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EMRS DTC - Presentation at London QE2 Showcase


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Presentation given at the Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing (EMRS) Defence Technology Centre (DTC) showcase event in London at the QE2 Conference Centre.

Presentation given at the Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing (EMRS) Defence Technology Centre (DTC) showcase event in London at the QE2 Conference Centre.

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  • 1. Professor Keith Lewis EMRS DTC Research Director 30 April 2008 Defence Technology Centres: Industry and the Science Base working in partnership with UK MoD to develop innovative Defence Technology 1
  • 2. Agenda • UK Defence Science Landscape • Specifying the Military Research Portfolio – The Defence Industrial Strategy (DIS) – The Defence Technology Strategy (DTS) – The Defence Technology Plan (DTP) • MoD key technology drivers • EMRS DTC - Science & Technology Activities – Relationship to the cross-cutting themes of the DTS • • Electro-optic (EO) sensor systems • Transduction materials and devices (TDM) • – Radio Frequency (RF) sensor systems Transducer embedded processing (TEP) Special themes • Counter-IED • Counter suicide bomber • Technology trials • UAV sensor payloads • Technology trials • Exemplars 30 April 2008 2
  • 3. UK Defence Science Landscape Counter Terrorism Competition of Ideas Grand Challenge Enterprise Growth Rapid Development of Solutions in Operations Defence Technology Centres Seed Corn Research International Research Collaboration Challenge Workshops Single Source Research Consortia Based Research & Technology High Risk High Impact Demonstrators Equipment & Support for Operations Joint Funded Research & Technology Single Source Research & Technology Risk Reduction Demonstrators Advice / Assessments “Ideas” 30 April 2008 “Growth” “Demonstration” “Application” 3
  • 4. Opening up more routes to market EPSRC/NERC/STFC Research Councils DBERR Technology Strategy Board Regional Development Agencies Industry – PV/Product Development DTC Precursor DTC Main Programme DTC Research Exploitation Plan High risk demonstrator Seed Corn Risk reduction demonstrator Challenge Workshops Equipment Programme Counter Terrorism Centre TRL 1 30 April 2008 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4
  • 5. Specifying the Military Research Portfolio Previous Operational Experience Likely Future Operations Capability Shortfall Refine Systems Analysis Refine Technology Push Shared Vision of Technology Shortfalls System Solutions UK Defence Industrial & Technology Strategy (DIS/DTS) & Defence Technology Plan (DTP) Guidance on implementation 30 April 2008 DTC consortium view on technology opportunities, future equipment needs of UK and overseas markets Shared Vision of Research Priorities Agreed Priorities for DTC Call for Proposals Shared, Collaborative R&D Programme 5
  • 6. MoD Key Drivers • MoD has identified the following key military capabilities needed from future sensor systems: • Day and night, all weather capability • Long range operation • Rapid, large area search capability • Detection of low signature targets • Detection of camouflaged/concealed targets • Affordable, robust systems for military platforms • Covert operation • Multi-function, detection/ID capability 30 April 2008 6
  • 7. EMRS DTC Programme • The EMRS DTC has chosen to tackle the key requirements through aggressive programmes in four technology-driven areas, reflecting the cross-cutting themes in section B2 of the Defence Technology Strategy – Radio Frequency (RF) sensor systems – Electro-optic (EO) sensor systems – Transduction materials and devices (TDM) – Transducer embedded processing (TEP) • Supplemented by special themes – Counter-IED – Counter suicide bomber – Technology trials – UAV sensor payloads 30 April 2008 7
  • 8. Radio Frequency (RF) Systems • Networked RF Sensors – Establish potential value of RF sensor networks (eg Ground Manoeuvre, Urban Operations) • Target Recognition – Range profiling and 2D imaging, with particular reference to long range operation • Millimetre wave/sub-THz Sensing – Improve viability of remote sensing in this area of spectrum (resolution, range) – Body scanning (concealed weapons) & helicopter operations (brown-out, obstacle avoidance) • Microwave Photonics • • Novel component technologies for future Radar/EW/ESM systems ESM and Passive RF Sensing – Improved emitter detection and localisation – Covert radar using transmitters of opportunity • Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) Technology – Compact antenna arrays for multifunctional RF systems on UAVs and aircraft • Radar System and Sub-system Studies – New classes of radar systems to provide added capability and to improve radar performance 30 April 2008 8
