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Acrylic
 

Acrylic

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    Acrylic Acrylic Presentation Transcript

    • Acrylics
    • • What is acrylic • How does it manufacture • What are the physical property and chemical property • What are the advantage and limitation with it • Where it is use • Possibilities of using acrylic
    • What is acrylic ?
    • Physically • A useful, clear plastic that resembles glass but superior to glass in many ways. • Thermoplastic, amorphous and transparent • Commonly called acrylic glass • Developed in 1928 in various laboratories and was brought to market in 1933 by rohm & hass company Chemically Chemical name Poly-methyl—meth-acrylate (PMMA) or Poly-(methyl 2-methyl-propenoate) Molecular Formula (C5O2H8)n CH3 | ~(~CH2-C~)n~ | COOCH3 Poly-methyl—meth-acrylate (PMMA) IUPAC Name: poly –[(1-methoxy carbonyl)-1-methylethelene]
    • How does it manufacture ?
    • Acetone is first reacted with hydrogen-cynaid to give acetone cyano-hydrin CH3 CH3 | C=O + HCN CH3 - C –OH / | CH3 CN The cyano-hydrin is then treated with 98%sulphuric acid in a cooled hydrolysis kettle to yield Meth-acryl-amide-sulphate CH3 CH3 | | CH3 – C - OH + H2SO4 CH2 = C | | CN CONH2. H2SO4 The sulphate is not isolated from the reaction mixture , which passes into an esterification kettle and reacts continously with methanol. CH3 CH3 | | CH2 = C + CH3OH CH2 = C + NH4H2SO4 | |
    • Processing processing in melt state such injection moulding (common) and extrusion. manipulation of sheets tubes and rod use of monomer polymer dough
    • Properties
    • Quick factsMolecular weight ~10-6 g Specific gravity 1.19 Tensile modulus ~430 MPa Water absorptions 0.2% Heat deflection(1.82MPa) 100 Refractive index nD 20 1.49 Volume resistivity(20°C) >106 Ω Dielectric constant at 103 Hz(20°C) 3.0 Density 1.19 g/cm³ Melting Point 130-140 °C (265-285 °F) Boiling Point 200.0 °C (392 °F) Hardness R120
    • Electric insulation good for low frequency but inferior to other plastics Transparency total white light transmittance is 92% the highest possible transmittance physically Breakage Resistance 6 -17 times greater impact resistance than glass (in thicknesses of glass 125" to .250) reduces the hazard of injury because it breaks into large dull edged pieces which disperse at low velocity, Weather Resistance extremely good weather resistance, compared with other thermoplastic material. Combustibility Self ignition temperature is between 850°F -869°F. the temprature at which material will ignite in the presence of a flame is between 550°F- 570°F. it burns vigorously and generates heat rapidly when involved in fire. the primary products of acrylic combustion are carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, however, burning acrylic plastic does not produce either excessive quantities of smoke or gasses more toxic than those produced by burning wood or paper.
    • Heat Resistance The maximum service temperature 180°F-200°F acrylics respond to heat, not affected by cold will not become cracked or brittle in cold Chemical Resistance has excellent resistance to inorganic alkalis and acids -ammonia and sulfuric acid, -aliphatic hydrocarbons such as hexane, octane and VM&P naphtha. -Excellent resistance (no attack) to Mineral Oils.  It is attacked by the following chemicals: -Gasoline -Chlorinated hydrocarbons Aromatic solvents such as turpentine, benzene, and toluene. -Ethyl and methyl alcohol. -Organic acids such as acetic acid, phenols, lysol. -Lacquer thinners and other esters, ketones, & ethers. Poor resistance (not recommended for use) with Concentrated Acids, Alcohols, Esters, Aromatic and Halogenated Hydrocarbons, Ketones, Vegetable Oils and Oxidizing Agents.
    • What are the limitations and advantages with it.
    • Disadvantages more expensive than glass, if exposed to a direct flame it will melt and eventually burn. It is polar that's why it do not have insulation property as comparable to polyethylene Advantage Acrylic just over one inch thick (32mm) is bullet resistant. It is many times stronger than glass, making it much more impact resistant and therefore safer. Falling against an acrylic shower door will not likely break it. eg Baseballs that crash through glass windows will, in most cases, bounce off acrylic windows. Acrylic also insulates better than glass, potentially saving on heating bills. it is only half as heavy as glass. They offer easy cleaning and high durability. They are very clear and have high resistance to most of the chemicals and heat and sunlight Adding to this favorable array of properties, a transparency rate of 92% A unique property of plastic is its ability to be shaped. Bow-front aquariums
