Indigenous Protest In The Andes
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  • 1. Indigenous Protest in the Andes Neil Hughes Languages and International Studies
  • 2. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
    • Core concepts
      • Andean Region
      • Indigenous
      • Neoliberalism
  • 3. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
    • Andean Region
      • Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia
        • Geography- highland and lowland regions
        • Culture- indigenous practices, customs and traditions
        • Society- poverty and social inequality
        • Politics- democracy, social protest
  • 4. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
    • Indigenous
      • Descendants of those that inhabited a territory prior to colonisation
      • Maintain traditional practices, customs and traditions
      • Self-identify as indigenous
      • Close association with ancestral territories
      • Linguistic difference
      • Social, economic and political marginalisation
  • 5. Indigenous protest in the Andes
    • Neoliberalism
      • Theory that has dominated policy-making in developed and developing world since 1980s
      • Economic crisis: low growth, high inflation, high unemployment
      • Consensus about causes
        • Excessive state intervention, trade unions, anachronistic social practices
      • Consensus about solutions
        • Market reforms: privatisation, deregulation, trade and investment liberalisation; curb trade union powers, extend private property
  • 6. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
      • Benefits: growth, employment, consumer choice
      • Milton Friedman: democratic governance
      • Criticism: Stiglitz, Harvey, Klein
        • According to Harvey (2005) “the process of neoliberalisation has entailed much creative destruction, not only of prior institutional frameworks and powers but also of divisions of labour, social relations, welfare provisions, technological mixes, ways of life and thought, reproductive activities, attachments to the land and habits of the heart”
  • 7. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
      • Naomi Klein (2007): The Shock Doctrine
      • Criticism in developing world
      • Latin America: social protest, political instability, change in political culture
  • 8. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
    • Lecture
      • Incidence of protest
      • Causes of protest
      • Social composition
      • Action repertoire
      • impact
  • 9. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
    • Incidence of protest
      • Observatorio Social de América Latina
      • 2000-2004: 180% increase
      • Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador
      • Peru since 2006: 250% increase
  • 10. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
    • Causes of protest
      • Neoliberal economic policies
        • Free trade
        • Privatisation of natural resources
      • Free trade: Peru: 2005
        • Competition from subsidised imports, impact on food security
  • 11. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
      • Resource privatisation
        • Bolivia 2000: Water War
          • Cochabamba
          • Aguas de Tunari: price increases of up to 150%
          • Protest involving: “rural peasant irrigators, local water collectives, urban workers, middle classes, elderly men and women, shantytown dwellers, the traditional left, and anybody unhappy with the established order and its corruption and inefficiency” (Silva, 2009, p.127)
          • Cocaleros: Evo Morales
          • Bolivian Rural Workers’ Union: Felipe Quispe
  • 12. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
          • Cancellation of water privatisation.
          • “ the water war marked a turning point in resistance to neoliberalism. It was a local issue with national resonance in which tried and true government mechanisms of political exclusion, manipulation and repression only stiffened resolve and expanded mobilisation by heterogeneous social groups that included middle classes, who obtained significant concessions” (Silva, 2009)
  • 13. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
        • Peruvian Amazon 2008/9: AIDESEP
          • International Law: Convention 169 of the International Labour Organisation
          • “ International agreements and inter-American human rights law recognise indigenous peoples’ rights to their lands, and explicitly prohibit the granting of concessions to exploit natural resources in their territories without their free, prior and informed consent.” (Keane, 2005)
  • 14. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
          • Since 2006: 50 drilling concessions, 70% of Peruvian Amazon open to exploration
          • Ideological onslaught: “The Syndrome of the Orchard Dog”, “nature is a resource”, “laziness and indolence”
  • 15. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
    • Social Composition
      • Indigenous and peasant organisations
      • Ecuador: “by the mid 1990’s, the indigenous movements had become the most powerful Ecuadorian collective social actor and the object of increasingly favourable public opinion.” Van Cott (2005)
      • CONAIE: 80% of indigenous population
      • Bolivia: Cocaleros, Rural Workers’ Union
      • Peru: AIDESEP, Peruvian Peasants’ Federation
  • 16. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
    • Action Repertoire
      • Direct action : demonstrations, strikes, sit-ins, occupations
        • Road blockades: poor transport infrastructure, effective, violent confrontations
          • El Alto, Bolivia, 2003: 67 protestors killed
          • Civil Action in US courts
        • Protest marches; Bolivia 2000, Chapare to la Paz
      • Electoral Politics
        • Ecuador: Pachakutik
        • Bolivia: Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS)
          • Evo Morales first indigenous head of state
  • 17. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
    • Impact
      • Blockage or repeal of neoliberal reforms
      • Governments ousted: Ecuador 2000 and 2005
      • Constitutional recognition of indigenous rights: Ecuador 2000, Bolivia 2009
        • Bolivia: indigenous self-rule, seats set aside in Congress for minorities, control of renewable resources, access to water a fundamental human right
      • Increased political representation
  • 18. Indigenous Protest in the Andes
    • Impact
      • Blockage or repeal of indigenous reforms
      • Ousting of several governments: Ecuador 2000 and 2005
      • Constitutional recognition of indigenous rights: Ecuador 2000, Bolivia 2009
        • Bolivia: indigenous self-rule, seats set aside in Congress for minorities, control of renewable resources, access to water a fundamental human right
      • Increased political representation