  • 9. Transduction Devices and Materials (TDM) • • Seek reductions in through-life cost, size, weight and power of future microwave modules in Radar, UAV and EW systems. Emphasis on the use of cross-cutting and emerging technologies Radar Lower mass (more mobile) Increased range Advanced electronic component and circuit concepts for use in complex future systems such as adaptive array radars and next generation EW systems • Demonstrate substantial improvements in base technologies of materials, devices & circuits in forms that are fully exploitable • Naval EW 3-12 GHz > 100W amplifier Instant “on” cf TWT’s Ensure UK defence base has access to new and emerging electronic device technologies – reduce effects of governmental export restrictions (ITAR) Decoys Replacing TWT / GaAs with GaN module Skynet Satellite powers amplifiers Mobile Satcomm base stations 20-100W @ 8GHz (tube replacement) 30 April 2008 Helicopter ESM 9
  • 10. Electro-optic (EO) Systems • Technologies for Active Sensing exploiting laser illumination – Improve the detection and identification of difficult targets especially at long range and/or in cluttered environments • Hyperspectral/Polarimetric (Discriminative) Sensing – Provide covert discrimination between military targets and their environment, so defeating camouflage, concealment and deception. Includes IEDs, mines, gas emissions etc • Detector Technologies – Enhance detector capabilities in relation to resolution, sensitivity and broader waveband coverage at lower cost and reduced through-life logistic support • Novel Concepts for Military EO Sensing – Novel techniques eg for enhanced resolution, stand-off range, longer range target acquisition – Provision of enhanced surveillance capability eg by imaging through turbulence/haze/mist VIS 30 April 2008 SWIR False colour SWIR image demonstrating clear distinction between natural scene and man-made objects at 1.4km R - 1600nm, G - 1250nm B - 1000nm 10
  • 11. Transducer Embedded Processing • Scene Processing – Enhanced ISTAR capability - surveillance imagery from moving platforms • Embedded Processing Algorithms – Day/night autonomous capability for ground based unmanned systems • Rapid Development Methods – Reduce development costs of advanced electronic systems (eg FPGAs) by reducing design cycle times • Hardware Architectures – Improve radar detection performance through focussed technology insertion MultiGigabit 30 April 2008 High Speed Digital Signal Processing Complex Data Processing MultiMegabit Megabit 11
  • 12. Counter IED • Discriminative imaging techniques are key • LWIR polarimetric and multi-band imagery provide a signficant step forward over existing techniques for discriminating targets of interest (eg mines, disturbed earth) within the natural scene • Polarimetry distinguishes man-made objects • MWIR/LWIR image fusion separates contributions of temperature and emissivity • Both techniques detect recently disturbed earth or surface soil and can locate buried IEDs • On-going programme of trials at Fort Halstead, Copehill Down and Porton Down • Novel radar techniques for the detection of IEDs 30 April 2008 12
  • 13. Counter-suicide bomber • Compact mm-wave Imagers for Urban Operations • Long-term joint project in collaboration with the Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) • Realisation of a fully integrated 32 x32 element focal plane array imager operating at 220GHz, capable of crowd screening • Microwave stand-off body scanner using MIMO techniques Simulated passive subTHz images illustrating improved resolution at higher frequency 220GHz 500GHz • Array-based technique for concealed weapon detection exploiting COTS components • 16x16 element demonstrator operating at 35GHz assembled, capable of resolving 1cm targets at 7m range Our goal - concealed weapons and IED detection at range • Image synthesis showing resolution achievable at 10m PSF for point 2001,2001,10001, at y = 2001, z = 10001 100 3dB cutoff at 2011.8567 3dB to 3dB width = 10.8567mm. 125 x 125 element array 80 ) B d ( e d u t i l p m A 60 40 20 0 -20 Up to 20m 30 April 2008 Waveform generator 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 x axis 3000 3500 Control unit and DSP 4000 4500 Images of gun on optical table (left) and under thick coat (right) 13
