Explain the population distribution on South Island, New Zealand.
Very few people are found in the mountainous areas because slopes are too steep to build on (1) and the climate too cold and soils too thin for farming (2). The largest population densities are on or close to the best farmland (1) where land is lower (1) and therefore warmer and more suited to farming (1). People are living near the coalfields as they have a chance of a job here (1).
Distribution and density
Where do we find something?
Where is it not found?
Population - census C2003
Give reasons why it may be difficult to take an accurate census in a developing country such as Bolivia.
What use could the Government of a developing country make of population census data?
It may be difficult to take a census in Bolivia as the people may be illiterate and can’t read instructions on the form so can’t fill it in (2). Also, large numbers of people don’t speak the official language (1) and so collecting information from tribes is time consuming and difficult (2). It may be difficult to catch up with nomadic tribes who move about (1) or some areas are very inaccessible or remote to reach (1). The information is used to help a government plan for education (1) and health provision (1). The data will also help them determine areas where the population is growing (1) or falling etc.
Population - DTM C2005
Study Reference Diagrams Q9A and Q9B.
Give reasons for the differences in birth rates between ELDC’s such as Ethiopia and EMDC’s such as the UK.
Birth rates are high in Ethiopia because of poor access to contraception (1) and little access to education and family planning (1). In Britain these are widely available (1) but also women want careers (1) and put off having babies till later (1) or couples want to spend the money on themselves (1). In addition in Ethiopia there is limited access to education and universities for women whereas in Britain education often puts women off having babies (1). Also people are needed to support families in old age (1) whereas in Britain we have pensions and nursing home to help (1).
Population - population pyramids C2002
Look at Reference Diagram Q7D.
“ New Zealand is a developed country and Indonesia is a developing country”
Give reasons for the differences between the population structures of New Zealand and Indonesia
There is a higher proportion of under 15’s in Indonesia because of higher birth rates due to fewer women having the chance of an education (1), poorer access to family planning (1) and contraception (1). The high birth rate is also due to religious (1) and traditional reasons (1) encouraging people not to use contraception and to have large families (1). There is a larger proportion of New Zealand’s population over 60 because more people have the chance of medical care (1). Also they have high living standards (1) and plenty opportunities for careers for women (1). High infant mortality High birth rate (wide at bottom) Low birth rate (narrow at base) High death rate (gets narrow quickly) low death rate (doesn’t narrow quickly) Low infant mortality Pyramid shape Bullet shape Low life expectancy High life expectancy
Many die young
lack of contraception
lack of family planning
Women desiring careers
access to contraception
access to family planning
spending income on themselves
poor access to doctors, medication and health care
Good access to medical care
high standard of living
good access to sanitation
Problems of too many young dependants:
pressures on food supply
pressure on housing, health care and medication
need for investment
Solutions to too many young dependants:
one child policy
benefits and incentives for having a small family
fines and penalties for having large families
improved access to contraception
Problems of too many old dependants:
need for sheltered housing
money required for pensions
nursing care and medical care required
smaller working population
Solutions to too many old dependants:
Raise retirement age
increase tax on working population
provide benefits and incentives to have more children
Population - population pyramids G2004
Look at Reference Diagram Q8.
Describe three differences between the population pyramids of Nigeria and the United States of America.
Nigeria has a much wider base to its pyramid (1), that is, a much higher birth rate (1). Also Nigeria is pyramid shaped, whereas America is more bullet shaped (1). America has a much higher life expectancy (1) shown by the proportion of people in the older age groups (1).
Population - population structures G2004
Describe two problems which the population structure of Nigeria may cause.
Describe two problems which the population structure of the USA may cause.
Problems of Nigeria’s population structure are that due to the high number of young people there could be a lack of teachers and schools (1). The government will need to provide food and shelter for them (1) which will put a strain on the countries development (1). Problem’s of the USA’s population structure is that a lot of the middle age people will soon retire (1) and drain resources (1). There will be a shortage of people working (1) and costs of medical care for the older people (medication, hip operations, nursing home) will be high (2).
Population - migration G2002
Give reasons for the changes in the percentage of urban population of developing countries such as India
Migration PUSH factors PULL Factors (push you from the countryside) (pull you to the city) - poverty - better job - poor access to health care - bright lights syndrome - limited clean water - better sanitation/services - natural disasters - good medical care In developing countries lots of people have moved from the countryside (rural) to the city (urban). In the countryside they are pushed out due to poverty (1) and a lack of education opportunities (1). Also there may be civil war (1) or natural disasters occurring (1). The cities pull them in with the chance of a better job (1) and the range of services such as cinema’s, shops etc (1). Also the ‘bright lights syndrome’ may be a cause (1).
Population - migration G2003
People living in rural areas in developing countries can face many problems which may encourage them to migrate to cities.
Describe the types of problems found in such rural areas.
People living in rural areas are pushed out of the countryside for many reasons. The land can be infertile and too poor to farm (1) or they may only have a small area to farm (1). There is a lack of schools (1) and good medical care (1). In addition there are limited job opportunities (1) and poor transport links (1).
Population - migration G2003
Look at Reference Diagram Q6B.
Do you think people benefit by moving from the countryside to the city?
Explain your answer.
Remember: there is no wrong answer - you have to decide which one you can write more about! Yes people do benefit by moving to the cities as they are able to send money back to their families (1) and this will improve their living standards at home (1). There are more jobs available (1) and better access to health care and services (2). No people don’t benefit from the move as rent can be expensive (1) so they may live on the streets or in shanty towns (1) with poor sanitation (1), disease (1) and overcrowding (1).
Population - patterns of migration C2004
Look at Reference Diagram Q7A.
Describe the pattern of migration in to and within Europe since 1990.