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  • Children-More likely to become seriously ill that adults
    Inadequate immune systems
    Evolving- Pathogens unknown to humans
    Research- New practices for controlling and eliminating microorganisms
    Produce- Contaminated water, production chemicals
    Improper handling
  • Reliance-Mishandling
    50 billion meals away from home per day
    International- Different food traditions and handling practices
    Increased exposure
    Consolidation- Magnified mistakes in large production
    Employee- Difficult to be effective
  • CNP employees must:
    Follow prevention practices
    Know common causes of foodborne illness
    Do all that is possible to eliminate them


  • 2. What’s Your Knowledge? (T or F) 1. Foodborne illnesses are mostly caused by physical hazards, such as fingernails, glass, etc. getting into food. 2. Young children are more susceptible to foodborne illnesses than adults. 3. Improperly cooled foods can lead to foodborne illnesses. HACCP for CNPs 2 Ch 2-
  • 3. What’s Your Knowledge? (T or F) 4. Time and temperature controls are the best methods to prevent microorganisms from growing in food. 5. The best way to prevent hazards from causing foodborne illness is to have good sanitation and personal hygiene programs. HACCP for CNPs 3 Ch 2-
  • 4. Objectives Be able to: • Explain what a foodborne illness is • Explain the dangers of foodborne illness • Explain why young children are at risk for foodborne illnesses • Identify some of the most important causes of foodborne illness in CNPs HACCP for CNPs 4 Ch 2-
  • 5. Objectives • List several implications of foodborne illness for CNPs • Explain what biological, chemical, and physical hazards are • List some microorganisms of greatest concern to CNPs • Identify key practices for preventing food hazards from contaminating food HACCP for CNPs 5 Ch 2-
  • 6. What is a Foodborne Illness? Occurs when a person gets sick from eating contaminated food • Results in upset stomach to death • Caused by harmful microorganisms HACCP for CNPs 6 Ch 2-
  • 7. Annual Foodborne Illnesses Centers for Disease Control and Prevention • 76 million illnesses • 325,000 hospitalizations • 5,000 deaths HACCP for CNPs 7 Ch 2-
  • 8. Known Pathogens • 14 million illnesses • 60,000 hospitalizations • 1,800 deaths Salmonellae, Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii – 1,500 deaths HACCP for CNPs 8 Ch 2-
  • 9. Today’s Concerns 1. 2. 3. 4. Children: “At-Risk People” New microbes New research findings Use of fresh produce HACCP for CNPs 9 Ch 2-
  • 10. Today’s Concerns 5. Food prepared away from home 6. International marketing and travel 7. Consolidation of food production/ processing 8. Food industry employees 9. Employee turnover rates HACCP for CNPs 10 Ch 2-
  • 11. Implications for Foodborne Illness Victims • Flu-like symptoms • Children: may be life threatening • Chronic illnesses – Hemolytic uremic syndrome, GuillainBarre syndrome, or reactive arthritis HACCP for CNPs 11 Ch 2-
  • 12. $$$ Costs of Foodborne Illness $$$ • • • • • Legal fees Medical claims Lost wages Cleaning and sanitizing costs Food that must be discarded HACCP for CNPs 12 Ch 2-
  • 13. Other Consequences • • • • Bad publicity Loss of confidence in facility Embarrassment/remorse Closing of facility HACCP for CNPs 13 Ch 2-
  • 14. Common Causes of Foodborne Illnesses • Holding food too long in temperature zone (41oF to 140oF) • Not heating or cooking to proper temperature • Not cooling properly (to 70oF or lower within 2 hours, and from 70oF to 41oF within 4 hours) HACCP for CNPs 14 Ch 2-
  • 15. Common Causes of Foodborne Illnesses • Not reheating properly (to at least 165 oF for 15 seconds within 2 hours) • Poor personal hygiene • Cross-contaminating food HACCP for CNPs 15 Ch 2-
  • 16. Cross - Contamination The transfer of harmful substances or microorganisms to food by other food, equipment and/or utensils, and people • Causes – Improper food handling practices – Poor employee personal hygiene – Improper cleaning and sanitizing of equipment/utensils HACCP for CNPs 16 Ch 2-
  • 17. Cross - Contamination People are main agents of crosscontamination So, it is important to: • Follow practices to prevent crosscontamination • Follow time/temp control to prevent the growth of microorganisms in food HACCP for CNPs 17 Ch 2-
  • 18. Activity 1. Activity: Common Factors Contributing to Foodborne Illness 2. Homework : Common Employee Practices Contributing to Foodborne Illness (FSD) HACCP for CNPs 18 Ch 2-