  • 14. Technology trials • Series of trials, Porton Down, March 2008 • Demonstrate & evaluate DTC technologies – Militarily-significant target set – Some unclassified targets • Aim to enhance pull-through and provide military context • Range of competing technologies, including reference, bench-mark sensors • Assessment of target detection algorithms, data fusion • Range of targets sets at 1.4km and 4.2km – IEDs, decoys, targets in the open, behind tree lines and camouflaged – Different weather conditions 30 April 2008 14
  • 15. LWIR Polarimetric Imaging • Compact lightweight discriminative imaging technique, ready for fielding on land vehicles • Exploits on-chip diffraction gratings and micro-scanning to allow four registered polarisation images to be generated for anomaly detection • Processing tailored for anomalies of interest eg vehicles behind tree lines Standard TI Image False Colour Polarised Image Automatic Target Detection Cold vehicle in tree line is not apparent IED detection Target is polarised • Disturbed earth • Concealed man-made objects in sand and top-soil • Other polarisation anomalies at road side 30 April 2008 Target detection algorithms automatically draw operators attention to threat 15
  • 16. Imaging through turbulent atmospheres • • • Highly relevant to operations in the desert and littoral environments, enhancing situational awareness, providing greater scene detail When suitably corrected, can read 40mm high characters at 1.4km range QinetiQ’s “lucky” imaging approach exploits phase diversity, enabling real-time image presentation – – Compensation of the degrading effects of atmospheric turbulence - relies on the probability that very occasionally the atmosphere ‘behaves’ and a good “lucky” image is captured Benefits of exploiting a phase diversity metric emerge in fast computational speed and efficiency, insensitivity to noise, scene content and distortion Conventional image 30 April 2008 Processed Lucky Image Comparison of conventional and processed ‘lucky’ images recorded at Porton Down over a 4.3km atmospheric path Resolution of 0.5 x 0.5m scene at 1.4km 16
  • 17. Target ID and camouflage discrimination • Technique developed to improve target identification and enable camouflage discrimination – Suitable for airborne, ground based or littoral operations – Multi-spectral/VNIR hyperspectral systems require real-time atmospheric correction • Technique provides suitable imagery requiring little operator training • Real-time processing – Example showing soldiers emerging from tree-line 30 April 2008 17
  • 18. Long range target ID using eye-safe active imaging • Broadband laser developed at St Andrews University to minimise the effects of speckle arising from atmospheric effects • The Selex system exploits range-gating to image the region of interest – Improved stand-off range, higher resolution imagery, more robust to EOCM – Elimination of speckle improves performance of target trackers or automatic target recognition algorithms • Novel optical parametric oscillator shown to be capable of providing desired bandwidth characteristics, at sufficient output energies • Selex continues to work with St Andrews to exploit the technology • Opportunity for exploitation in support of MoD Gen 4 targeting strategy Threat at 1.4km range 30 April 2008 18
  • 19. UAV Sensor Payloads • Multifunctional architectures provide opportunity for more capability on UAV platforms over federated approaches • Reduced mass and volume to increase endurance • Greater flexibility to reduce military utility and to enable small UAVs to operate with militarily useful payloads such as SAR/GMTI • System concept study considered a tactical UAV (~50kg payload) and a small UAV (~5kg payload) • Integrated team of SELEX and Thales domain experts (UAV, CNI, EW, ESM and Radar), with Dstl support on CONOPS – Identified three representative operational concepts for deployment – Identified required RF functions to meet operational concepts (SAR etc) – Identified candidate ‘generic’ integrated RF architectures • Each RF function mapped to generic architecture to identify areas of technical commonality, hence addressing potential of sharing – For most promising sharing combinations • Identified military capability provided and key technology capability gaps & risks in acquiring this technology, with research topics necessary to achieve desired system level technology demonstrators in 5-7 years • Analysis shows significant benefit in module count • Federated approach - 136 modules • Multifunctional approach - 35 modules • Impact on NRE costs • Strong input to SIMCLAIRS (UK/FR/SW EDA programme) 30 April 2008 19
