TrainingA learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanentchange in employees such that their ability to perform on thejob improves.•Changing skills, knowledge, attitudes, or behavior.•Changing what employees know, how they work; or theirattitudes toward their jobs, co-workers, managers, and theorganization.
DevelopmentDevelopment involves changes in an organism that are systematic,organized, and successive…and are thought to serve an adaptivefunction.LearningIs viewed as enhancing ones knowledge, understanding or skillsDevelopment refers to learning opportunities designed to helpemployees grow” and to prepare for future job assignments.
Training is skill related Development is knowledge related Training is job related Development is field related Training is short term process Development is long term process Training is reactive process Development is proactive process
Training programmes are helpful to avoidpersonnel obsolescence” –Discuss Changes in the environment of businessaffect training and development function inhuman resource departments? Retraining is vital to retain people.
To increase productivity To improve quality To help a company fulfill its future personnelneeds To improve org climate Personal growth Obsolescence prevention
Needed for newly recruited employees. For existing employees for higher level jobs. Fresher training for changes in technological. To make employee more productive. In case of transfer. To focus on HRD.
Benefits of the organisation:- More profitability Improve job knowledge & skills Improve the morale of the workforce Help create a better corporate image Fosters openness, trust Provides information for future needs org getsmore effective decision –making Improves mgt-labour relation Help employees adjust to change Assist in handling conflict, thereby reducingstress
Helps in achieving self-development Provides information for improvingleadership knowledge, communicationskills, attitudes Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks Increases job satisfaction Moves a person towards personal goals
Training may permit hiringTraining may permit hiringless-qualified applicantsless-qualified applicantsTraining may permit hiringTraining may permit hiringless-qualified applicantsless-qualified applicants SelectionSelectionSelectionSelection Effective selection mayEffective selection mayreduce training needsreduce training needsEffective selection mayEffective selection mayreduce training needsreduce training needsTraining aids in theTraining aids in theachievement of performanceachievement of performanceTraining aids in theTraining aids in theachievement of performanceachievement of performancePerformancePerformanceAppraisalAppraisalPerformancePerformanceAppraisalAppraisalA basis for assessingA basis for assessingtraining needs and resultstraining needs and resultsA basis for assessingA basis for assessingtraining needs and resultstraining needs and resultsTraining and development mayTraining and development maylead to higher paylead to higher payTraining and development mayTraining and development maylead to higher paylead to higher payCompensationCompensationManagementManagementCompensationCompensationManagementManagementA basis for determiningA basis for determiningemployee’s rate of payemployee’s rate of payA basis for determiningA basis for determiningemployee’s rate of payemployee’s rate of payPresentation Slide 6–1Availability of training can aidAvailability of training can aidin recruitmentin recruitmentAvailability of training can aidAvailability of training can aidin recruitmentin recruitment RecruitmentRecruitmentRecruitmentRecruitment Provide an additionalProvide an additionalsource of traineessource of traineesProvide an additionalProvide an additionalsource of traineessource of traineesTraining may include a role forTraining may include a role forthe unionthe unionTraining may include a role forTraining may include a role forthe unionthe union Labor RelationsLabor RelationsLabor RelationsLabor Relations Union cooperation canUnion cooperation canfacilitate training effortsfacilitate training effortsUnion cooperation canUnion cooperation canfacilitate training effortsfacilitate training efforts
Competition is very intense. Companies are operating in a highlytechnical & global environment. The workforce is becoming even morediverse in terms of cultural values with theentry of more women, minorities & olderpeople. Greater variation exists in the educationalskills of entry-level workers.
Improper procedure designed to conduct needassessment Lack of collection of information to determinethe usefulness of their own instructionalprograms Not having proper evaluation methodse.g, survey of Fortune 500 firms by Ralph &Stephan shows that (86%) most evaluationsconsist of trainee reactions that are written atthe end of the course. Few efforts are made tocollect information concerning performancechanges by means of follow-up on the job.
1.Changes in demographics of entry levelpersons in the workforce:- Degree of workforce participation willhave a serious impact on HRM A) The workforce will grow more slowly.Individuals in the entry pool will be lesswith inadequate basic skills B) proportion of the minority populationwill increase significantly (different ages,different racial groups)
C) The composition will change to moreolder & more women. Old-age group(50-59 years)15% of workforce-2000 to 21% in 2010 Women workforce 47% of the labourworkforce
Trend of highly technological, sophisticalsystems to meet the needs of customers. Programmable automation will require highlytrained workforce. New jobs require teams of workers & teammembers not only need to know their jobsbut also other jobs also.