    • uses
    • Acrylic glass
    • 1. Doors and window 2. It is used as a light guide for the backlights in TFT –LCDS 3. Bath room enclosures 4. fighter planes of WWII have acrylic bubble- tops(which flies at speed less than mach 5. Airplane windows 6. display cases to showcase their products 7. Partition wall 8. hockey rink( spectator protection in ice hockey stadium. 9. barriers to fish tanks 10. residential and commercial aquariums 11. the lenses of exterior lights of automobiles.
    • Motorcycle helmet visors Police vehicles for riot control to produce laser disc ,cd, dvd Sign and boards Lighting fittings Transparent guard for food stuff, machine and machine Baby incubators In Nano technology as fiber optics Decorative materials and award
    • Acrylic fiber
    • 1. Acrylic fabric was first developed by DuPont in 1944 and in 1950 it was commercially produced for the first time. 2. Initially it was used for outdoor purposes 3. acryl fibers are made that contain 85% acrylo- nitrile-monomer. 4. used in clothing, as a cheaper alternative to cashmere, due to the similar feeling of the materials. 5. disadvantages of this is that it tends to fuzz (or pill) easily and it does not insulate the wearer as well as cashmere. 6. The fiber is resistant to moths, oils, and chemicals, and is very resistant to deterioration from sunlight exposure. 7. static and pilling can be a problem. 8. It dyes very well and has excellent colorfastness
    • It is resilient, retains its shape, and resists shrinkage and wrinkles. It is quite varied in form and sometimes has an appearance similar to wool or cotton. a good drape-able quality. It gives warmth without weight. The fabric breathes, it absorbs and releases moisture quickly. It is comfortable to wear and is a easy care fabric. Uses of Acrylic Fabric Apparel - sweaters, socks, fleece, circular knit apparel, sportswear, and children-wear. Home Fashions - Blankets, throws, upholstery, awnings, outdoor furniture, rugs/floor coverings.
    • Process of making Acrylic Fabric Acrylic fabric is produced from petrochemical known as acrylo-ntrile. The fibers produced from acrylo-ntrile are either by dry spun or wet spun. In the dry spinning process, the polymers are dissolved in a suitable solvent, which is forcefully pushed into warm air for solidification by the evaporation of the solvent. After the spinning part is over, it is stretched hot from 3 to 10 times of its original length and then crimped. In the wet spinning process, the polymer is dissolved in solvent and extruded into a coagulating bath. It is then dried, crimped and collected as tow.
    • Acrylic in medicals
    • it has a good degree of compatibility with human tissue, and can be used for replacement intracular lenses in the eye. when the original lens has been removed in the treatment of cataracts. Hard contact lenses are frequently made of this material. In orthopedics' PMMA bone cement is used to affix implants and to remodel lost bone.) PMMA has also been linked to cardiopulmonary events in the operating room due to hypotension. A big disadvantage to this bone cement is that it heats to quite a high temperature while setting and because of this it kills the bone in the surrounding area. dentures are often made of PMMA, and can be colors-matched to the patient's teeth & gum tissue. In cosmetic surgery, tiny PMMA microspheres suspended in some biological fluid are injected under the skin to reduce wrinkles or scars permanently. acrylic nails. They are basically made by mixing a particular powder and liquid. Basically, those who are unable to naturally grow their nails for varied reasons opt for this.
    • Acrylic paint
    • Acrylic paint is fast-drying paint containing pigment suspended in an acrylic polymer emusion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry. Acrylics were first made commercially available in the 1950s. These were minral sprit based paints called magna offered by bocour artist colour. Acrylic paints can be used in high gloss or matte finishes.
    • misconception it yellows, turns brittle and cracks over time. Though this might be true of very cheap forms of plastic, it is not so with acrylic. For example, the fighter planes of WWII have acrylic bubble-tops. Airplane windows are also acrylic. If taken care of, acrylic remains new looking regardless of age or exposure to sun. Some people worry that acrylic scratches too easily, but unlike glass, scratches can be easily buffed out of acrylic.
    • No doubt… The world is exploring more with this material