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- 1. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Neil Hurley Complex Adaptive System Laboratory Computer Science and Informatics University College Dublin Clique Strategic Research Cluster clique.ucd.ie October 2011 RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 2. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender SystemsOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 3. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender SystemsOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 4. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender SystemsOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 5. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender SystemsOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 6. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender SystemsOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 7. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender SystemsOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 8. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness?Outline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 9. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 10. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksDeﬁning the Problem Recommender Systems use personal information about end-users to make useful personalised recommendations. When ratings are provided explicitly, recommender algorithms have been designed on the assumption that the provided information is correct. However . . . “One can have, some claim, as many electronic per- sonas as one has time and energy to create” –Judith Donath (1998) as quoted in Douceur (2002) How does the system perform if multiple identities are used to try to deliberately bias the recommender output? RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 11. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksDeﬁning the Problem In 2002, John Douceur of Microsoft Research coined the term Sybil Attack to refer to an attack against identity on peer-to-peer systems in which an individual entity masquerades as multiple separate entities “If the local entity has no direct physical knowledge of remote entities, it perceives them only as informational abstractions that we call identities. The system must ensure that distinct identities refer to distinct entities; otherwise, when the local entity selects a subset of identities to redundantly perform a remote operation, it can be duped into selecting a single remote entity multiple times, thereby defeating the redundancy” In the same year, the ﬁrst paper (O’Mahony et al. 2002) appeared on the vulnerability of Recommender Systems to malicious strategies for “recommendation promotion” – later dubbed proﬁle injection attacks. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 12. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksDeﬁning the Problem Robustness refers to the ability of a system to operate under stressful conditions. While there are many possible stresses that can be applied to Recommender Systems, research on RS robustness has focused on performance when the dataset is stressed speciﬁcally when the dataset is full of noisy, erroneous data; typically, imagined to have been corrupted through a concerted sybil attack, with an aim of biasing the recommender output. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 13. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksRobust RS Research The goal of robust recommendation is to prevent attackers from manipulating an RS through large-scale insertion of false user proﬁles: a proﬁle injection attack RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 14. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksRobust RS Research The goal of robust recommendation is to prevent attackers from manipulating an RS through large-scale insertion of false user proﬁles: a proﬁle injection attack An attack is a concerted eﬀort to bias the results of a recommender system by the insertion of a large number of proﬁles using false identities or sybils. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 15. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksRobust RS Research The goal of robust recommendation is to prevent attackers from manipulating an RS through large-scale insertion of false user proﬁles: a proﬁle injection attack An attack is a concerted eﬀort to bias the results of a recommender system by the insertion of a large number of proﬁles using false identities or sybils. Each identity is referred to as an attack proﬁle. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 16. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksRobust RS Research The goal of robust recommendation is to prevent attackers from manipulating an RS through large-scale insertion of false user proﬁles: a proﬁle injection attack An attack is a concerted eﬀort to bias the results of a recommender system by the insertion of a large number of proﬁles using false identities or sybils. Each identity is referred to as an attack proﬁle. Research has concentrated on attacks designed to achieve a particular recommendation outcome RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 17. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksRobust RS Research The goal of robust recommendation is to prevent attackers from manipulating an RS through large-scale insertion of false user proﬁles: a proﬁle injection attack An attack is a concerted eﬀort to bias the results of a recommender system by the insertion of a large number of proﬁles using false identities or sybils. Each identity is referred to as an attack proﬁle. Research has concentrated on attacks designed to achieve a particular recommendation outcome A Product Push attack: attempt to secure positive recommendations for an item or items; RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 18. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksRobust RS Research The goal of robust recommendation is to prevent attackers from manipulating an RS through large-scale insertion of false user proﬁles: a proﬁle injection attack An attack is a concerted eﬀort to bias the results of a recommender system by the insertion of a large number of proﬁles using false identities or sybils. Each identity is referred to as an attack proﬁle. Research has concentrated on attacks designed to achieve a particular recommendation outcome A Product Push attack: attempt to secure positive recommendations for an item or items; A Product Nuke attack: attempt to secure negative recommendations for an item or items. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 19. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksRobust RS Research The goal of robust recommendation is to prevent attackers from manipulating an RS through large-scale insertion of false user proﬁles: a proﬁle injection attack An attack is a concerted eﬀort to bias the results of a recommender system by the insertion of a large number of proﬁles using false identities or sybils. Each identity is referred to as an attack proﬁle. Research has concentrated on attacks designed to achieve a particular recommendation outcome A Product Push attack: attempt to secure positive recommendations for an item or items; A Product Nuke attack: attempt to secure negative recommendations for an item or items. We can also think of attacks that aim to simply destroy the accuracy of the system. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 20. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksRobust RS Research We assume that the attacker has no direct access to the ratings database – manipulation achieved via the creation of false proﬁles only. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 21. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksRobust RS Research We assume that the attacker has no direct access to the ratings database – manipulation achieved via the creation of false proﬁles only. We ignore system-level methods (e.g. Captchas) for preventing the generation of false identities or ratings RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 22. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksRobust RS Research We assume that the attacker has no direct access to the ratings database – manipulation achieved via the creation of false proﬁles only. We ignore system-level methods (e.g. Captchas) for preventing the generation of false identities or ratings Focus is on the recommendation algorithm’s ability to resist manipulation either by RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 23. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksRobust RS Research We assume that the attacker has no direct access to the ratings database – manipulation achieved via the creation of false proﬁles only. We ignore system-level methods (e.g. Captchas) for preventing the generation of false identities or ratings Focus is on the recommendation algorithm’s ability to resist manipulation either by Identifying false proﬁles from their statistical properties and ignoring or lessening their impact on the generation of recommendations; RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 24. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksRobust RS Research We assume that the attacker has no direct access to the ratings database – manipulation achieved via the creation of false proﬁles only. We ignore system-level methods (e.g. Captchas) for preventing the generation of false identities or ratings Focus is on the recommendation algorithm’s ability to resist manipulation either by Identifying false proﬁles from their statistical properties and ignoring or lessening their impact on the generation of recommendations; or Generating recommendations in a manner that is inherently insensitive to manipulation. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 25. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksExample RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 26. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksExample RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 27. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksExample RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 28. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksThreats to Reputation Systems I It is interesting to compare the scenario studied in RS research with the threats identiﬁed for reputation systems in the 2007 ENISA report (Carrara and Hogben 2007): 1 Whitewashing attack: reseting a poor reputation by rejoining the system with a new identity. 2 Sybil attack or pseudospooﬁng: the attacker uses multiple identities (sybils) in order to manipulate a reputation score. 3 Impersonation and reputation theft: acquiring the identity of another and stealing her reputation. 4 Bootstrap issues and related threats: the initial reputation of a newcomer may be particularly vulnerable to attack. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 29. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksThreats to Reputation Systems II 5 Extortion: co-ordinated campaigns aimed at blackmail by damaging an individual’s reputation for malicious motives. 6 Denial-of-reputation: attack designed to damage reputation and create an opportunity for blackmail in order to have the reputation cleaned. 7 Ballot stuﬃng and bad mouthing: reporting of a false reputation score; the attackers collude to give positive/negative feedback, to increase or lower a reputation. 8 Collusion: multiple users conspire to inﬂuence a given reputation. 9 Repudiation of data and transaction: denial that a transaction occurred, or denial of the existence of data for which individual is responsible. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 30. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksThreats to Reputation Systems III 10 Recommender dishonesty: dishonest reputation scoring. 11 Privacy threats for voters and reputation owners: for example, anonymity improves the accuracy of votes. 12 Social threats: Discriminatory behaviour, herd behaviour, penalisation of innovative, controversial opinions, vocal minority eﬀect etc. 13 Threats to the underlying networks: e.g. denial of service attack. 14 Trust topology threats: e.g.targeting most highly inﬂuential nodes. 15 Threats to ratings: exploiting features of metrics used by the system to calculate the aggregate reputation rating RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 31. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksThe Recommendation Attack Game An attack has an associated context-dependent cost RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 32. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksThe Recommendation Attack Game An attack has an associated context-dependent cost real dollar cost if the insertion of a sybil rating requires the purchase of the corresponding item; RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 33. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksThe Recommendation Attack Game An attack has an associated context-dependent cost real dollar cost if the insertion of a sybil rating requires the purchase of the corresponding item; time/eﬀort cost; RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 34. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksThe Recommendation Attack Game An attack has an associated context-dependent cost real dollar cost if the insertion of a sybil rating requires the purchase of the corresponding item; time/eﬀort cost; risk cost, associated with the likelihood of being detected; RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 35. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksThe Recommendation Attack Game An attack has an associated context-dependent cost real dollar cost if the insertion of a sybil rating requires the purchase of the corresponding item; time/eﬀort cost; risk cost, associated with the likelihood of being detected; In any case, we may model the cost as proportional to RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 36. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksThe Recommendation Attack Game An attack has an associated context-dependent cost real dollar cost if the insertion of a sybil rating requires the purchase of the corresponding item; time/eﬀort cost; risk cost, associated with the likelihood of being detected; In any case, we may model the cost as proportional to The number of sybil proﬁles created ; RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 37. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksThe Recommendation Attack Game An attack has an associated context-dependent cost real dollar cost if the insertion of a sybil rating requires the purchase of the corresponding item; time/eﬀort cost; risk cost, associated with the likelihood of being detected; In any case, we may model the cost as proportional to The number of sybil proﬁles created ; the total number of constituent ratings within the sybil proﬁles. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 38. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksImpact Curve Figure: Impact curve from Burke et al. (2011) RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 39. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksNotation Consider R to be an n × m database of ratings provided by a set of n genuine users for m items in a system catalogue. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 40. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksNotation Let G be the set of n genuine users, and let ra = (ra,1 , . . . , ra,m )T represent the set of ratings provided by user a for each item. ra,i ∈ L, some quality label, typically a numerical value over some discrete range. Write ra,i = ∅ if user a has not rated item i. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 41. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksNotation Let A be the set of attack proﬁles of size nA = number of proﬁles and mA = number of ratings. Let ai denote a single attack proﬁle 1 ≤ i ≤ nA . RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 42. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksNotation Let R be the (n + nA ) × m database of genuine and attack proﬁles available to the recommendation algorithm post-attack. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 43. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksNotation Let cA = cA (nA , mA ) denote the cost of mounting an attack. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 44. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksNotation Let cA = cA (nA , mA ) denote the cost of mounting an attack. The recommendation algorithm may be represented as a function φ, that uses the rating database R and a user’s history of previous ratings, ru , to make a set of predictions p(u, i) = φ(i, R, ru ) ∈ L on the set of items. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 45. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksNotation Let cA = cA (nA , mA ) denote the cost of mounting an attack. The recommendation algorithm may be represented as a function φ, that uses the rating database R and a user’s history of previous ratings, ru , to make a set of predictions p(u, i) = φ(i, R, ru ) ∈ L on the set of items. More generally, φ(.) results in a probability mass function over the label space L for each predicted item. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 46. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksNotation Let cA = cA (nA , mA ) denote the cost of mounting an attack. The recommendation algorithm may be represented as a function φ, that uses the rating database R and a user’s history of previous ratings, ru , to make a set of predictions p(u, i) = φ(i, R, ru ) ∈ L on the set of items. More generally, φ(.) results in a probability mass function over the label space L for each predicted item. Let l(φ(., R , .), φ(., R, .)) be a loss function representing the quality loss of the recommendation process due to an attack. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 47. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksNotation Let cA = cA (nA , mA ) denote the cost of mounting an attack. The recommendation algorithm may be represented as a function φ, that uses the rating database R and a user’s history of previous ratings, ru , to make a set of predictions p(u, i) = φ(i, R, ru ) ∈ L on the set of items. More generally, φ(.) results in a probability mass function over the label space L for each predicted item. Let l(φ(., R , .), φ(., R, .)) be a loss function representing the quality loss of the recommendation process due to an attack. This function may depend on the goal of the attack e.g. the overall loss in accuracy, if the attack seeks to distort general recommendation performance, RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 48. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksNotation Let cA = cA (nA , mA ) denote the cost of mounting an attack. The recommendation algorithm may be represented as a function φ, that uses the rating database R and a user’s history of previous ratings, ru , to make a set of predictions p(u, i) = φ(i, R, ru ) ∈ L on the set of items. More generally, φ(.) results in a probability mass function over the label space L for each predicted item. Let l(φ(., R , .), φ(., R, .)) be a loss function representing the quality loss of the recommendation process due to an attack. This function may depend on the goal of the attack e.g. the overall loss in accuracy, if the attack seeks to distort general recommendation performance, or the shift in ratings for some targeted set of items over some targeted set of users, in a focused attack. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 49. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksThe Recommender Attack Game Then the manipulation game, from the attacker’s point of view is to choose the attack A∗ that maximises the loss for a given cost bound cmax . Attack Goal A∗ = arg max{A|cA ≤cmax } minφ l(φ(R ), φ(R)) RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 50. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection AttacksThe Recommender Attack Game Then the manipulation game, from the attacker’s point of view is to choose the attack A∗ that maximises the loss for a given cost bound cmax . Attack Goal A∗ = arg max{A|cA ≤cmax } minφ l(φ(R ), φ(R)) While the system designer strives to ﬁnd a recommendation algorithm that militates against attack Defense Goal φ∗ = arg minφ max{A|cA ≤cmax } l(φ(R ), φ(R)) RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 51. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Relevance of RobustnessOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 52. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Relevance of RobustnessOur Original Motivation Inspired by Work in Digital Watermarking . . . RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 53. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Relevance of RobustnessOur Original Motivation Inspired by Work in Digital Watermarking . . . RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 54. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Relevance of RobustnessHow Realistic Is this Scenario? news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4741259.stm (2001) “ ... ads for ﬁlms including Hollow Man and A Knight’s Tale quoted praise from a reviewer called David Manning, who was exposed as being invented ...” RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 55. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Relevance of RobustnessHow Realistic Is this Scenario? http://tinyurl.com/3d6d969 (Sept. 2003) “AuctionBytes conducted a reader survey to ﬁnd out how serious these problems were. According to the survey, 39% of respondents felt that feedback retaliation was a very big problem on eBay. Nineteen percent of respondents had received retaliatory feedback within the previous 6 months, and 16% had been a victim of feedback extortion within the previous 6 months.” RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 56. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Relevance of RobustnessHow Realistic Is this Scenario? http://tinyurl.com/n3d5lp (June 2009) “Elsevier oﬃcials said Monday that it was a mistake for the publishing giant’s marketing division to oﬀer $25 Amazon gift cards to anyone who would give a new textbook ﬁve stars in a review posted on Amazon or Barnes & Noble. While those popular Web sites’ customer reviews have long been known to be something less than scientiﬁc, and prone to manipulation if an author has friends write on behalf of a new work, the idea that a major academic publisher would attempt to pay for good reviews angered some professors who received the e-mail pitch..” RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 57. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Relevance of RobustnessHow Realistic Is this Scenario? http://tinyurl.com/cfmqce (2009) Paul Lamere cites an example of “precision hacking” of a Time Poll. