Synthetic fibre from corn

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Synthetic fibre from corn

  1. 1. ECO FRIENDLY SYNTHETIC FIBRE FROM CORN <ul><li>R.B.CHAVAN </li></ul><ul><li>DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY, </li></ul><ul><li>INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, </li></ul><ul><li>HAUZ-KHAS, NEW DELHI 110016 </li></ul>
  2. 2. TEXTILE APPLICATIONS <ul><li>CONVENTIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>CLOTHING FOR BODY PROTECTION </li></ul><ul><li>HOME FURNISHINGS </li></ul><ul><li>MADE-UPS FOR DOMESTIC APPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>NON CONVENTIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNICAL TEXTILES </li></ul>
  3. 3. FUTURE CHALLENGES <ul><li>DEPLETING FOSSIL FUEL (CRUDE OIL) </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION </li></ul>
  4. 4. DEPLETING FOSSIL FUEL <ul><li>CURENT PREDICTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION LEVEL DOUBLE EVERY 35 YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASED NEEDS FOR TEXTILE GOODS </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASED LAND NEED FOR FOODSTUFFS </li></ul><ul><li>LESS LAND AVAILABILITY FOR NATURAL FIBRE CULTIVATION </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>INCREASED REQUIREMENT OF OTHER COMMODITIES SUCH AS SHELTER, TRANSPORT ETC. </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASED STRAIN ON MANUFACTURING RESOURCES ESPECIALLY CRUDE OIL </li></ul><ul><li>OIL WILL BECOME SCARCE COMMODITY </li></ul><ul><li>LOW PRIORITY FOR SYNTHETIC FIBRE MANUFACTURING COMPARED TO TRANSPORTATION, AVIATION, HEAVY CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES ETC. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>MOST OF SYNTHETIC FIBRES PRODUCED TODAY ARE NON-BIODEGRADABLE </li></ul><ul><li>WAY OUT </li></ul><ul><li>F IND RENEWABLE SOURCES AS RAW MATERIAL FOR TEXTILE PRODUCTION TO TAKE CARE OF DEPLETING FOSSIL FUEL RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>SYNTHESIZE BIO-DEGRADABLE FIBRES FOR ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION </li></ul>
  7. 7. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SYNTHETIC POLYESTER FIBRE <ul><li>CORN AS RENEWABLE RAW MATERIA (AGRICULTURE PRODUCE ) </li></ul><ul><li>TOTALLY BIO-DEGRADABLE </li></ul>
  8. 8. NON FOOD CROP AS RENEWABLE SOURCE <ul><li>RECENTLY THERE IS A WIDE SPREAD RECOGNITION OF NON FOOD CROPS AS A MAJOR SOURCE OF FEEDSTOCK FOR CHEMICAL INDUSTRY </li></ul><ul><li>IN 1995 IT IS REPORTED </li></ul><ul><li>BIOTECHNOLOGY HAS THE POTENTIAL TO MAKE AVAILABLE HUGE RANGE OF BASIC RAW MATERIALS INTERMEDIATE FEEDSTOCK AND EVEN FINAL END PRODUCTS FOR CHEMICAL INDUSTRY </li></ul><ul><li>IN 1998 IT IS REPORTED </li></ul><ul><li>THERE IS GROWING SENSE OF URGENCY TO MOVE AWAY FROM OUR DEPENDENCE ON DEPLETING FOSSIL FUELS AND TO SEEK OUT NEW FEEDSTOCK </li></ul>
  9. 9. ADVANTAGES OF NON FOOD CROPS AS FEED STOCKS <ul><li>RENEWABLE RESOURCE, SUSTAINABLE IN THE LONG RUN COMPARED TO FOSSIL FUELS WHICH ARE DWINDLING RAPIDLY </li></ul><ul><li>AT CURRENT CONSUMPTION LEVELS CRUDE OIL RESERVES ARE PREDICTED TO DEPLETE WITHIN 50 YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>GAS RESERVES WITHIN 75 YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>COAL RESERVES IN ABOUT 200 YEARS </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>THE USE OF FOSSIL FUELS CAUSE ALL KINDS OF POLLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>CROPS BEING GENERALLY LESS POLLUTING, LOCK UP CARBONDIOXIDE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE IN THE FORM OF CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS AND PROTEINS, THEREBY MINIMIZING THE EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING </li></ul><ul><li>MAJORITY OF PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM PLANT FEED STOCK WOULD BE COMPLETELY BIO-DEGDABLE </li></ul>
