Integrated	
  Marketing	
  Communications	
  
communications	
  and	
  consumer	
  behaviour	
  
2	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
 ...
linear	
  model	
  
of	
  communication	
  
sender	
   message	
   receiver	
  
encode	
   decode	
  
Schramm,	
  1954
	
 ...
linear	
  model	
  
of	
  communication	
  
sender	
   message	
   receiver	
  
encode	
   decode	
  
Schramm,	
  1954
	
 ...
 	
  	
  	
  	
  two-­‐step	
  model...	
  
	
  
Mass	
  Media	
  
	
  
Lazarsfeld	
  and	
  Katz,	
  1955	
  
opinion	
  ...
 	
  	
  	
  	
  multi-­‐step	
  model...	
  
	
  
Mass	
  Media	
  
	
  
Lazarsfeld	
  and	
  Katz,	
  1955	
  
opinion	
...
opinion	
  leaders...	
  
‘Ordinary’	
  people	
  who	
  seek	
  out	
  information	
  
	
  	
  Passed	
  on	
  to	
  fami...
opinion	
  leaders	
  and	
  slice	
  of	
  life...	
  
diffusion	
  of	
  innovations...	
  
Rogers,	
  1962	
  
Early	
  
majority	
  
34%	
  
Late	
  
majority	
  
34%	
   Lag...
diffusion	
  of	
  innovations…	
  
Peoples	
  rate	
  of	
  acceptance	
  of	
  new	
  products	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  Peopl...
diffusion	
  of	
  innovations…	
  
product	
  factors	
  affecting	
  rate	
  of	
  diffusion…	
  
Relative	
  advantage	...
opinion	
  formers...	
  
People	
  who	
  inXluence	
  because	
  of	
  their	
  status	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  Often	
  used...
Consumer	
  Decision-­‐making	
  
Problem/	
  Need	
  Recognition	
  
Information	
  Search	
  
Evaluation	
  of	
  Altern...
Types	
  of	
  Purchase…	
  
Routinised	
  response	
  
	
  Limited	
  problem	
  solving	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Extended...
Three	
  stages	
  of	
  involvement…	
  
Context	
  
InXluencers	
  
Outcomes	
  
Fill,	
  2009	
  
Individual	
  context...
Perceived	
  Risks…	
  
Financial	
  
Performance	
  
Social	
  
Ego	
  
Physical	
  
Time	
  
Factors	
  inXluencing	
  consumers	
  
Individual	
  
Perception,	
  personality,	
  motivation,	
  attitude	
  
Group…	
...
Consumer	
  Attitudes	
  and	
  Behaviour…	
  
Cognitive	
  
Affective	
  
Conative	
  
Fill,	
  2009	
  
learning…	
  
fe...
response	
  hierarchy	
  models…	
  
Attention	
  
Desire	
  
Interest	
  
Action	
  
Awareness	
  
Interest	
  
Evaluatio...
Business	
  Decision-­‐making	
  
Problem/	
  Need	
  Recognition	
  
Product	
  speciXication	
  
Supplier	
  and	
  prod...
Decision	
  Making	
  Unit	
  
Comprised	
  of	
  the	
  following	
  roles…	
  
gatekeeper	
  
inXluencer	
  
initiator	
...
Business	
  buy	
  classes	
  
New	
  buy	
  
ModiXied	
  Rebuy	
  
Straight	
  Rebuy	
  
Fill,	
  2009	
  
Xirst	
  time	...
What’s	
  important	
  here?	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Theories	
  of	
  	
  
The	
  behaviour	
  varies	
  dependent	
 ...
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Integrated Marketing Communications Lecture 2

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Integrated Marketing Communications Lecture 2