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 58. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Relevance of RobustnessHow Realistic Is this Scenario? http://tinyurl.com/mupy7d (2009) Hotel review manipulation RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 59. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Relevance of RobustnessHow Realistic Is this Scenario? Lang et al. (2010) Social Manipulation in Buzznet “...Hey, I know you don’t know me, but could you do me a huge fav and vote for me in this contest? All you have to do is buzz me...” RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 60. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Relevance of RobustnessHow Realistic Is this Scenario? All examples of types of manipulation attacks on recommender systems. No hard evidence of automated shilling attacks by sybil insertion bots. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 61. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Measuring RobustnessOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 62. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Measuring RobustnessSimple Measures of Attack Impact Average Prediction Shift The change in an item’s predicted rating before and after attack, averaged over all predictions or over predictions that are targetted by the attack. pshift (u, i) = φ(i, R , ru ) − φ(i, R, ru ) RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 63. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Measuring RobustnessSimple Measures of Attack Impact Average Prediction Shift The change in an item’s predicted rating before and after attack, averaged over all predictions or over predictions that are targetted by the attack. pshift (u, i) = φ(i, R , ru ) − φ(i, R, ru ) Average Hit Ratio The average likelihood over tested users that a top-N recommendation will recommend an item that is the target of an attack. For each such item i and each tested user, u, in a test set of t users, let h(u, i) = 1 if i ∈ Ru , the recommended set. Then, H(i) = 1 u∈U h(u, i) t RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 64. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Measuring RobustnessOther Measures of Attack Impact Considering φ(i, R, ru ) as a pmf over L, attack impact can be measured in terms of the change in this distribution as a result of the attack. For instance (Yan and Roy 2009), measure impact in terms of the average Kullback-Liebler distance between φ(i, R, ru ) and φ(i, R , ru ) over the set of inspected items. Resnick and Sami (2007) propose loss functions L(l, q) where l ∈ L, q = φ(i, R, ru ) where the true label of item i is l RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 65. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems What is Robustness? Measuring RobustnessOther Measures of Attack Impact Considering φ(i, R, ru ) as a pmf over L, attack impact can be measured in terms of the change in this distribution as a result of the attack. For instance (Yan and Roy 2009), measure impact in terms of the average Kullback-Liebler distance between φ(i, R, ru ) and φ(i, R , ru ) over the set of inspected items. Resnick and Sami (2007) propose loss functions L(l, q) where l ∈ L, q = φ(i, R, ru ) where the true label of item i is l e.g. the quadratic loss over a two rating scale [HI, LO], with q the probability of HI is given by L(HI, q) = (1 − q)2 ; L(LO, q) = q 2 RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 66. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack StrategiesOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 67. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack StrategiesForming Attack Proﬁles (Mobasher et al. 2007) introduce the following notation for the components of an attack proﬁle: RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 68. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack StrategiesForming Attack Proﬁles (Mobasher et al. 2007) introduce the following notation for the components of an attack proﬁle: IT , the target item(s) receive typically the maximum (resp. minimum) rating for a push (resp. nuke) attack. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 69. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack StrategiesForming Attack Proﬁles (Mobasher et al. 2007) introduce the following notation for the components of an attack proﬁle: IS , the selected item(s) are chosen and rated in a manner to support the attack. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 70. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack StrategiesForming Attack Proﬁles (Mobasher et al. 2007) introduce the following notation for the components of an attack proﬁle: IF , the ﬁller items(s) ﬁll out the remainder of the ratings in the attack proﬁle. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 71. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack StrategiesForming Attack Proﬁles The goal of attack proﬁle creation must be to Eﬀectively support the purpose of the attack – selection of target rating and IS ; RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 72. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack StrategiesForming Attack Proﬁles The goal of attack proﬁle creation must be to Eﬀectively support the purpose of the attack – selection of target rating and IS ; But, remain unobtrusive so as to avoid detection and ﬁltering – selection of the ﬁller items IF . RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 73. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack StrategiesForming Attack Proﬁles The goal of attack proﬁle creation must be to Eﬀectively support the purpose of the attack – selection of target rating and IS ; But, remain unobtrusive so as to avoid detection and ﬁltering – selection of the ﬁller items IF . Must also consider what information is available to the attacker RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 74. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack StrategiesForming Attack Proﬁles The goal of attack proﬁle creation must be to Eﬀectively support the purpose of the attack – selection of target rating and IS ; But, remain unobtrusive so as to avoid detection and ﬁltering – selection of the ﬁller items IF . Must also consider what information is available to the attacker Typically assume some knowledge of the statistics of the rating database is available; RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 75. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack StrategiesForming Attack Proﬁles The goal of attack proﬁle creation must be to Eﬀectively support the purpose of the attack – selection of target rating and IS ; But, remain unobtrusive so as to avoid detection and ﬁltering – selection of the ﬁller items IF . Must also consider what information is available to the attacker Typically assume some knowledge of the statistics of the rating database is available; May also have knowledge of the recommendation algorithm – an informed attack. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 76. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack StrategiesForming Attack Proﬁles The goal of attack proﬁle creation must be to Eﬀectively support the purpose of the attack – selection of target rating and IS ; But, remain unobtrusive so as to avoid detection and ﬁltering – selection of the ﬁller items IF . Must also consider what information is available to the attacker Typically assume some knowledge of the statistics of the rating database is available; May also have knowledge of the recommendation algorithm – an informed attack. Note Kerkchoﬀ’s principal – avoid “security through obscurity”. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 77. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 78. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsUser-based kNN Attack The ﬁrst CF proﬁle insertion attack (O’Mahony et al. 2002), was an informed attack that exploited a particular weakness in the basic version of Resnick’s user-based kNN algorithm. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 79. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsUser-based kNN Attack The ﬁrst CF proﬁle insertion attack (O’Mahony et al. 2002), was an informed attack that exploited a particular weakness in the basic version of Resnick’s user-based kNN algorithm. User-based CF predicts a rating pa,j for item j, user a as follows: RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 80. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsUser-based kNN Attack The ﬁrst CF proﬁle insertion attack (O’Mahony et al. 2002), was an informed attack that exploited a particular weakness in the basic version of Resnick’s user-based kNN algorithm. User-based CF predicts a rating pa,j for item j, user a as follows: – Form a neighbourhood by picking the top-k most similar users to a – Pearson Correlation P j (ra,j −¯a )(ri,j −¯i ) r r wa,i = √P 2 P 2 j∈Na ∩Ni (ra,j −¯a ) r j (ri,j −¯i ) r – Make a prediction by taking a weighted average of n neighbours ratings using: pa,j = ra + κ i=1 wa,i (ri,j − ri ) ¯ ¯ where κ is a normalising factor RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 81. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsUser-based kNN Attack Correlation calculated over the items which the target user and attack proﬁle have in common. A small intersection set can lead to high correlations. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 82. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsUser-based kNN Attack Correlation calculated over the items which the target user and attack proﬁle have in common. A small intersection set can lead to high correlations. Therefore a small proﬁle of popular items will have a large correlation with users who have rated these items RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 83. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsUser-based kNN Attack Correlation calculated over the items which the target user and attack proﬁle have in common. A small intersection set can lead to high correlations. Therefore a small proﬁle of popular items will have a large correlation with users who have rated these items Implies a low-cost, eﬀective attack on a large proportion of the userbase. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 84. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsUser-based kNN Attack Correlation calculated over the items which the target user and attack proﬁle have in common. A small intersection set can lead to high correlations. Therefore a small proﬁle of popular items will have a large correlation with users who have rated these items Implies a low-cost, eﬀective attack on a large proportion of the userbase. However, not at all unobtrusive. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 85. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsOther Attacks Strategies Many other attack variants proposed by (Lam and Riedl 2004) and (Mobasher et al. 2007). Assuming a push attack – a target item is given the maximum rating and the attack proﬁle is ﬁlled out as follows: Random Attack Randomly chosen ﬁller items get randomly drawn rating values. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 86. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsOther Attacks Strategies Many other attack variants proposed by (Lam and Riedl 2004) and (Mobasher et al. 2007). Assuming a push attack – a target item is given the maximum rating and the attack proﬁle is ﬁlled out as follows: Average Attack Randomly chosen ﬁller items. Ratings drawn from normal distribution with item means set to those of rating database. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 87. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsOther Attacks Strategies Many other attack variants proposed by (Lam and Riedl 2004) and (Mobasher et al. 2007). Assuming a push attack – a target item is given the maximum rating and the attack proﬁle is ﬁlled out as follows: Probe Attack Filler items ﬁlled by starting with a set of seed ratings, querying the recommender system to ﬁll the ratings of the remaining items. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 88. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsOther Attacks Strategies Many other attack variants proposed by (Lam and Riedl 2004) and (Mobasher et al. 2007). Assuming a push attack – a target item is given the maximum rating and the attack proﬁle is ﬁlled out as follows: Segment Attack Identifying popular items in a particular user segment, these are given maximum rating and remaining ﬁller items are given minimum rating. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 89. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsOther Attacks Strategies Many other attack variants proposed by (Lam and Riedl 2004) and (Mobasher et al. 2007). Assuming a push attack – a target item is given the maximum rating and the attack proﬁle is ﬁlled out as follows: Bandwagon Attack A set of popular items is given the maximum rating, while remaining ﬁller items are given random ratings. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 90. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsEvaluation User-based kNN Toward Trustworthy Recommender Systems • 23:21 Fig. 8. Comparison of attacks against user-based algorithm, prediction shift (left) and hit ratio (right). The baseline in the right panel indicatesMovielens 100K dataset. User-based kNN algorithm with Results from (Mobasher et al. 2007) on the the hit ratio results prior to attack. k = 20. All users who have rated at least 20 items. target item. The ﬁllerasize, in as a percentagenumber total numberof the remaining items shown Attack Size given as percentage of the total for diﬀerent ﬁller sizes, written this case, is the proportionthe dataset on the x-axis. Results of the of users in of items. that are assigned random ratings based on the overall data distribution across Bandwagon attack uses a single popular item and 3% ﬁller size. the whole database (see Figure 4). In the case of the MovieLens data, these frequently-ratedto hit-ratio pre-attack Baseline refers items are predictable box ofﬁce successes including such titles as Star Wars, Return of Jedi, Titanic, etc. The attack proﬁles consist of high ratings given to these popular titles in conjunction with high ratings for the pushed movie. Figure 7 shows the effect of ﬁller size on the effectiveness of RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 91. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsEvaluation Item-based kNN Results from (Mobasher et al. 2007) on the Movielens 100K dataset. Item-based kNN algorithm with k = 20. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 92. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Strategies Attacking kNN AlgorithmsEvaluation Item-based kNN Toward Trustworthy Recommender Systems • 23:23 Fig. 10. Prediction shift and hit 2007) resultsMovielenshorror dataset.segment in kNN item-based Results from (Mobasher et al. ratio on the for the 100K movie Item-based the algorithm with algorithm. 