  • 20. Exemplar Projects Defence Technology Centres: Industry and the Science Base working in partnership with UK MoD to develop innovative Defence Technology 30 April 2008 20
  • 21. Chip-scale fast scanning mirrors • Exploitation of laser systems on UAVs requires compact beam steering devices – • Active imaging systems etc 1st tilting mode: 11.0 kHz FEA 10.2 kHz expt Unique 2-axis MEMS based technology developed to meet challenging goals – Major step forward for use in compact scanners where weight and power consumption are critical eg small UAVs – Exploits COTS foundry processes – High precision mirrors with low loss dielectric coatings – Performance levels achieved through detailed studies of stress to understand role of substrate and interfacial films • 41.7 kHz expt Very low scan power requirement (<1mW) compared with conventional devices (50W) • 42.9 kHz FEA Demonstrated handling 4W CW laser power at 1550nm • 2nd tilting mode: Capable of addressing 50˚ x 30˚ field of view 30 April 2008 21
  • 22. Affordable high performance IR cameras • • • • • • Infra-red camera systems underpin a wide range of key military capabilities including high resolution surveillance, target detection, identification and aim point selection, and day/night war fighting Performance levels of IR cameras set by design and processing of detector arrays EMRS DTC activity has provided the way forward for the manufacture of smaller arrays, requiring less cooling, hence reducing power requirements Research project achieved 320 x 256 element arrays with 16 micron pixels in using a combination of dry etching and a final wet etch to remove surface damage. NETD levels <15mK for all elements of array Technology exploited by SELEX in the Albion programme to realise the 640 x 512 pixel Hawk detector 30 April 2008 SEM image of mesas on a 16!m pitch 22
  • 23. Ultra-wide band RF antennas • Enabler for light-weight multi-functional RF systems • 4:1 bandwidth antenna will support a wide range of RF system functions The very wide bandwidth response of Selex’s array is directly related to the extent to which power is coupled between individual elements • Radar • SAR/GMTI/Fire control/Surveillance • Frequency diversity allows • Adaptation to processing/ integration • Environmental frequency optimisation • Electronic warfare • Radar and Comms ESM/ECM • Engineered frequency coverage • Communications This highly coupled array can be used to propagate EM fields over a very wide bandwidth and thus transmit/receive waveforms into/from free space over a very wide range of frequencies and angles • Wideband directional data/radar data link (CDL) • Reversionary command & control datalinks • SATCOM • Navigation • Transponders • What is the widest bandwidth that can be achieved in an antenna array? 1 – What range of angles can be addressed? – To what degree can polarisation diversity be addressed to enable discrimination of targets? 30 April 2008 1 Stripline Zo Cross-dipole array from BAE Systems 23
  • 24. Interrupted synthetic aperture radar • • Several EMRS DTC programmes are aimed at directly improving the military capabilities of the UK’s fighter aircraft fleet SAR-based targeting from tactical aircraft (Typhoon, Tornado) – DTC programme on “Interrupted SAR” (TW Research) has demonstrated how platforms can carry out high-resolution SAR imaging interleaved with other tasks (such as air-to-air surveillance for self-protection). Ready for exploitation - now Real SAR data Interrupted image Restored interrupted image Original uninterrupted image Unusable Operationally usable, now with 20% time free for other tasking 30 April 2008 24
  • 25. FIAC detection in the littoral environment • Small, fast vessels are difficult to detect by radar amongst sea-clutter, especially in shallow water near the coast – • CONOPS required for radar systems requires them to be used in littoral environments DTC project at TW Research has developed a physicsbased sea clutter model • • • • Simulates clutter expected in scenarios defined by detailed coastal geography and weather Open ocean, linear addition of sinusoids, random in amplitude and phase Includes modelling of wave refraction and wave breaking criterion applicable to directional spectra in shallow water Exploits techniques developed for the entertainment industry to produce realistic computer graphic simulations of the sea surface, which are also soundly based on the underlying physics Tessendorf transform for superimposition of waves of different power spectra Elements of work have already been adopted to support the MoD FASGW programme Detection performance display 30 April 2008 Shallow water - superimposition of directional ‘choppy’ waves 25
