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Estonia / What do we teach about our neighbours?


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  • 1. Estonian presentation – neighbours in our history textbooks Mare Oja, Heli Aiaots, Ülle Kõiv, Hilje Saag, Ivo Maripuu, Aare Ristikivi, Indrek Riigor RIGA 2007
  • 2. HISTORY TEACHING (National Curriculum 2002) 70 History of the 20th Century Gymnasium (18 – 19) 105 Human – Society – Culture Gymnasium (17 – 18) 70 History of Estonia Gymnasium (16 – 17) 70 Contemporary History Form 5 (1 5 – 1 6 ) 70 Modern History Form 5 (1 4 – 1 5 ) 70 Medieval History Form 5 (1 3 – 1 4 ) 70 Ancient History Form 5 (12 - 13 ) 35 Propedeutical course (Introductory course) Form 5 (11 – 12) HOURS PER YEAR TITLE OF THE COURSE FORM AND AGE
  • 3. Main principles:
    • Two concentres
    • Chronological approach on the Basic School level (history of Estonia is integrated int o the World History course ) and thematic approach on the Gymnasium level (History of Estonia is a separate cour s e)
    • Course system
    • From closer to wider perspective (I, my home, Estonia, Europe, the World)
    • Accent from What? and When? to Why? and How?
    • Different interpretations and viewpoints
    • Freedom and responsibility of teachers
    • National Examination Test in history (since 1997)
    • Access on skills
    • New educational situation and approach: multicultural education, integration, NATO, European Union, importance of everyday life of people during centuries
  • 4. Latvia
    • Igaunija = Ugandi
    • Toreida = Turaida
    • Cesis = Võnnu
    • Valmiera = Volmari
    • Ergeme = Härgmäe
    • Ainaži = Heinaste
    • Daugava river = Väina river
  • 5. 5 most common aspects
    • The Cruisade of Livonia
    • The Livonian Confederation
    • The birth of independent Estonia and Latvia
    • 1939-1940 Soviet occupation started
    • The National Movement and 1991, when Estonia and Latvia returned to independence
  • 6. The Crusade of Livonia source: Henrik’s Livonian Chronicle
    • Estonians and its South neigbours: Livs, Curonians, Latgals and Zemgals
    • 1180s – Bishop Meinhard
    • 1196 – Bishop Berthold
    • 1199 – Bishop Albert
    • 1201 – the establisment of Riga
    • 1202 – Livonian Brothers of the Sword
    • 1208-1227 – Estonians fighting for freedom
  • 7. The Livonian Confederation
  • 8. The independent states Estonia and Latvia
    • 1917 the autonomy of unified Province of Estonia
    • 24.02.1918 Estonia declared its independence
    • 18.11.1918 Latvia declared its independence
    • 28.11.1918-02.02.1920 Estonian War of Independence
    • The Overthrow of Karlis Ulmanis’ Government by Landeswehr and Iron Division
    • June, 1919 Landeswehr War in Latvian territory – 23.06.1919 victory in Battle of Võnnu (Cesis) became the Victory Day of Estonia
    • June, 1919 Battle of Riga – Estonian troops helped Latvian government to regain its power
    • The Aventure of Bemondt-Avalov and Latvian War of Independence
  • 9. 1939-1940
    • 23.08.1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact (known as Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact)
    • 1939 Soviet bases were build on to Estonia and Latvia – the Age of Bases
    • The Leaving of Baltic Germans ( Umsiedlung ) – the end of old culture
    • 1940 Soviet occupation started:
      • June – military occupation and overthrow of Baltic governments
      • July – new “elections”
      • August – formal annexion to Soviet Union