Move from industrial to knowledgeeconomy. Require continuous learning philosophy. Realization of the fact that Humans arethe crucial resource & commitment totraining & continuous learning is crucial toremain competitive. Outsourcing of training also(50% of thetraining budget). Jobs require associate degree.(education)
90% of the growth of jobs will be in theservice sectors(1998-2008). This requires learning of interpersonal skillsfor service-oriented jobs.(people to peopleinteraction)
Mergers& acquisitions Manufacturing scattered over differentcountries needs training people all across theglobe. Diversity in the work culture .
Training analysis------- Organizationalenvironment e.g, change in selection system will changelevel of training required. e.g, training system will impactperformance e.g, change in position will require trainingprogram.
Competency assessment Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge neededfor decision-oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs.Figure 6.4Presentation Slide 6–3• ORGANIZATIONALORGANIZATIONALANALYSISANALYSISTASK ANALYSISTASK ANALYSIS• PERSON ANALYSISPERSON ANALYSIS• ORGANIZATIONALORGANIZATIONALANALYSISANALYSISTASK ANALYSISTASK ANALYSIS• PERSON ANALYSISPERSON ANALYSIS……of environment, strategies, and resourcesof environment, strategies, and resourcesto determine where to emphasize trainingto determine where to emphasize training……of environment, strategies, and resourcesof environment, strategies, and resourcesto determine where to emphasize trainingto determine where to emphasize training……of the activities to be performed in order toof the activities to be performed in order todetermine the KSAs needed.determine the KSAs needed.……of the activities to be performed in order toof the activities to be performed in order todetermine the KSAs needed.determine the KSAs needed.……of performance, knowledge, and skills inof performance, knowledge, and skills inorder to determine who needs training.order to determine who needs training.……of performance, knowledge, and skills inof performance, knowledge, and skills inorder to determine who needs training.order to determine who needs training.
Characteristics of successful trainersCharacteristics of successful trainersCharacteristics of successful trainersCharacteristics of successful trainersTrainee readiness and motivationTrainee readiness and motivationTrainee readiness and motivationTrainee readiness and motivationIssues in training designIssues in training designIssues in training designIssues in training designInstructional objectivesInstructional objectivesInstructional objectivesInstructional objectivesPrinciples of learningPrinciples of learningPrinciples of learningPrinciples of learning
Knowledge of the subject Adaptability Sincerity Sense of humor Interest Clear instructions Individual assistance Enthusiasm
Importance of training outcomesImportance of training outcomesImportance of training outcomesImportance of training outcomesType of traineesType of traineesType of traineesType of traineesChoosing the instructional methodChoosing the instructional methodChoosing the instructional methodChoosing the instructional methodNature of trainingNature of trainingNature of trainingNature of trainingOrganizational extent of trainingOrganizational extent of trainingOrganizational extent of trainingOrganizational extent of training
Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses astrategy with focus on knowledge (factualand procedural), skills and attitudesdevelopment.
On-the-Job Experiences Seminars and Conferences Case Studies Management Games Role Playing Behavior Modeling
Coaching Understudy Assignment Job Rotation Special Projects Action Learning Staff Meetings Planned Career Progressions
Behavior Modeling An approach that demonstrates desired behaviorand gives trainees the chance to practice androle-play those behaviors and receive feedback. Involves four basic components: Learning points Model Practice and role play Feedback and reinforcement
There are many management developmenttechniques that an employee can take in off thejob. The few popular methods are: SENSITIVITY TRAINING TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES SIMULATION EXERCISES
Sensitivity training is about making people understandabout themselves and others reasonably, which is done bydeveloping in them social sensitivity and behavioralflexibility. Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of anindividual to sense what others feel and think from theirown point of view. Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitably in lightof understanding.
Sensitivity Training Program requires three steps:Unfreezing the old values –It requires that the trainees become aware ofthe inadequacy of the old values. This can be done when the traineefaces dilemma in which his old values is not able to provide properguidance. The first step consists of a small procedure: An unstructured group of 10-15 people is formed.Unstructured group without any objective looks to the trainer for itsguidanceBut the trainer refuses to provide guidance and assume leadershipSoon, the trainees are motivated to resolve the uncertaintyThen, they try to form some hierarchy. Some try assume leadership rolewhich may not be liked by other traineesThen, they started realizing that what they desire to do and realize thealternative ways of dealing with the situation
Development of new values – With the trainer’ssupport, trainees begin to examine theirinterpersonal behavior and giving each otherfeedback. The reasoning of the feedbacks arediscussed which motivates trainees toexperiment with range of new behaviors andvalues. This process constitutes the second stepin the change process of the development ofthese values. Refreezing the new ones – This step dependsupon how much opportunity the trainees get topractice their new behaviors and values at theirwork place.
