convesation of Biodiversity


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convesation of Biodiversity

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION DEFINITION:  Biodiversity is often used to describe all the species living in a particular area. If we consider this area at its largest scale - the entire world - then biodiversity can be summarized as "life on earth.“  Biological diversity (or biodiversity) was coined by Edward O. Wilson, amongst others, as an ecological concept to include all the living organisms of a given system, from the monera to the trees, annelids to mammals.
  3. 3. Levels of biodiversity  Three levels of Biodiversity are: 1. Ecosystem 2. Species 3. Genes • „Specie Level is the most important level‟.
  4. 4. ORIGIN OF BIODIVERSITY: Majorly when we talk about biodiversity, we talk about the variety of species of animals, birds, plants etc present in nature. Biodiversity found on earth today is the result of 4 billion years of evolution. The origin of life has not been definitely established by science, though evidence suggests that life may already have been well-established a few hundred million years after the formation of the earth. Until approximately 600 million years ago, all life consisted of bacteria and similar single-celled organisms. ORIGIN
  5. 5. Factors  Factors effecting biodiversity Biodiversity is affect by physical factors which may include the climatic change in a region, food shortage for living things to survive or many other reasons but somehow or the other they are connected to all the man made factors. For example the climatic change cannot be all of a sudden but as a result of a change in the atmosphere like burning (Forest fires etc). Similarly food shortage can be a result of over population when there is not enough for human beings how will the let the other species on earth to survive. Lets talk about some of the factors affecting biodiversity..
  6. 6. 1) CLIMATIC CHANGE: The global climate has changed repeatedly in the distant past. Although these events are typically associated with a degree of species loss, overall they often mark the beginning of a burst of new species. 2) GLOBAL WARMING: Global warming is altering the distribution and abundance of plant and animal species. Application of a basic law of ecology predicts that many will vanish if temperatures continue to rise. 3) POLLUTION: Many human activities can, both directly and indirectly, result in pollution of some sort. Waste plastic in the oceans is mistaken for jellyfish by turtles and ingested, resulting in starvation and death. 4) DEFORESTATION: The loss of rainforests around the world, where many species of life are found will mean that potential knowledge, whether medicinal, sustenance sources, or evolutionary and scientific information etc. could be lost.
  7. 7. 5 )FOOD PRODUCTION: All the food in the world depends upon natural resources, and the variety of food available depends upon natural diversity. Overexploitation leads to more and more destructive collection procedures such as cyanide and blast fishing. In regions of famine bush meat may be collected above a sustainable level, and populations of wildlife may crash. 6) DWINDLING RESOURCES: The hunger for more resources among human beings has led down biodiversity highly. Ether it has to be sea animals, plants or land animals. Dwindling resources is the greatest reason for extinction of living species. 7) HUMAN CONFLICTS: Whilst not the most obvious threat to biodiversity the natural casualties during a conflict are often greater than the human ones. The recent ground invasion of Afghanistan is believed to have, if not damaged then seriously impacted upon, one of the only known wild population of Snow leopards, one of the rarest animals in the world. Similarly, the American conflict with Vietnam resulted in Napalm being applied to an extensive area, entirely destroying vast Mangrove forests.
  8. 8. IMPORTANCE  IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERISTY: A diverse ecosystem is important. Biodiversity actually boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play. It is this combination that enables the ecosystem to possess the ability to prevent and recover from a variety of disasters.
  9. 9.  A healthy biodiversity offers many natural services: A healthy biodiversity provides a number of natural services for everyone.  Ecosystem services such as:  Protection of water resources  Soils formation and protection  Nutrient storage and recycling  Pollution breakdown and absorption
  10. 10.  Food  Medicinal resources and pharmaceutical drugs  Wood products  Ornamental plants Biological resources such as:
  11. 11. Social benefits such as:  Research, education and monitoring  Recreation and tourism  Cultural values  That is quite a lot of services we get for free!