  • 10. National Movements in 1980s Return to Independence in 1991
    • The Peoples Front in Baltic states (Rahvarinne, Tautas Frontes, Sajudis)
    • 23.08.1989 The Baltic Chain
    • January 1991 Bloodbath in Vilnius and Riga
    • 20.08.1991 Estonia redeclared its independence
    • 21.08.1991 Latvia redeclared its independence
  • 11. Some Facts about Estonian and Latvian History
    • 1180-1227 The Crusade of Livonia (1290 last stronghold of the Semgals brought under by Germans)
    • 13th – 16th century The Livonian Confederation / The Old Livonia
    • 1558-1582 The Livonian War (Poland vs Russia vs Sweden)
    • The Polish in Latvia and South-Estonia = future Province of Livonia
    • The Swedish in North-Estonia = future Province of Estonia
    • The Swedish period 1629-1710
    • 1700-1721 The Great Northern War
    • 1710-1917 The Russian Empire
    • 1918 Estonia and Latvia declared its independence
    • 1918-1920 Estonian War of Independence
    • 1919-1920 Latvian War of Independence
    • 1940 Estonia and Latvia lose their independence
    • 1940-1941 First Soviet occupation
    • 14.06.1941 and 25.03.1949 Mass Deportations to Siberia
    • 1941-1944 German occupation
    • 1944-1991 Soviet occupation
    • 1991 Estonia and Latvia regain independence
    • 2004 Estonia and Latvia become the members of the European Union and NATO
  • 12. Russia
    • Russia has plaid an important role in world history, especially in 20 th century. So we teach the Russian history as the important part of general history, especially history of 20th century.
    • As Estonia was two centuries part of Russian Empire and half of century part of Soviet Union, we approach Russian history topics connected with Estonian history.
  • 13.
    • Form 7 – The Middle Ages
    • Genesis of Old Russian state and relations between our forefathers and Old Novgorod and Old Kiev
    • Relations between Livonian Order and Russian principalities…
    • … and Livonian War in 16th century
    • Form 8 – The Modern Era
    • The Northern War and beginning of Russian Era in Estonia
    • Absolutism in Russia by Peter I and Catherine II
    • Napoleon’s campaign against Russia, Borodino battle
    • Reforms of Alexander I, when the peasants in Estonia and Latvia were released from serfdom
    • Russification period by Alexander III
    • The First Russian Revolution in 1905
    • Russia in World War I
    • Revolutions in Russia in 1917, Civil War
  • 14. Form 9 – History of the 20th century
    • Genesis of Soviet Union and short history of USSR between World War I and World War II
    • Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and its issues: occupation of Baltic states, first soviet year
    • Russian (Soviet) history according World War II
    • Soviet Union after World War II till 1985: domestic policy, economy
    • Cold War:
      • Soviet Union against United States
      • Soviet Union and socialist countries in East Europe.
    • Gorbach e v’s perestroika-policy and disintegration of Soviet Union.
  • 15.
    • In gymnasium (form 12) our pupils, study the depth course of 20th century.
    • In principle, the same curriculum is in our Russian-language schools. The curriculum gives to school and/or the teacher opportunity to teach 1/3 of the content of the history course what ever they want to.
  • 16. Sweden
    • P robably the second best represented neighbor country in our history textbooks after Russia . In the context of Estonian history as well as that of the world.