  • 19. Food Safety Hazards Harmful substances that can contaminate food • 3 types of Hazards – Biological – Chemical – Physical HACCP for CNPs 19 Ch 2-
  • 20. Biological Hazards • Include bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi that can cause illness • Are present in natural environment where food is grown • Cause more foodborne illnesses than other hazards HACCP for CNPs 20 Ch 2-
  • 21. Bacteria Living, single-celled, microscopic organisms • Ex: Salmonellae and E.coli O157:H7 • 2 types of bacteria as biological hazards – Pathogenic: cause infections – Toxigenic: produce harmful toxins HACCP for CNPs 21 Ch 2-
  • 22. Bacteria Can be transmitted by • Water • Wind • Insects • Plants • Animals • People HACCP for CNPs 22 Ch 2-
  • 23. Bacteria Thrive in • Scabs and wounds • The mouth, nose, throat • Intestines • Foods from plants and animals that are – Warm, moist, rich in protein, and neutral or low in acid HACCP for CNPs 23 Ch 2-
  • 24. Bacteria • Can survive on clothes, skin, and hair • Some survive freezing, or high temperatures • Can be prevented from causing foodborne illnesses by proper time/temperature controls HACCP for CNPs 24 Ch 2-
  • 25. Viruses Small, simple, incomplete particles - Ex: Hepatitis A virus • Transmitted by – Water and food – People and animals – Utensils and equipment – Food-contact areas HACCP for CNPs 25 Ch 2-
  • 26. Viruses • May survive freezing and cooking • Need living host cells • Cannot – Live by themselves – Grow and multiply on food HACCP for CNPs 26 Ch 2-
  • 27. Viruses To keep viruses from causing foodborne illnesses • Prevent cross-contamination • Practice proper personal hygiene • Realize the importance of handwashing HACCP for CNPs 27 Ch 2-
  • 28. Fungi A group of organisms that range from microscopic, single-celled to very large multicellular organisms • Ex: molds, yeasts, and mushrooms HACCP for CNPs 28 Ch 2-
  • 29. Fungi: Molds Grow as a tangled, fuzzy mass; can spread rapidly • Grow on most foods at most storage temperatures • Some, on cheeses, are a natural part of the food • Molds can spoil food by discoloration and unpleasant smell and taste HACCP for CNPs 29 Ch 2-
  • 30. Fungi: Molds Some produce toxins linked to cancer in animals • Cause serious infections and allergies • Discard moldy foods where mold is not a natural part of the food HACCP for CNPs 30 Ch 2-
  • 31. Fungi: Yeasts • • • • • • Spoil food by consuming them Require sugar and moisture to survive Produce carbon dioxide and alcohol Cause pink discoloration or sliminess Cause food to bubble No evidence that yeasts cause foodborne illness • Spoiled food should be discarded HACCP for CNPs 31 Ch 2-
  • 32. Parasites Organisms that need a host to survive • Hosts are people, animals, or plants • Ex: Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis HACCP for CNPs 32 Ch 2-
  • 33. Parasites • Infections are caused by – Undercooked meats, fish – Cross-contamination • Eliminate parasites from causing foodborne illnesses – Cook foods to proper internal temperatures – Prevent cross-contamination – Use frozen foods HACCP for CNPs 33 Ch 2-
  • 34. Important Illness-Causing Microorganisms Important to determine: • Potential for contamination • Likely sources • Preventive measures to take HACCP for CNPs 34 Ch 2-
  • 35. E.coli O157:H7 • Most deadly – very few cause illness • May be present in undercooked and/or reheated ground meat products, unpasteurized apple juice, others • Killed by cooking to recommended minimum temperatures HACCP for CNPs 35 Ch 2-
  • 36. Salmonellae • Very dangerous to children • Responsible for thousands of illnesses each year • Found in raw or undercooked foods: poultry, eggs, and meat • Killed by properly cooking foods HACCP for CNPs 36 Ch 2-
  • 37. Listeria monocytogenes • Especially harmful to pregnant women and the unborn • Grow slowly under refrigeration • Found in high moisture areas • Killed by pasteurization and cooking • Controlled by – Cold storage temperature and time – Keeping facility clean and dry – Proper reheating of cold-stored foods HACCP for CNPs 37 Ch 2-
  • 38. Campylobacter jejuni • Transmitted through contaminated water, raw milk, raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and shellfish • Killed by proper cooking • Cause many cases of illness, but not large outbreaks HACCP for CNPs 38 Ch 2-
