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Water conservation   need of the hour
 

Water conservation need of the hour

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    Water conservation   need of the hour Water conservation need of the hour Presentation Transcript

    • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF TEXTILE R B Chavan Department of Textile Technology Indian Institute of Technology Hauz-Khas, New Delhi 110016 E-mail rbchavan@hotmail.com
    • Water availability 0.5% Human use (Domestic and Industrial activities 2.5% Bound to snow 97% Sea
      • Meagre Quantity
      • non-uniformdistribution
      • Canada and USA Maximum
      • Asia 3000 Cu m per person per year
      • India2500 Cu m per person per year
      • India soon may reach water stress nation 1000 cu m per person per year
      • Reasons
      • Rapid population and Industrial growth
      • Poor water management both for
      • domestic and industrial use
      • Cloth production in India
      • Four sectors
      • powerloom (63%),
      • handloom(14%),
      • hosiery (19%),
      • mill (4%).
      • The total cloth production in 2000-2001 4.13 billion square meters.
      • The major water consumption for
      • wet processing and boiler feed.
      • 100,000 m of fabric may require 2.5-4.0 million litres of water per day.
      • 4.13 billion square meters. Imagine
      • 10-20% of the processed water evaporated as steam
      • rest is disposed off as
      • treated or untreated effluent.
      • In the post WTO scenario, the global textile industry is likely to grow from
      • USD 309 billion to USD 856 billion.
      • India has a huge opportunity to capitalize on a much larger portion of this growth.
      • considerable increase in chemical processing of fabric
      • with the corresponding increase in water consumption and
      • effluent disposal
      • environment problems
      • Majority of process houses draw ground water,
      • thus seriously depleting the ground water sources.
      • In addition, the disposal of effluent water containing many impurities, particularly inorganic such as salts and heavy metals, pollute ground water as well as surface water,
      • e.g. textile industry clusters at
      • Tirupur in Tamilnad,
      • Pali in Rajasthan
      • Balotra in Gujarat.
      • Due to lack of vision and not so pressing compulsions,
      • no serious efforts are made to recycle part of the effluent water to reduce the consumption of fresh water.
      • However, in the near future the Indian industries, particularly textile,
      • will have to think conscientiously in this direction.
    • TIRPUR CASE All ground water studies indicated that open wells and bore wells in and around Tirupur exhibit high levels of TDS (3000 - 11,000 mg/L) and chloride (2000 - 5000 mg/L). These values are much higher than the permissible limits. The surface water studies indicated that the Noyyal river (the river passing through Tirupur) which receives the major share of effluents and the downstream reservoir (Orthapalayam) have been affected by industrial pollutants to point of no returns
      • serious shortage of water for domestic, agriculture and industrial use.
      • There is hardly any other source of fresh water nearby.
      • major challenge for this industrial sector is getting sufficient water supplies for textile processing.
      • water is brought in by trucks from ground water sources as far as 50 km away at an enormous cost.
      • about 600 water tankers(10000-15000 liters each) per day at the cost of Rs. 400 per tanker.
      • Because of the profitability in ground water transportation
      • many farmers have now given up farming and
      • supply water to industry.
      • This has led to mining of water in an unsustainable manner. Also, when the water gets too deep to be extracted,
      • the farmers will not be able get back to farming due to irreparable loss of ground water.
      • way to overcome such a situation
      • reduce the consumption of fresh water
      • minimize the pollution load of the effluents.
      • This can be achieved by
      • recycling part of the treated effluent
      • and using
      • cleaner production technologies.
      • Water recycling
      • Effluent Streams
      • Process water stream
      • wash water stream
      • common practice in textile industry is
      • to mix the two streams
      • treat as composite effluent.
    • Around 60-70% of water consumed in chemical processing is used for washing operations. The wash water is obviously less polluted compared to water used for actual chemical treatment. It is therefore suggested that the wash water may be separated from the processed water, treated separately and can be conveniently recycled. Even if part of the wash water is recycled it will significantly reduce fresh water consumption.
    • . There are also differences of opinion regarding the technology to be used for effluent treatment. Many are of the opinion that reverse osmosis, popularly known as RO, provides an opportunity for the recycling of effluent water. No doubt this is correct; however, the capital cost of the equipment, maintenance and operation costs make the use of RO too expensive.
    • It is suggested that if the technology of RO is to be used in a economical way then it should be used for the purification of wash water instead of using it for the purification of mixed effluent which is more complex in nature and highly contaminated.
      • The other approach
      • allow the effluent to go through
      • primary (balancing, flocculation, settling),
      • secondary (microbiological) and
      • tertiary (activated carbon bed adsorption) treatments
      • followed by reverse osmosis.
      • chances of membrane coagulation are minimized,
      • increasing the overall efficiency and reducing the cost of reverse osmosis.
    • In addition to the effluent treatment, which is considered as end of pipe treatment, attempts should also be made to reduce the pollution load of the effluent. This is achieved by adopting the beginning of the pipe approach, also known as cleaner production technology.