  • 17. In the World history textbooks
    • High school World history textbooks have all together 604 pages, Sweden is mentioned on 46 of them
    • Mostly neutral
    • Longer topics are: Vikings, the Reformation, fight for the supremacy of the Baltic Sea
  • 18. In the World history textbooks
    • Mentioned: Rjurik, peasants were represented in the Riksdag, Uppsala University, Karl Linne, Nobel, Norway’s breakaway from Sweden, Ingmar Bergman, ABBA
  • 19. In Estonian history books
    • High school Estonian history textbooks have all together 240 pages, Sweden is mentioned on 62 of them, so it’s almost on every 4 th page
    • 23 times it is something negative (for example looting Narva during the Livonian war, extradition of Baltic immigrants to the USSR after the Second World War etc)
    • 23 times it’s something positive (e.g. founding of the University of Tartu, Baltic Mondays etc)
    • Positive information seems to be predominant
  • 20. Ancient History (10, 000 BC – 13 th cen )
    • Copper and iron imported from Sweden
    • There were some attacks against Estonia, but also – King Ingvar was killed in Estonia and we conquered Sigtuna (maybe)
    • Sweden tried to introduce Christianity in Estonia without military force
    • Swedish attack 1220 was fended off
  • 21. Middle ages (13 th -16 th cen )
    • Sweden promised to send reinforcements during the 1343–1345 uprising of Estonians against the foreign rule
    • North-Estonia voluntarily accepted the Swedish overlordship in 1561
    • Estonians were on the Swedish side in the Livonian war
    • Looting Narva during the Livonian war by permission of D e la Gardie
  • 22. The Good Old Swedish Time ( 16th- 17 th c en )
    • During this period, majority of the peasantry lost their freedom and became serfs, but in the end their status changed, to the extent that one might speak of the abolition of serfdom on reduced holdings
    • Lutherian became as a state religion
    • The witchcraft trials, but also the establishment of village schools , gymnasiums and Tartu University
    • T he first industries were established
    • Great Famine, during which Sweden still exported the grain
  • 23. The Good Old Swedish Time
    • Names that are familiar to every Estonian: Johan Skytte, Bengt Gottfried Forselius, Charles XI, Charles XII
  • 24. 20th century
    • Volunteers from Sweden in the Estonian War of Independence, but Sweden recognize Estonia de jure only in 1921
    • King Gustav V’s visit in 1929
    • Estonian kroon s were transferred to the basis of Swedish krona
    • After World War II, recognition of the Soviet occupation in 1940 and deportation of Baltic refugees, but later the main center of foreign-Estonians
    • S upporting Estonian strive for independence in the 1980s
  • 25. Finland
    • Basic school
    • Comb Ceramic and Battle Axe Culture are mentioned
    • Accepting Christianity
    • Kalmar Union
    • Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire (1809–1917)
  • 26. Form 9 (20 th century)
    • On December 6, 1917 Finland declared its independence
    • Finnish Civil War (war between Finland and Soviet Russia ), the victory of the White side
    • Karl Gustav Mannerheim
    • Treaty of Tartu October 14, 1920
    • Estonian War of Independence and Finnish volunteers
    • The attemps to create Baltic Union between Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland – failed
    • Construction of the Mannerheim Line
    • Lapua Movement
    • Molotov-Ribbentrop (Nazi-Soviet) Pact and map showing the spheres of influences
  • 27.
    • The Winter War – 1 chapter, pictures:
      • The USSR demands
      • The Shelling of Mainila
      • November 20, 1939 USSR invaded Finland
      • The USSR is expelled from the League of Nations
      • The Moscow Peace Treaty (1940)
    • Continuation War (1941 – 1944)
    • Paris Peace Treaties, 1947
    • War reparations (Finland was the only country, which has fully paid war reparations)
  • 28.
    • Finland between the East and West – 1 chapter
    • The post-war era was a period of rapid economic growth
    • A grarian country was transformed into a technologically advanced country
    • Social welfare system
    • Paasikivi-Kekkonen’s Line
    • Finlandization
    • Kekkonen’s visit to Estonia
    • Finnish TV
    • Bilateral trade
    • Soviet Union fell in 1991  the depression 1990 – 1993 in Finland
    • Finland joined the European Union in 1995
  • 29. High school
    • Kalmar Union
    • The Great Northern War
    • Russia annexed Finland from Sweden in 1809
    • The eastern provinces became the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire
    • The Congress of Vienna
    • Russia was allowed to keep Finland and held it until 1917
    • Finland and the Baltic countries in the Russian Empire
    • Governor-General of Finland Nikolai Bobrikov
    • T he "February Manifesto“ (1899)
    • P etition to Nicholas II requesting to revoke the manifesto
  • 30.