  • 26. Target location under tree canopy • eOsphere, DLR Germany, Edinburgh University • Ref DTS Section B table 3 • Tomographic analysis of L-band data sets measured in flight trials in Germany has clearly shown the position and location of vehicles hidden under foliage • Target set included military vehicles, containers and corner cubes for calibration SAR image of part of trials site - dotted line locates approximate section used to produce tomographic image • Novel algorithms and data processing techniques used to extract images and tomographic sections • Related project at Edinburgh University has made good progress with simulation of foliage penetration • Model corresponds with observed experimental effects in low density foliage conditions 30 April 2008 26
  • 27. Easily Deployable Micro-Radar Network • Novel forward scattering micro-radar unmanned sensor network for: • Detection of targets moving behind hills and personnel inside buildings • Penetration through walls, 2m total wall thickness • Targets detected through steel-reinforced floors • Automatic target detection and classification in ground operations (enemy vehicle movements) • Situational awareness, reconnaissance in remote areas, perimeter protection of logistic routes, operational support • Ability to resolve vehicles (tanks etc), and personnel on foot moving in convoys • Compact, cost-effective and disposable sensors • Deployable from UAVs or ground vehicles • Global data transfer via satellite messaging or regional via terrestrial channels • Day/night, all-weather operation • Penetration through dense foliage and smoke screening • Long detection range (300m for personnel on foot) 30 April 2008 Sensors can be dropped from a UAV Satellite link Control centre Radar sensor Through-wall vision Multiple targets resolution Vehicle detection and automatic classification Human targets detection FSR Network concept and applications Radar display 27
  • 28. High power, high frequency electronic devices • Future generations of electronic power devices, crucial for evolving radar and EW systems are likely to be based on wide band-gap materials such as gallium nitride (GaN) and diamond (DTS paras B2.50, 2.51, 2.52) – – • Existing microwave technology (TWT vacuum-tubes) large, heavy, costly Conventional GaAs 20W 10GHz module. GaN based module about 4 times smaller Conventional semiconductors unable to meet high power/frequency requirement. GaN device operation demonstrated at 600˚C Exploitation addressed by aligning research to an existing foundry – Critical for fast pull-through – Silicon substrates present a key bridge – Programme addresses key technical challenges • Major breakthrough achieved at Element Six in providing stable GHz performance from a diamond MESFET structure • New UK-based microwave company Diamond Microwave Devices Ltd (DMD) established to develop and market diamond-based, microwave products such as MESFETs • Pt-gate on GaN written by e-beam Will exploit in military (radar, electronic warfare, missile and UAV seekers) and commercial applications (mainly wireless infrastructure and satellite communications) 30 April 2008 28
  • 29. Temporal resolution enhancement • • • • Camera systems are degraded by movement (eg jitter), sensor noise, atmospheric turbulence etc Technique developed to achieve super-resolution in video imagery, exploiting these effects Applicable to any camera system through software upgrade Applied to IRST data taken within the DEC AWE AIMMS programme • • Potential exploitation through L3 Wescam turrets ASRAAM seeker data has also been analysed using dataset collected at 2006 Farnborough International • Provides 50% range improvement depending on target signal 30 April 2008 29
  • 30. Tracking moving ground targets with low-cost sensors Visual detection of moving targets over extended areas and times for the analysis of patterns of behaviour • • • Surveillance of urban theatre • • Simultaneous multiple target tracking Visual detection of moving targets from a moving platform (eg UAV or helicopter) • • • Integration of moving target imdicator data into bigger picture using image mosaicing techniques • Provides global map alignment with superimposed movers encompassing multiple fields of view Applicable to any camera system Compensates for platform motion whilst tracking targets Opportunity for exploitation via L3 Wescam and Police 30 April 2008 30
  • 31. Day/night vision for ground based autonomous vehicles 30 April 2008 31