  1. 1. Integrated  Marketing  Communications   communications  and  consumer  behaviour   2              Theories  of    
  2. 2. linear  model   of  communication   sender   message   receiver   encode   decode   Schramm,  1954  feedback  
  3. 3. linear  model   of  communication   sender   message   receiver   encode   decode   Schramm,  1954  feedback   noise  
  4. 4.          two-­‐step  model...     Mass  Media     Lazarsfeld  and  Katz,  1955   opinion   leader   receiver   receiver   receiver   receiver   opinion   leader   receiver   receiver   receiver   receiver  
  5. 5.          multi-­‐step  model...     Mass  Media     Lazarsfeld  and  Katz,  1955   opinion   leader   receiver   receiver   receiver   receiver   opinion   leader   receiver   receiver   receiver   receiver  
  6. 6. opinion  leaders...   ‘Ordinary’  people  who  seek  out  information      Passed  on  to  family,  friends,  work        colleagues,  social  groups   Receptive  to  new  ideas,  ‘early  adopters’          Advertisers  sometimes  use  these  ‘ordinary’  people  
  7. 7. opinion  leaders  and  slice  of  life...  
  8. 8. diffusion  of  innovations...   Rogers,  1962   Early   majority   34%   Late   majority   34%   Laggards   16%   Early   adopters   13½%   Innovators   2½%   Market  %   Time  
  9. 9. diffusion  of  innovations…   Peoples  rate  of  acceptance  of  new  products          People  differ  in  their  readiness  to            try  new  products   Need  to  understand  the  characteristics  of   innovators  and  early  adopters  
  10. 10. diffusion  of  innovations…   product  factors  affecting  rate  of  diffusion…   Relative  advantage  of  product   Compatibility  with  existing   practice  and  beliefs   Perceived  risk   Limited  trial  possible?   Ease  of  understanding   and  use   Communicability  to  others  
  11. 11. opinion  formers...   People  who  inXluence  because  of  their  status          Often  used  for  things  like  pharmaceuticals   Raise  the  proXile  of  various  social  issues
  12. 12. Consumer  Decision-­‐making   Problem/  Need  Recognition   Information  Search   Evaluation  of  Alternatives   Purchase  Decision   Evaluation  of  Purchase   Fill,  2009  
  13. 13. Types  of  Purchase…   Routinised  response    Limited  problem  solving            Extended  problem  solving   Fill,  2009  
  14. 14. Three  stages  of  involvement…   Context   InXluencers   Outcomes   Fill,  2009   Individual  context,  reasons  for  purchase,  nature  of   product,  stimulus   Level  of  personal  relevance  –  high  or  low,  duration   Low  involvement…  behaviour  then  attitude   High  involvement…  attitude  then  behaviour  
  15. 15. Perceived  Risks…   Financial   Performance   Social   Ego   Physical   Time  
  16. 16. Factors  inXluencing  consumers   Individual   Perception,  personality,  motivation,  attitude   Group…   Social  class,  culture,  reference  groups,  family…   Situational…   Socio-­‐cultural,  technological,  economic,  political,  regulatory…   Marketing…   Product,  price,  place,  promotion,  people,  process,  physical  evidence  
  17. 17. Consumer  Attitudes  and  Behaviour…   Cognitive   Affective   Conative   Fill,  2009   learning…   feeling…   doing…  
  18. 18. response  hierarchy  models…   Attention   Desire   Interest   Action   Awareness   Interest   Evaluation   Trial   Adoption   Unawareness   Awareness   Comprehension   Conviction   Action   Awareness   Knowledge   Liking   Preference   Conviction   Purchase   cognitive   affective   conative AIDA   The  Innovation-­‐ Adoption  Model   The  Hierarchy-­‐of-­‐ Effects  Model   DAGMAR   Colley,  1961   Lavidge  and   Steiner,  1961  Lewis,  1898   Rogers,  1962  
  19. 19. Business  Decision-­‐making   Problem/  Need  Recognition   Product  speciXication   Supplier  and  product  search   Supplier  selection   Evaluation  of  Purchase   Fill,  2009   Evaluation  of  proposals  
  20. 20. Decision  Making  Unit   Comprised  of  the  following  roles…   gatekeeper   inXluencer   initiator   End  user   decider   buyer  
  21. 21. Business  buy  classes   New  buy   ModiXied  Rebuy   Straight  Rebuy   Fill,  2009   Xirst  time   modiXications   routine  
  22. 22. What’s  important  here?              Theories  of     The  behaviour  varies  dependent  on  a  variety  of  factors   Some  decision-­‐making  processes  are  very  linear  and  basic   Integrated  marketing  communications  need  to  be  based   on  an  understanding  of  the  decision  making  processes   ltimately,  content  and  style  of  message  as  well  as  media   choices  and  tools  are  inXluenced…   by  the  needs  and  behaviour  of  the  receiver  
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