    • 1904 Bobrikov was assassinated by Eugen Schauman in Helsinki
    • Collapse of the Russian Empire and the new states (map)
    • Finland declared its independence in 1917
    • Finnish Civil War
    • Finnish Republic (1919)
    • The Lapua Movement
    • MRP
    • The Winter War
    • Continuation War (1941–1944)
    • War reparations
    • Finland after the WW II and during the Cold War
  • 31. Lithuania
    • Basic school:
    • Baltic peoples are mentioned
    • The Grand Duchy of Lithuania – 4 pages
      • Emergence of the State
      • Gediminas
      • The Polish–Lithuanian union
      • The battle of Grünwald
      • The position of Lithuania in the union
    • Illustrations:
      • Mindaugas; Jagailo and Jadviga union; Trakai;
      • The Crusades – the battle of Saule 1236
    • Lithuania became part of Russia during the rule of Catherine II
  • 32. 20 th century
    • The Lithuanian independence is mentioned as a result of the decomposition of the Russian Empire
    • The attempts to create the Baltic Union in the 1920s and the contradictions between countries, the Polish–Lithuanian dispute over Vilnius
    • Neutrality in 1938 along with Estonia and Latvia
    • The occupation of Klaipeda by Germany in 1939
    • Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
    • Occupation of the Baltic countries in 1940, Lithuania in June 15
    • The Soviet period – conflicts emerged with the Lithuanian freedom fighters
    • The collapse of the USSR
      • The Vilnius TV–tower occupied, the events of January 13 1991
      • referendum for the independence of Lithuania
      • R ecognition of the independence of the Baltic countries
      • A cceptance to the UN
  • 33. H igh S chool
    • Findings of flint stone in the Pulli settlement in South Lithuania
    • Lithuanians as strong rivals at the end of the prehistoric period who had many devastating attacks to Estonia
    • 1236 – the battle of Saule
    • 1260 – in the battle of Durbe Estonians and Curonians went over to the Lithuanian side
    • 1263 – Lithuanians looted Old Pärnu
    • Lithuanians accepting Christianity and the Krevo Union
    • The battle of Grünwald
    • There might have been 170–170.000 Lithuanians at the beginning of the 13th century (Estonians almost as much)
    • Poland and Lithuania in the Livonian War
  • 34.
    • The Baltic countries at the beginning of the 20th century – emigration from Lithuania and the appearance of active refugee groups
    • 1905 – the summon of the Seim in Lithuania, claiming for autonomy, the movement forced back by Russia
    • The idea of re-independence spreading in Lithuania already before the WW I. At the end WW I support was sought from Germany – Germany had to give up some territories to Lithuania
    • The peace treaties of 1920
    • 1926 – Lithuania renounced democracy, the coup d’état of Smetona, the question of Vilnius and Klaipeda
    • March 23 1939 Germany’s ultimatum to Lithuania, occupation of Klaipeda
    • Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, accepting Soviet military bases on October 10 1939, the Lithuanian saying ‘We’ve won Vilnius but lost Lithuania’
  • 35.
    • The occupation of the Baltic countries
    • The ultimatum of June 14, the occupation of Lithuania on June 15
    • The Soviet occupation, the resistance movement: the important role of the Church in Lithuania, the underground Cronicle of Lithuanian Catholic Church , the Baltic Appeal
    • The Lithuanian ethnic majority dropping to 79 per cent.
    • The restoration of independence
      • January 13 in Vilnius
      • The Baltic Chain
  • 36. Poland
    • Livonian War
    • King Sigismund II – Polish rule in southern part of Estonia
    • Jesuits in Tartu – seminar
    • Recatholisation
    • Partitions of Poland by Russia, Prussia and Austria
    • Polish autonomy and independence. Joseph Pilsutsky
    • MRP. Submarine Orzel
    • WW II, Katyn, Polish Jews and the Holocaust, Warshaw uprising
    • Poland in Soviet period, 1980s and Solidarnosc, Lech Walesa
    • Pope John Paul II and the role of catholic church in communist time
  • 37. Denmark, Norway and Iceland
    • There are more discussions about Danish history, especially in relation to Estonian history (1 3 th -16 th century)
    • There is less information and discussions about Norwegian and Icelandic history
    • Generally Scandinavian or Northe r n countries are dealt with
    • At high school level we repeat more deeply what we studied in the basic school level
  • 38. V ikings
    • The culture of Vikings (f.e. Runic writing, religion, Elder Edda etc)
    • Englands war against Danes-Normans, attacks of Norwegian Vikings to Scotland's coast
    • Old-Russian country and Normans (theories)
    • Transit trade routes across Estonia to the Byzantium and Orient countries
    • Discovery trips :
      • Eric the Red founded the first Nordic settlement in Greenland
      • Leif Ericson, an Icelandic explorer
      • Discovery of America
    • Campaigns to Estonia, sagas: Norwegian prince Halfdan White died in Estonia, Estonian seafares captured Norwegian queen Astrid and her son Olaf and tried to sell them as slaves
  • 39.
