• Setting-up activities
• Giving instructions
• Monitoring activities
• Timing activities
• Bringing activities to an end
• Forming groupings
• Arranging and rearranging seating
• Deciding where you stand or sit
• Reforming class as a whole group after activities
Grouping and seating
• Gathering and holding attention
• Deciding who does what (ie answer a question, make a
• Establishing or relinquishing authority as appropriate
• Getting someone to do something
• Starting the lesson
• Dealing with unexpected problems
• Maintaining appropriate discipline
• Finishing the lesson
• Using the board and other classroom equipment or aids
• Using gestures to help clarity of instructions and explanations
• Speaking clearly at an appropriate volume and speed
• Use of silence
• Grading complexity of language
• Grading quantity of language
Tools and techniques
• Spreading you attention evenly and appropriately
• Using intuition to gauge what students are feeling
• Eliciting honest feedback from students
• Really listening to students
Working with people
• What different seating positions are possible without moving
• Are any rearrangements of seats possible?
• Which areas of the room are suitable for learners to stand and
• Is there any possibility that the room could be completely
rearranged on a semi-permanent basis to make a better
language classroom space?
• Moveable seats
Seating options in the classroom
• Eye contact
• Silence and waiting
• Patiently moving your eyes round the room from person to
• If the silence-wait doesn’t work, don’t alter it dramatically!
Just add in a clear attention-drawing word such as OK. Say it
once and then go back to the waiting.
Attention Getting Strategies
• Sit down and read a book?
• Go out of the room and have a coffee?
• Wander around the room and look at what students are doing?
• Sit down and work with separate groups one by one, joining in
the tasks as a participant?
• Listen carefully to as many students as possible, going over and
correcting mistakes when you catch them, offering ideas when
students get stuck, etc.?
6. Monitoring- What is your role during the activity?
• Step One:
– The first 30 seconds: are they doing the task set?
• Step Two:
– The task itself:
– Monitoring discreetly
– Monitor actively
• VIDEO: Monitoring and giving full attention
Monitoring- Deciding on your role
• TTT (Teacher Talking Time)
• Helpful sentence completion
• Complicated and unclear
• Not asking ICQ’s
• Asking ‘Do you understand?’
• The running commentary
• Lack of confidence in self,
learners, materials, activity
• Flying with the fastest
• Not really listening
• Weak rapport
How to prevent learning!!