  • 39. Bacillus cereus • Associated with grain foods • Spores become active after cooking if cooled slowly or if held too cool (<140oF) • Controlled by hot holding at 140oF or higher HACCP for CNPs 39 Ch 2-
  • 40. Clostridium perfringens • “the cafeteria germ” • Growth results from improper cooling, reheating, holding • Found in soil, dust, sewage, and intestinal tracts of humans and animals • Controlled by proper cooking/cooling/reheating HACCP for CNPs 40 Ch 2-
  • 41. Staphylococcus aureus • Transmitted by humans • Found in cuts, skin, pimples, noses, and throats • Produce harmful toxin if contaminated food out of temperature • Controlled by personal hygiene and by holding procedures • Killed by proper cooking – but, toxin, once formed, is NOT affected by heat HACCP for CNPs 41 Ch 2-
  • 42. Clostridium botulinum • Produce toxin - affect nervous system • May be fatal if not treated • Have been found in improperly canned foods, garlic in oil, vacuum-packed food, hazelnut yogurt, salsa, cheese sauce • Controlled by proper hot and cold holding temps • AND, do NOT vacuum pack food in your facility 42 Ch 2HACCP for CNPs
  • 43. Hepatitis A viruses • Cause inflammation of the liver • Often transferred by an infected employee • May be carried in cold cuts, sandwiches, fruits, vegetables, and milk products • Controlled by sanitation and good personal hygiene HACCP for CNPs 43 Ch 2-
  • 44. Toxoplasma gondii • Harmful parasites, outdoor cats are hosts • May live in undercooked meat • Cause toxoplasmosis; an infection of the central nervous system • Children/pregnant women “at risk” • Transmitted by cross-contamination • Controlled by proper cooking, hygiene, and sanitation – keep cats off home countertops HACCP for CNPs 44 Ch 2-
  • 45. Food Sources of Organisms Meat and poultry products; plants • Main sources of organisms • Contaminated through growing conditions, slaughter and processing or cross-contamination • Controls needed from farm to table to prevent foodborne illness HACCP for CNPs 45 Ch 2-
  • 46. New Organisms-New Risks • New illness-causing microorganisms – “Emerging” and “re-emerging” organisms • HACCP reduces likelihood of foodborne illness HACCP for CNPs 46 Ch 2-
  • 47. Why Are Microbes Present? • Raw food may contain organisms • Improper cooking, holding, etc. allow growth • New contamination may occur during preparation, holding, etc • People may contaminate • Unsanitary facilities and equipment may contaminate • Pests may contaminate HACCP for CNPs 47 Ch 2-
  • 48. Controlling Microorganisms 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Food Acidity (proper pH) Temperature Time Oxygen/No oxygen Moisture HACCP for CNPs 48 Ch 2-
  • 49. Control FAT-TOM to Control Microorganisms • Limit amount of time food is in temperature zone (41oF to 140oF) • Use hot and cold temperature controls • Dry food • Add vinegar, lemon juice, lactic acid, or citric acid to make food more acidic Food services focus on time and temperature HACCP for CNPs 49 Ch 2-
  • 50. Control/Eliminate Biological Hazards Through: • Foundation of prerequisite programs • HACCP implementation HACCP for CNPs 50 Ch 2-
  • 51. Activity 1. Activity: Identification of Possible Pathogens in Foods (FSD) 2. Homework: Pathogen Analysis in Menu Items (FSD) HACCP for CNPs 51 Ch 2-
  • 52. Chemical Hazards Chemicals that may contaminate food: • Naturally occurring chemicals • Chemicals added during processing • Chemicals used for cleaning, sanitizing, and pest control • Toxic metal in cookware • Personal products HACCP for CNPs 52 Ch 2-
  • 53. Chemical Hazards 3 Categories: • Natural toxicants • Added chemicals • Food additives HACCP for CNPs 53 Ch 2-
  • 54. Chemical Hazards • • • • • • • Sanitizers and cleaners Detergents Polishes Caustics Cleaning and drying agents Pesticides Lubricants HACCP for CNPs 54 Ch 2-
  • 55. Prevent Chemical Hazards (SOPs) • Keep cleaners/sanitizers in original containers with clear labels • Store cleaners/sanitizers separately from food • Use proper amount of chemicals • Wash hands when through with chemicals HACCP for CNPs 55 Ch 2-
  • 56. Prevent Chemical Hazards (SOPs) • Wash fresh produce with plain water, brush • Monitor pest control operators • Keep food covered during pesticide applications • Clean and sanitize equipment that may have come into contact with pesticide • Limit access to chemicals HACCP for CNPs 56 Ch 2-
  • 57. Physical Hazards Physical objects that contaminate food • Glass • Bone • Plastic • Personal effects • Metal shavings HACCP for CNPs 57 Ch 2-
