• People are the greatest assets of anorganisation, because, through people allother resources are converted into utilities.• However, management of ‘PeopleResources’ has always been a vexed problemever since the beginning of organized humanactivities.
• Participate methods in the workplace areone way to improve both the workenvironment for employees andproductivity and quality for the company.• Quality Circle is one of the employeeparticipation methods.
It impliesThe development of skills, capabilities,confidence and creativity of the people throughcumulative process of education, training,work experience and participation.The creation of facilitative conditions andenvironment of work, which creates andsustains their motivation and commitmenttowards work excellence.
After the II World War Japanese economywas in the doldrums. Seeing this disastrous effect of war,Americans decided to help Japan in improvingthe quality standards of their products.
General Douglas Mac Arthur thecommander of the occupational forces inJapan took up the task of imparting qualityawareness among Japanese to help themimprove their products and the reliability ofmanufacturing systems including men,machine and materials. By 1975 They toped the world in quality andproductivity.
This astonishing and unique achievement wasdue to painstaking and persevering efforts ofthe Japanese leaders and workers andthe development and growth of thephilosophy of small working groups. This resulted in the Quality Circle conceptbeing accepted all over the world as a veryeffective technique to improve the total quality ofwork life.
Participative Management TechniqueSuggestion Effecting WorkplacePerformance Related ProblemsOrganizes
Concept (contd.) It is based upon recognition of the value of the worker. As a human being. As someone who willingly activises on his job, his wisdom, intelligence, experience, attitude and feelings.
3 Major Attributes:• Quality Circle is a form of participation management.• Quality Circle is a human resourcedevelopment technique.• Quality Circle is a problem solving technique.
Professor John Oakland define a quality circle as agroup of workers who do similar work and who meet:1.Voluntarily2.Regularly3.In normal working time4.Under the leadership of their supervisor5.To identify, analyze and solve "work- related" problems6.To recommend solutions to management
Features (contd.) Homogenous group. Participative. Belief.
Features (contd.) Rules and priorities. Decisions. Communication. Organized approach.
Features (contd.) Criticism. Objectives. Creativity. Participation of management. Stress on group efforts.
Getting grass root people involved inContinuous improvement. Self-development of Employees.
Objectives (contd.) Problem solving and Team building opportunity through improved participation. Improvement in Quality, Product & Communication.
• Change in Attitude. From "I don’t care" to "I do care”. Continuous improvement in quality of work life through humanisation of work.
• Self Development Bring out ‘Hidden Potential’ of people. People get to learn additional skills.
• Development of Team Spirit Individual Vs Team – "I could not do but we did it" Eliminate inter departmental conflicts.
• Improved Organisational Culture Positive working environment. Total involvement of people at all levels. Higher motivational level. Participate Management process.
Brain stormingPareto DiagramCause & Effect Analysis Data Collection Data Analysis
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION PROBLEM PROBLEMSELECTION ANALYSIS GENERATE ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS SELECT THE MOST APPROPRIATE SOLUTIONPREPARE PLAN IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTION OF THE SOLUTION
A Quality Circle has an appropriateorganisational structure for its effectiveand efficient performance. It variesfrom industry to industry, organisationto organisation.
Organizational Structure Top mgt Steering committee FacilitatorCo-ordinating Agency Leader Member Non member
Top managementA steering committeeFacilitator
(contd.) Leader Circle Members Co-ordinating Agency Non-member Employees
Internal leadership, worker morale, motivationand teamwork. Results in higher quality. Productivity Flow of information Broader continuous improvement.
Systematic style of education.Freedom to modify work habits.Opportunity to use their brain.Teamwork.
Unrealistic expectation. Lack of commitment Resistance by middle management Resentment by non- participants
(contd.) Inadequate training. Lack of clear objectives. Failure to get solutions implemented. Lethargy towards effort.
The Public Works Department of Government ofMaharashtra is responsible for the constructionand maintenance of about 2.00 lakhs km. of roadnet work in the state and a large number ofGovernment-owned buildings.The concept of Quality Circle was launchedin the Public Works Department of Govt. ofMaharashtra on 18-11-1997
• Quality Circles formed -17 in Mumbai Region wherein 22problems have been solved.48 in Pune Region wherein, 8 problems havebeen solved.9 in Nashik Region wherein 3 problems havebeen solved.
Problems solved by the Quality Circles in P.W.D Eliminating delay in issuing observation memos after inspection of site. Preventing accidents on highways. Reducing electricity bill in office.
(contd.) Avoiding duplication of work. Speeding up pot-hole filling on roads during monsoon Upkeeping of service records of employees
OTHER EXAMPLES OF IMPLIMENTATION
TATA MEMORIAL HOSPITAL
OTHER EXAMPLES Florida Power & Light (FPL) reducedcustomer complaints by 60% and improvedreliability of electric services to customers by40% in 1983. In 1987, the firm was rated by 156utility CEOs as the best managed utility in thenation
In its remittance banking or lock-box business,First Chicagos accuracy rate is nearly three timesthe industry average.Xerox has started to regain its marketshare in copiers from the Japanese.Ford now has one of the most popular carspurchased by Americans, the Taurus.