    • Vikings ships
  • 40. E stablishment the country and C hristianisation
    • Beginning of the statehood of the Denmark, Christianisation
    • 13 th century – Denmark as superpower/empire by the Baltic Sea (Valdemar II (1202-1241))
    • Norway: consolidation of Christianisation in the middle of 12 th century, beginning the statehood at the beginning of 13 th century
  • 41. F oreign conquest and christianisation in E stonia in 13 th century
    • The role of Denmark of conquest and Christianisation of Estonia (1219 - Battle of Lyndanise, Valdemar II (the Conqueror), Dannebrog , the fighting against German and Swedish crusaders...)
    • The new Estonian administrative division in middle ages: North Estonia – possession of the Danish crown, Treaty of Stensby 1238 between Denmark and Livonian Order (the borders)
    • Danish taxation list Liber Census Daniae: an important geographic and historic document. The list contains about 500 Estonian place names and names of 114 local vassals.
  • 42. Valdemar IV Atterdag sold his domains to the Teutonic Order in 1346 (after the St.George Night uprising (1343-1345)) The code of the Lübeck law what Tallinn got 1282 (in the first page Danish king Erik Klipping and his mother Margareta)
  • 43. R eformation
    • The Reformation: Denmark converted to Lutheranism in 1536; Denmark entered into a union with Norway, the Reformation in Norway
    • Denmark: Frederik I, Johan Hans Tausen, 1536 Church ordinance, 1545 Ribe´s articles
    • Norway: a bishop Olav Engelbergtsson, Denmark and Norway personal union in 1536 and Reformation, church service in Danish
  • 44. L ivonian W ar 1558-1583
    • Denmark in Livonian War for Estonia
    • Purchasing the Bishopric of Saare-Lääne by Denmark in 1559, duke Magnus (the brother Frederik II)
    • The end of war, Denmark got the island Saaremaa
    • 1645 Treaty Brömsebro – Denmark surrendered Saaremaa to Sweden
  • 45. D enmark in other wars
    • 1397-1524 - The Kalmar Union
    • The intervention of Denmark in the Thirty Years' War 1625
    • Denmark at the beginning the Northern War
    • The unification of Germany: Denmark losts Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenberg in 1864
  • 46. D enmark and wars in 20 th century
    • Treaty of Versailles (1919) – Denmark got back the area Schleswig-Holstein
    • The Estonian War of Independence (1918-1920) – the volunteers from Denmark in the Estonian Army
    • The Second World War: the invasion of German Nazy Army to Denmark and Norway in April 1940, the warfare
  • 47. D emocracy
    • The progress of democracy in 1920.-1930:
      • 1913 - Norway adopts full woman suffrage
      • 1915 - women get the vote in Denmark
      • 1919 - in Estonia
    • Nordic Countries : parliamentary democracy, welfare state
  • 48. Iceland in 20 th century
    • The Act of Union, an agreement with Denmark (1918) recognized Iceland as a fully sovereign state under the Danish king
    • During WW II British military forces occupied Iceland
    • Iceland formally became an independent republic in 1944 (plebiscite)
    • Iceland became a member of NATO (1949)
    • The first country to diplomatically recognize Estonia's reclaimed independence was ICELAND (August 22, 1991)
  • 49.
    • The culture at the beginning 20 th century: Norwegian artist Edvard Munch (Art Nouveau, expressionism)
      • The Scream
  • 50. Thank You! Paldies!