 26 Jan 2011Pirsig, RM:• Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance – an Inquiry into Values (Bodley Head 1974, also see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zen_and_the_Art_of_ Motorcycle_Maintenance )• Lila – an Inquiry into Morals yes, I know about Sam Harris, I’ll get to that in due course (Bantam 1991, also see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lila:_An_Inquiry_into_ Morals ) ©Thompson information Systems Consulting Ltd 35

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