  12. 12. BENEFITS OF BIODIVERSITY  BENEFITS OF BIODIVERSITY: There are a multitude of benefits of biodiversity in the sense of one diverse group aiding another such as:  1) Resistance to catastrophe Monoculture the lack of biodiversity, was a contributing factor to several agricultural disasters in history, including the Irish potato famine, the European wine industry collapse in the late 1800s, and the US southern corn leaf blight epidemic of 1970.Higher biodiversity also controls the spread of certain diseases as viruses will need adapt to infect different species.  2) Food and drink Biodiversity provides food for humans. Although about 80 percent of our food supply comes from just 20 kinds of plants, humans use at least 40,000 species of plants and animals a day. Many people around the world depend on these species for their food, shelter, and clothing. There is untapped potential for increasing the range of food products suitable for human consumption, provided that the high present extinction rate can be stopped.
  13. 13.  3) Medicines A significant proportion of drugs are derived, directly or indirectly, from biological sources; in most cases these medicines can not presently be synthesized in a laboratory setting. About 40% of the pharmaceuticals used in the US are manufactured using natural compounds found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Moreover, only a small proportion of the total diversity of plants has been thoroughly investigated for potential sources of new drugs. Many drugs are also derived from microorganisms.  4) Industrial materials A wide range of industrial materials are derived directly from biological resources. These include building materials, fibers, dyes, resins, gums, adhesives, rubber and oil. There is enormous potential for further research into sustainable utilizing materials from a wider diversity of organisms.
  14. 14. 5) Intellectual value Through the field of bionics, considerable technological advancement has occurred which would not have without a rich biodiversity. 6) Other ecological services Biodiversity provides many ecosystem services that are often not readily visible. It plays a part in regulating the chemistry of our atmosphere and water supply. Biodiversity is directly involved in recycling nutrients and providing fertile soils. Experiments with controlled environments have shown that humans cannot easily build ecosystems to support human needs; for example insect pollination cannot be mimicked by human-made construction, and that activity alone represents tens of billions of dollars in ecosystem services per annum to humankind
  15. 15. Species Depend On Each Other  While there might be “survival of the fittest” within a given species, each species depends on the services provided by other species to ensure survival. It is a type of cooperation based on mutual survival and is often what a “balanced ecosystem” refers to.  As an example, consider all the species of animals and organisms involved in a simple field used in agriculture.
  16. 16.  Crop byproducts feed cattle Cattle waste feeds the soil that nourish the crops Crops, as well as yielding grain also yield straw  Straw provides organic matter and fodder Crops are therefore food sources for humans and animals Soil organisms also benefit from crops Bacteria feed on the cellulose fibers of straw that farmers return to the soil  Amoebas feed on bacteria making lignite fibers available for uptake by plants Algae provide organic matter and serve as natural nitrogen fixers Rodents that bore under the fields aerate the soil and improve its water-holding capacity Spiders, centipedes and insects grind organic matter from the surface soil and leave behind enriched droppings. Earthworms contribute to soil fertility  Industrial-farming techniques would deprive these diverse species of food sources and instead assault them with chemicals, destroying the rich biodiversity in the soil and with it the basis for the renewal of the soil fertility
  17. 17. More important than human use or biological interest  Many people may support environmental causes to help preserve the “beauty” of Nature. However, that is in a strange way, not really a justifiable excuse as it is a subjective, human or anthropomorphized view. Instead, a logically sound reason based on ecological factors would help show that biodiversity is more important than people realize.  Loss of biodiversity and extinctions: With the loss of biodiversity Earth will be unable to keep up in the struggle to regenerate. The world environmental situation is likely to be further aggravated by the increasingly rapid, large scale global extinction of species. It occurred in the 20th century at a rate that was a thousand times higher than the average rate during the preceding 65 million years.  This is likely to destabilize various ecosystems including agricultural systems.
  18. 18. Species in Danger  Talking about some of the important species that are in danger: 1) The incredible neem  contains natural pesticides.  Its leaves repel 200 insects.  It is used in medicine.  It helps to control population.  Can grow fastest even in poor soil.
  19. 19. 2) The Passenger pigeon:  Now extinct as a result of commercial hunting.  Habitat destruction.  1914 last bird died in Cincinnati.  Other causes of its dying could be the change in weather. 3) The Tasmanian tiger:  Extremely rare in wild.  Loved moving around farms and cottages.  Last was short dead in 1999 by a farmer.  Thought to be very dangerous.
  20. 20. THANK YOU