20. k= Prediction shift and hit ratio results for the Horror Movie Segment. the target item for use as the segment portion of the attack proﬁle IS . In the realm of movies, we might imagine selecting movies of a similar genre or movies containing the same actors. If we evaluate the segmented attack based on its average impact on all users, there is nothing remarkable. The attack has an effect but does not approach the numbers reached by the average attack. However, we must recall our market segment assumption: namely, that recommendations made to in-segment users are much more useful to the attacker than recommendations to other users. Our focus must therefore be with the “in-segment” users, those users who have rated RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 93. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack DetectionOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 94. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack DetectionProﬁle Injection Attacks Two well-studied attacks : Construct spam proﬁle with max (or min) rating for targeted item. Choose a set of ﬁller items at random Random Attack – insert ratings in ﬁller items according to N (µ, σ) Average Attack – insert ratings in ﬁller item i according to N (µi , σi ) For evaluations, genuine proﬁles are drawn from 1,000,000 rating Movielens dataset. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 95. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack DetectionDetection Flow RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 96. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection PCA-based Attack DetectionOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 97. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection PCA-based Attack DetectionPCA Detector (Mehta et al. 2007) A method of identifying and removing a cluster of highly-correlated attack proﬁles. A cluster C deﬁned by an indicator vector x such that xi = 1 if user ui ∈ C and xi = 0 otherwise. S a proﬁle similarity matrix, with eigenvectors/values ei , λi Quadratic form m T x Sx = S(i, j) = (x.ei )2 λi . i∈C,j∈C i=1 Find x that correlates most with ﬁrst few eigenvectors of S. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 98. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection PCA-based Attack DetectionPCA Detector (Mehta et al. 2007) Success of PCA depends on how S is calculated. S = Z0 , covariance of proﬁles ignoring missing values. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 99. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection PCA-based Attack DetectionPCA Detector (Mehta et al. 2007) Success of PCA depends on how S is calculated. S = Z1 , covariance of proﬁles treating missing values as 0. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 100. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection PCA-based Attack DetectionPCA Detector (Mehta et al. 2007) Success of PCA depends on how S is calculated. Small Overlap → low genuine/attack covariance. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 101. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 102. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionNeyman-Pearson Statistical Detection y ∈ Y be an observation i.e. a user proﬁle over all possible proﬁles Y Two hypotheses H0 – that y is a genuine proﬁle, associated pdf fY|H1 (y) H1 – that y is an attack proﬁle, associated pdf fY|H0 (y) N-P criterion sets a bound α on false alarm probability pf and maximises the good detection probability pD H1 if l(y) > η fY|H1 (y) ψ ∗ (y) = where l(y) = fY|H0 (y) H0 if l(y) < η (likelihood ratio) RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 103. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionModelling Attack Proﬁles As attacks follow well-deﬁned construction, easy to construct model: m Pr[Yi = yi ] i=1 m = Pr[Yi = φ]θi (Pr[Yi = yi |Yi = φ]Pr[Yi = φ])1−θi i=1 Which items are rated? RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 104. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionModelling Attack Proﬁles As attacks follow well-deﬁned construction, easy to construct model: m Pr[Yi = yi ] i=1 m = Pr[Yi = φ]θi (Pr[Yi = yi |Yi = φ]Pr[Yi = φ])1−θi i=1 What ratings used? RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 105. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionModelling Attack Proﬁles As attacks follow well-deﬁned construction, easy to construct model: m Pr[Yi = yi ] i=1 m 1 1 1−θi θi yi − 2 − µi yi + 2 − µi = Pr[Yi = φ] Q −Q σi σi i=1 Q(.) = Gaussian Q-function RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 106. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionModelling Genuine Proﬁles Simple model – identical to attack model except that probability of selecting a ﬁller item is estimated as pi Pr[Yi = φ] from a dataset of genuine proﬁles. ˆ m Pr[Yi = yi ] i=1 m = pi θi (Pr[Yi = yi |Yi = φ](1 − pi ))1−θi ˆ ˆ i=1 Not a realistic model of genuine ratings – assumes user’s ratings are all independent But suﬃcient (almost) to distinguish from attack proﬁles. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 107. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionRandom Attack (Filler Size=5%) RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 108. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionAverage Attack (Filler Size=5%) RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 109. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionLesson Learned Filler item selection is key to the success of the standard attacks on k-NN user-based algorithm. Low (attack proﬁle / genuine proﬁle) overlap (few common ratings) makes extreme correlations possible – hence attack proﬁles are unusually inﬂuential. (Basis of original attack proposed in O’Mahony et al. (2002).) But also allows for successful detection – also highly perceptible. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 110. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionAttack Obfuscation Several obfuscation strategies evaluated previously (Williams et al. 2006). Eﬀective obfuscation must try to reduce the statistical diﬀerences between genuine and attack proﬁles. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 111. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionAverage over Popular (AoP) attack It is clear that a major weakness of the average and random attacks is their unrealistic selection of ﬁller items. To be imperceptible an attacker must choose items to rate in a similar fashion to genuine users. Average Over Popular Attack – identical to average attack, but ﬁller items are chosen from x-% most popular items. AoP is a less perceptible but also less eﬀective attack on kNN user-based algorithm. Nevertheless it does work . . . RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 112. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionAoP Prediction Shift (Attack Size=3%) RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 113. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionAoP Hits (rating of ≥ 4) (Attack Size=3%) RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 114. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionAoP PCA Detection RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 115. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionImproved Genuine Proﬁle Model Adopt model that takes account of correlations between ratings. Assume ratings follow multivariate normal distribution – parameters: µ0 , m-dimensional vector of mean-ratings for each item; and Σ0 , m × m matrix of item correlations. Assume attack proﬁles also multivariate gaussian with parameters µ1 , Σ1 Hence, attacked database can be modelled as a Gaussian Mixture Model. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 116. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionImproved Genuine Proﬁle Model Diﬃculty Very high dimensional vectors Missing values Factor Model : Assume that the rating matrix can be represented by the linear model YT = AXT + N , X : n × k matrix, xu,j = extent user u likes category j A : m × k matrix ai,j = extent item i belongs in category j N : independent noise X(i, :) assumed independent normal. Expectation maximisation to learn A from dataset ([Canny, 2002]). RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 117. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionImproved Genuine Proﬁle Model N-P test on multivariate normal k-dimensional vector obtained by projection with A w = AT YT = AT (AXT + N) X : n × k matrix, xu,j = extent user u likes category j A : m × k matrix ai,j = extent item i belongs in category j N : independent noise X(i, :) assumed independent normal. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 118. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionProjection by Clustering N-P test on multivariate normal k-dimensional vector obtained by projection with P w = PT YT Obtain a clustering of item-set into k clusters of similar items. P : n × k projection matrix sums all ratings belonging to a cluster. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 119. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionSupervised AoP Detection N-P test reduces to (w−µw 0 )T Σw0 −1 (w−µw 0 )−(w−µw 1 )T Σw1 −1 (w−µw 1 ) η Need Database of genuine proﬁles and Database of attack proﬁles to train the detector. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 120. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionAoP Detection (Factor Analysis) Actual attack=20% AoP Attack. Plot shows training on diﬀerent attack types. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 121. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionAoP Detection (Clustering) Actual attack=20% AoP Attack. Plot shows training on diﬀerent attack types. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 122. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionUnsupervised AoP Detection Unsupervised Gaussian mixture model to learn model parameters µw 0 , Σw0 , µw 1 , Σw1 , a0 and a1 , where ai is the probability that a proﬁle belongs in cluster i. Implementation from William Wong, Purdue University, http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~wong17/. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 123. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Statistical Attack DetectionAoP Detection RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 124. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt AnalysisOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 125. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt AnalysisCost-Beneﬁt Analysis In O’Mahony et al. (2006), we examined a simple cost-beneﬁt model The ROI for an attack on item j given by: P cj N (nj −nj ) − k∈Ij ck ROIj = P ck k∈Ij Simplify by assuming cp = cq , ∀ p, q ∈ I N (nj −nj ) − sj ROIj = sj sj – total number of ratings inserted in an attack on item j Approximated the fractions nj & nj using count of good predictions and browser-to-buyer conversion probability RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 126. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt AnalysisResults Proﬁtj = c αj (GPj − GPj ) − sj ; c = $10, α = 10% 600 400 Profit ($) 200 2 r = 0.9894 0 −200 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 N RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 127. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt AnalysisCost-beneﬁt Analysis Vu et al. (2010) examines the adversarial cost to attacking a ranking system in terms of nA = number of proﬁles and mA =number of ratings. They assume a rating function r(u, i) ∈ {−1, 0, 1} and a quality-popularity score for each item f (i) = r(u, i) u∈G RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 128. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt AnalysisCost-beneﬁt Analysis Using a trust mechanism that can detect a malicious rating with probability γ, they show that a ranking function of the form f (i) = r(u, i)t(u, i) u∈G∪A can be used to design a ranking system in which the minimum adversarial cost in expectation to boost the rank of an item from k to 1 includes the cost of posting mA =nA ratings, with 1−2 + γ nA = (x1 + xk ) 1−γ where xi denotes the number of honest ratings for item i and is the probability of an erroneous rating. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 129. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 130. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsModel-based Algorithms RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 131. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsModel-based Algorithms RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 132. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsModel-based Algorithms RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 133. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsModel-based Algorithms RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 134. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsModel-based Algorithms RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 135. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsModel-based Algorithms RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 136. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsModel-based Algorithms Attack takes eﬀect when model is re-trained, using corrupted ratings database. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 137. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsManipulation-resistance of Model-based Algorithms Initial work such as Mobasher et al. (2006) showed that model-based algorithms are more resistant to manipulation than memory-based algorithms. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 138. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsManipulation-resistance of Model-based Algorithms Initial work such as Mobasher et al. (2006) showed that model-based algorithms are more resistant to manipulation than memory-based algorithms. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 139. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsManipulation-resistance of Model-based Algorithms Initial work such as Mobasher et al. (2006) showed that model-based algorithms are more resistant to manipulation than memory-based algorithms. The user-base is clustered into segments using k-means or PLSA clustering and users matched to closest segment proﬁles. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 140. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsManipulation-resistance of Model-based Algorithms Initial work such as Mobasher et al. (2006) showed that model-based algorithms are more resistant to manipulation than memory-based algorithms. Sybil proﬁles tend to be clustered into same segment, thereby reducing power of attack. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 141. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsManipulation-resistance of Model-based Algorithms Initial work such as Mobasher et al. (2006) showed that model-based algorithms are more resistant to manipulation than memory-based algorithms. However, as shown in Cheng and Hurley (2009a), a diversiﬁed attack can create less similar but yet still eﬀective attack proﬁles. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 142. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsManipulation-resistance of Model-based Algorithms From Mobasher et al. (2006): Evaluation on MovieLens 100K dataset RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 143. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsManipulation-resistance of Model-based Algorithms From Cheng and Hurley (2009a): Evaluation on MovieLens 1M dataset RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 144. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsManipulation-resistance of Matrix Factorisation Modern matrix factorization algorithms use a least squares step to ﬁnd the factors. This is known to be sensitive to outliers. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 145. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsManipulation-resistance of Matrix Factorisation Cheng and Hurley (2010) Prediction shift of basic Bellkor algorithm kNN for a single randomly chosen unpopular item. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 146. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsSummary of Robustness Results on Standard Algorithms A number of general attack strategies have been proposed that work eﬀectively in particular on memory-based algorithms. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 147. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsSummary of Robustness Results on Standard Algorithms A number of general attack strategies have been proposed that work eﬀectively in particular on memory-based algorithms. Standard attacks are generally detectable: RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 148. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Robustness of Model-based AlgorithmsSummary of Robustness Results on Standard Algorithms A number of general attack strategies have been proposed that work eﬀectively in particular on memory-based algorithms. Standard attacks are generally detectable: Cost eﬀectiveness implies that a sybil proﬁle should be unusually inﬂuential. Special purpose (informed) attacks can be tailored towards particular CF algorithms e.g. a high diversity attack proved eﬀective against the k-means clustering algorithm. Sybil proﬁles can be obfuscated to make them less detectable Selection of ﬁller items is Achille’s heal of standard average attack, but also explains its power. Obfuscation reduces the eﬀectiveness of attacks but memory-based algorithms are still vulnerable. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 149. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Resistant Recommendation AlgorithmsOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 150. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Resistant Recommendation AlgorithmsVarSelectSVD Some early work (O’Mahony et al. 2004) applied neighbourhood ﬁltering to the standard user-based algorithm, to cluster and ﬁlter suspicious neighbours. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 151. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Resistant Recommendation AlgorithmsVarSelectSVD Some early work (O’Mahony et al. 2004) applied neighbourhood ﬁltering to the standard user-based algorithm, to cluster and ﬁlter suspicious neighbours. Mehta and Nejdl (2008) introduces the the VarSelectSVD method – a matrix factorisation strategy taking robustness into account. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 152. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Resistant Recommendation AlgorithmsVarSelectSVD Some early work (O’Mahony et al. 2004) applied neighbourhood ﬁltering to the standard user-based algorithm, to cluster and ﬁlter suspicious neighbours. Mehta and Nejdl (2008) introduces the the VarSelectSVD method – a matrix factorisation strategy taking robustness into account. An SVD factorization of the rating matrix R requires the following to be solved: arg min R − GH G,H RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 153. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Resistant Recommendation AlgorithmsVarSelectSVD Some early work (O’Mahony et al. 2004) applied neighbourhood ﬁltering to the standard user-based algorithm, to cluster and ﬁlter suspicious neighbours. Mehta and Nejdl (2008) introduces the the VarSelectSVD method – a matrix factorisation strategy taking robustness into account. An SVD factorization of the rating matrix R requires the following to be solved: arg min R − GH G,H Users are ﬂagged as suspicious using PCA clustering. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 154. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Resistant Recommendation AlgorithmsVarSelectSVD Some early work (O’Mahony et al. 2004) applied neighbourhood ﬁltering to the standard user-based algorithm, to cluster and ﬁlter suspicious neighbours. Mehta and Nejdl (2008) introduces the the VarSelectSVD method – a matrix factorisation strategy taking robustness into account. An SVD factorization of the rating matrix R requires the following to be solved: arg min R − GH G,H Users are ﬂagged as suspicious using PCA clustering. Flagged users do not contribute to the update of right eigenvector – they do not contribute to the model. RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 155. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Resistant Recommendation AlgorithmsVarSelectSVD RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 156. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Resistant Recommendation AlgorithmsVarSelectSVD Results MAE, Prediction Shift and Hit Ratio for 5% Average Attack, 7% Filler on Movielens 1M RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 157. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Resistant Recommendation AlgorithmsManipulation Resistance Through Robust Statistics Robust statistics describes an alternative approach to classical statistics where the motivation is to produce estimators that are not unduly aﬀected by small departures from the model. Robust regression uses a bounded cost function which limits the eﬀect of outliers. Two Approaches RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 158. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Resistant Recommendation AlgorithmsManipulation Resistance Through Robust Statistics Robust statistics describes an alternative approach to classical statistics where the motivation is to produce estimators that are not unduly aﬀected by small departures from the model. Robust regression uses a bounded cost function which limits the eﬀect of outliers. Two Approaches 1 M-estimators – 1 2 2γ r |r| ≤ γ arg min ρ(rij −gi hj ) where ρ(r) = G,H |r| − γ2 |r| > γ rij =0 RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 159. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Resistant Recommendation AlgorithmsManipulation Resistance Through Robust Statistics Robust statistics describes an alternative approach to classical statistics where the motivation is to produce estimators that are not unduly aﬀected by small departures from the model. Robust regression uses a bounded cost function which limits the eﬀect of outliers. Two Approaches 2 Least Trimmed Squares – h arg min e2 (i) where e2 ≤ e2 ≤ · · · ≤ e2 (1) (2) (n) G,H i=1 RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 160. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Resistant Recommendation AlgorithmsRobust Statistics Results on Bellkor Method RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness
- 161. Tutorial on Robustness of Recommender Systems Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant AlgorithmsOutline 1 What is Robustness? Proﬁle Injection Attacks Relevance of Robustness Measuring Robustness 2 Attack Strategies Attacking kNN Algorithms 3 Attack Detection PCA-based Attack Detection Statistical Attack Detection Cost-Beneﬁt Analysis 4 Robustness of Model-based Algorithms 5 Attack Resistant Recommendation Algorithms Provably Manipulation Resistant Algorithms 6 Stability, Trust and Privacy RecSys 2011: Tutorial on Recommender Robustness

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