Transactional Analysis provides traineeswith a realistic and useful method foranalyzing and understanding the behaviorof others. In every social interaction,there is a motivation provided by oneperson and a reaction to that motivationgiven by another person. This motivationreaction relationship between twopersons is a transaction.
1.Distance learning program (technologyreliability) 2.CD ROM &Interactive multimedia -multimedia is defined as a computer-driven, communication system for varioustypes of text, graphic, video & auditoryinformation -IVT (interactive video training) e.g, Fordmotor company uses IVT for 4000 dealersto teach sales , service & productknowledge - PLATO( Programmed logic for automatedteaching operations)
Learning is self-paced. Training comes to the employee. Training is interactive. New employees do not have to wait for ascheduled training session. Training can focus on specific needs asrevealed by built-in tests. Trainees can be referred to online help orwritten material
It is easier to revise a computer programthan to change classroom-training materials. Record keeping is facilitated. The computer program can be linked tovideo presentations. The training can be cost-effective if used fora large number of employees.
4 Intelligent Tutorial system uses artificialintelligence to assist in training or tutoringthe participants. This system learns throughtrainee responses..
Virtual Reality is a training method that puts theparticipant in 3-D environment. The three dimensional environment stimulatessituations and events that are experienced in thejob. The participant interacts with 3-D images toaccomplish the training objectives. This type of environment is created to givetrainee the impression of physical involvement inan environment. To experience virtual reality,the trainee wears devices, like headset, gloves,treadmills, etc. E.g, NASA, Motorola-VR training for machines
Crisis prevention trainingCrisis prevention trainingCrisis prevention trainingCrisis prevention trainingOrganization-wide training programsOrganization-wide training programsOrganization-wide training programsOrganization-wide training programsDiversity trainingDiversity trainingDiversity trainingDiversity trainingGlobal trainingGlobal trainingGlobal trainingGlobal training
which of the following is most importantfor HRD? to be clearly related to theorganisation’s objectives to be clearly related to the expertise inthe department to be flexible to be able to respond tosudden crisis to operate as an extension of the HRMdepartment
What may be particularly necessary as partof the training process where people areworking in another country? e-learning discovery learning cross-cultural training activist learning
Which of the following is not a stage in thesystematic training cycle? evaluation assessing training needs planning the training job instruction on a one to one basis
Which of the following is the best definition ofa learning organisation? An organisation which facilitates the learningof all its members and continuously transformsitself. An organisation in which the managers areencouraged to develop An organisation which facilitates the learningof all its members in order to preserve thestatus quo An organisation which does a lot of training onan ad hoc basis
Which of the following is the best term todescribe people who guide and suggestsuitable learning experiences for theirproteges? human resource directors line managers coaches mentors
Performance Appraisal is a primary HRMprocess that links employees andorganizations and provides input for otherprocesses through these means 1.Identification, Measurement, Management 2.Assessment, Direction, Development 3.Recruitment, Selection, Onboarding 4.Skill, Effort, Responsibility
The systematic process of making jobvaluation determinations about a job basedupon its content and the way in which itactually functions within the organization iscalled Job Evaluation Job Determination Job Analysis Job Grading
What factor can have a lasting impairmenton a persons motivation to learn? a) Learning for work b) Learning which is challenging c) Learning which is instrumental d) A negative experience of learning
Structured learning refers to learning that is: a) Learning that is imposed from above b) Planned and associated with specificoutcomes c) Is theoretical in nature d) Is text book
Evaluation of T&D ProcessesMethods - validity, reliability, utility?• Quantifiable e.g. drop-out rates, absenteeism,wastage, complaints, time saved, cost savings.• Happy sheets? The questions? Halo effect?• Pre-course survey of needs/aims. Post- surveyof achievement + transfer to work. Experience,reflection, planning, implementation, review.• Evaluate course & tutor methods vs. thelearning• Performance tests (pre/post). Quizzes.Examinations. On-job demonstrations .Inspections• Trainee & line-manager observation• Appraisal Coaching/counsellingValidationobserve results of the course.Measure whether thetraining objectives are metEvaluationcompare actual costs of thescheme against assessedbenefits obtainedCost > benefits?redesign or withdraw thescheme.