  • 58. Prevent Physical Hazards (SOPs) • • • • • • • • Inspect equipment Avoid temporary “make-shift” repairs Remove staples from food boxes Use razor blades in secure devices Inspect raw materials Wear proper attire Avoid loose jewelry, acrylic nails, polish Use proper hair restraints HACCP for CNPs 58 Ch 2-
  • 59. Prevent Physical Hazards (SOPs) • Store food in approved containers and bags • Use commercial scoops to scoop ice • Use separate ice for storage and for beverages • Store toothpicks and non-edibles away from prep area • Cover glass bulbs in preparation area • Regularly clean can openers • Throw away broken or chipped tableware HACCP for CNPs 59 Ch 2-
  • 60. Key Practices for Preventing Food Hazards • Establish sound prerequisite programs • Know food hazards: biological, chemical and physical • Implement regular employee training program HACCP for CNPs 60 Ch 2-
  • 61. Key Practices for Preventing Food Hazards • Develop and implement sound HACCP program based on seven principles • Be committed to safe food – safe customers HACCP for CNPs 61 Ch 2-
  • 62. Activity 1. Discussion Questions 2. Review Questions 3. Case Study (Choose among next 11 slides) HACCP for CNPs 62 Ch 2-
  • 63. Case Study 1 Barbara cuts up uncooked chicken on a cutting board and then rinses the knife and the cutting board in warm water. Then, she uses the same board to slice melons. What is wrong with what she did? What microorganisms could contaminate the food because of this practice? HACCP for CNPs 63 Ch 2-
  • 64. Case Study 2 Your CNP served macaroni and cheese, salad, and fresh apples for lunch. Two children became sick. Their mothers claim that it was from the food they ate at lunch. The food service director says that could not be possible because there was no meat on the menu. Is this food service director correct? Explain. HACCP for CNPs 64 Ch 2-
  • 65. Case Study 3 Jill, a new employee, is unloading some buns that have just arrived. The cover of one box is torn. It is not known where the tear occurred. What should she do with the box of buns? HACCP for CNPs 65 Ch 2-
  • 66. Case Study 4 Tom is putting some ingredients in the refrigerator. He puts the lettuce salad for today’s lunch under a pan of some uncooked chicken. What is wrong with what he did? Why? HACCP for CNPs 66 Ch 2-
  • 67. Case Study 5 Martha is cooking some hamburger patties for lunch. She cooks them until they are brown and the juices run clear. Then she puts them in a warmer until they are ready to be served. What is wrong with what she did? HACCP for CNPs 67 Ch 2-
  • 68. Case Study 6 Bill is serving tuna noodle casserole for lunch. He needs another pan of it but he just started to reheat it. He needs to serve it in a hurry. He touches the side of the pan and it seems hot. He decides to serve it as is. What is wrong with what he did? HACCP for CNPs 68 Ch 2-
  • 69. Case Study 7 Maya is serving macaroni and cheese. She is wearing gloves. Her eyes begin to water and tear so she wipes away a tear with the back of her hand. She continues serving the macaroni and cheese. What is wrong with what she did? HACCP for CNPs 69 Ch 2-
  • 70. Case Study 8 Steak soup has been delivered to Riley Day Care from the central kitchen. The delivery truck was late and the child care worker needs to serve the food right away. The containers feel hot, so she does not check the temperature before serving. What is wrong with that? HACCP for CNPs 70 Ch 2-
  • 71. Case Study 9 Chicken fajitas have been delivered to the Boy's and Girl’s Club from the central kitchen. They are supposed to arrive cold and the food service assistant is to reheat them. When he takes the chicken out of the transport boxes, the containers feel like they are at room temperature. He reheats the chicken for five minutes and then serves it. What is wrong with what he did? HACCP for CNPs 71 Ch 2-
  • 72. Case Study 10 Frank has just finished cutting up chicken. He wipes that area he used with a clean cloth and then rinses the cloth thoroughly. Later he uses the same cloth to wipe out the salad bowl before the lettuce salad is put in it to be served for lunch. What is wrong with what he did? HACCP for CNPs 72 Ch 2-
  • 73. Case Study 11 Anita has just finished cutting up melon. She wipes the area she used with a clean cloth and rinses the cloth thoroughly. She uses the same cloth to wipe out the bowl before the cut melon is put in it to be served for lunch. What is wrong with what she did? HACCP for CNPs 73 Ch 2-