      • The strategy of cleaner production technology is based on the use of
      • eco-friendly chemicals including
      • raw materials,
      • machines operating at low liquor ratio for exhaust dyeing,
      • dye bath reuse wherever possible,
      • automated colour kitchens,
      • Right first time approach,
      • recovery and recycle initiatives,
      • process change, etc.
    • There is also a third principle, profitable environment management (PREMA) for reduction of water consumption and environment protection. This focuses on good house keeping.
      • Water crisis Ahead
      • Water soon will be sold through tankers like oil
      • 21 st century wars will be over disputed water sources was the emphatic statement at the 2001 Fresh Water Conference in Bonn, Germany.
    • While speaking at a meeting organized by the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) at New Delhi in March 2001, the United Nations General Secretary Mr. Kofi Annan warned that it is extremely important for all the countries around the world to manage water, particularly drinking water, properly without which it might lead to serious war like situation among various countries.
    • These two statements indicate the seriousness of situation at the water front and Water crisis ahead
    • LETTER WRITTEN IN THE YEAR 2070 www ww w www w Wwwwww w w ww w wwwwwwww wwwwwww w w w wwwww ww w w w www wWwwwww w w ww w wwwwwwww wwwwwww w w ww www ww w www wWwwwww w w ww w wwwwwwww wwwwwww w w w wwwww ww w w w www w Wwwwww w w ww w wwwwwwwwWwwwww w w ww w wwwwwwww wwwwwww w w w wwwww ww w w w www wWwwwww w w ww w wwwwwwww wwwwwww w w ww www ww w www wWwwwww w w ww w wwwwwwww wwwwwww w w w wwwww ww w w w www w Wwwwww w w ww w wwwwwwww Article published in the magazine "Crónicas de los Tiempos“, in April 2002.
    •   This is the year 2070 I have just turned 50, but I my appearance is of somebody of 85 . I suffer from serious kidney problems, because I do not drink enough water. I'm afraid I do not have much time left to live. I am one of the oldest people in this society.
    • I remember when I was a child of 5. There were lots of trees in the parks, houses with beautiful gardens, and I could enjoy having a shower for half an hour.   Everything was very different then. Nowadays we use towels with mineral oil to clean our skin.
    • Before, women had beautiful hair. Then, my father washed his car with water coming out of a hosepipe. Now, my son does not believe that water could be wasted that way. Now, we have to shave our heads to keep them clean without the use of water.
    • I remember there were SAVE WATER warnings on outside posters, radio and TV, but nobody paid attention. We thought that water was to last forever. Now, all the rivers, lakes, dams and underground water beds are either dry or contaminated.
    • Industry came virtually to a standstill and unemployment reached dramatic proportions. Desalination plants are the main source of employment and workers receive part of their salary in drinkable water.
    • Assaults at gun point on the streets for a jerrycan of water are very common. Food is 80% synthetic.
    • Before, the recommended quantity of water to drink for an adult was 8 glasses a day. Nowadays, I am only allowed half a glass. We now have to wear disposable clothing, and this increases the amount of litter. We are using now septic tanks, because the sewerage system does not work for lack of water.
    • The outside appearance of the population is horrible: wrinkled, emaciated bodies, due to dehydration, full of sores caused by ultra violet radiation, now stronger without the protective shield of the ozone layer. Skin cancer, gastrointestinal infections and of the urinary tracts are the main causes of death.
    • Due to the excessive drying of the skin young people of 20 look like 40. Water cannot be produced, oxygen is also degraded due to the lack of trees and vegetation, and the intellectual capacity of the new generations is severely impaired. Scientists investigate, but there's no solution to the problem.
    • The morphology of spermatozoa in many men has changed. As a consequence, babies are born with deficiencies, mutations and physical deformities.
    • Government makes us pay for the air we breathe, 137 m3 per day per adult person. People who cannot pay are expelled from the "ventilated zones", with huge mechanical lungs driven by solar power. The air is not of good quality, but at least people can breathe. The average life expectancy is 35 years.
    • In some countries, where there are still some green zones crossed by rivers, these are guarded by heavy armed soldiers. Water became a very coveted treasure, more precious than gold and diamonds.
    • Where I live, there are no trees, because it seldom rains. When it happens to register some precipitation, it is of acid rain. The seasons have been severely affected by the atomic tests and by contamination from the 20th century polluting industries. We were warned to look after the environment, but nobody cared.
    • When my son asks me to talk about my youth, I tell him about the green fields, the beauty of the flowers, the rain, how pleasant was to swim and fish in the rivers and dams, to drink all the water we could, and how healthy people was.
    • Then, I feel a lump in my throat! He asks: Daddy! Why there is no water?
    • I cannot help feeling guilty, because I belong to the generation who contributed to the destruction of the environment or simply did not take into account all the warning signs.
    • Now our children pay a very high price!
    • I sincerely believe that within a short time life on earth will not be possible, as the destruction of nature reached now an irreversible stage.
    • How I would like to go back and make mankind understand… ...that we still had time to save our Planet Earth.
    • This show was made by a most very talented person, named A P J Abdul Kalam I thank you.