  11. 11. NEED FOR BIO-DEGRADABLE FIBRES AND PLASTICS <ul><li>SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL,GOBALLY BURNING PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>DECREASE IN THE AVAILABILITY OF LANDFILL SPACE </li></ul><ul><li>OCEAN DUMPING IS ILLEGAL </li></ul><ul><li>INCINERATION AS THE WAY TO TREAT THE MAJORITY OF WASTE IS NO LONGER ACCEPTABLE </li></ul><ul><li>FOR THESE REASONS </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIC WASTE COMPOSTING AND THE USE OF BIODEGRADABLE FIBRES AND PLASTICS IS THE ONLY WAY FOR ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION </li></ul>
  12. 12. THEORETICAL BASIS FOR BIODEGRADATION OF FIBRES <ul><li>DEPOLYMERIZATION DUE TO EITHER HYDROLYSIS OR OXIDATION OF FIBRE (POLYMER) DUE TO ENZYME SECRETED FROM CERTAIN MICRO-ORGANISMS </li></ul><ul><li>ENZYME MAY ACT AT THE END OF POLYMER CHAIN (END GROUP ATTACK) OR AT ANY POINT ON CHAIN (RANDOM ATTACK) </li></ul><ul><li>TO FACILITATE DEPOLYMERIZATION, THE ENZYMES MUST BE ABLE TO TIE THESELVES WITH THE FIBRE AND TO ARRIVE TO THE CENTRE THAT CAN BE HYDROLYSED OR OXIDIZED </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>MAJORITY OF BIO-DEGRADABLE FIBRES ARE HYDROPHILILC, FORMED FROM FLEXIBLE CHAINS WITH LOW LEVEL OF CRYSTALLIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>THEY HAVE THE MAIN CHAIN WITH TIES CONTAINING OXYGEN OR NITROGEN OR BOTH </li></ul><ul><li>THIS DESCRIPTION CORRESPONDS TO NATURAL FIBRES </li></ul>
  14. 14. NON BIODEGRADABLE FIBRES <ul><li>NON-BIODEGRADABLE FIBRES HAVE OPPOSITE CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>THE POLYMERS WITHOUT OXYGEN SUCH AS POLYETHYLENE, POLYPROPYLENE RESIST COMPLETELY BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION </li></ul><ul><li>THE AROMATIC POLYESTER (PET) THOUGH CONTAINS OXYGEN, RESIST BIO-DEGRADABILITY DUE TO CHAIN RIGIDITY AND CRYSTALLIZATION </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>SAME APPLIES TO POLYAMIDES THOUGH THEY CONTAIN NITROGEN </li></ul><ul><li>CONTRARY TO AROMATIC POLYESTER, THE ALIPHATIC POLYESTERS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO BIODEGRADATION. </li></ul><ul><li>THEY ARE ALSO THERMOPLASTIC AND LIKE ANY OTHER POLYESTER CAN BE CONVERTED INTO FIBRES AND FILMS </li></ul>
  16. 16. BIODEGRADABLE ALIPHATIC POLYESTERS
  17. 17. BIODEGRADABLE ALIPHATIC POLYESTERS <ul><li>BIO-DEGRADABLE ALIPHATIC POLYESTERS CAN BE FORMED ON INDUSTRIAL SCALE BY POLYMERIZATION OF </li></ul><ul><li>GLYCOLLIC ACID (PGA) </li></ul><ul><li>LACTIC ACID (PLA) </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROXY BUTYRIC ACID (PHB) </li></ul><ul><li>CAPROLACTONE (PCL) </li></ul><ul><li>AMONG THESE, THE POLYMERS BASED ON POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA) ARE MOST PROMISING </li></ul>
  18. 18. POLY LACTIC ACID FIBRES <ul><li>POLYMERIZATION OF LACTIC ACID WAS CARRIED OUT BY CAROTHERS IN 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>UNSUITABLE POLYMER DUE TO LOW MELTING POINT </li></ul><ul><li>FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS ABONDONNED </li></ul><ul><li>LACTRON WAS INTRODUCED BY KANEBO (JAPAN) in 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>AGRICULTURE MULCH FILM APPLICATION </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>1998 OTHER APPLICATIONS LIKE PLASTIC CUPS, THERMO FORMING FILMS WERE EXPLORED </li></ul><ul><li>TODAY IN JAPAN PLA PRODUCTION IS 500 - 1000 TONS/ANNUM </li></ul><ul><li>PLA/RAYON BLENDS DEVELOPED TO REDUCE COST AND IMPROVE BIO-DEGRADABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>1997 FIBERWEB (FRANCE) DEVELOPED NONWOVEN, DEPOSA </li></ul>
  20. 20. Production forecast <ul><li>GALACTIC LABORATORIES(BELGIUM) FORECASTED BY 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>PLA FIBRE/PLASTIC PRODUCTION 3,90,000 TONS/ANNUM </li></ul><ul><li>PRICE AROUND 2 DOLLAR/Kg </li></ul>
  21. 21. CARGILL DOW POLYMERS (USA) <ul><li>50 : 50 JOINT VENTURE STARTED IN 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>LEADER IN TECHNOLOGY OF PLA </li></ul><ul><li>PLA POLYMER MARKETED UNDER TRADE NAME NATURE WORKS PLA </li></ul><ul><li>CURRENT PRODUCTION 4,000 TONS/ANNUM </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>INSTALLED A NEW PLANT WITH 70,000 TONS/ANNUM CAPACITY </li></ul><ul><li>HAVE PLANS TO SCALE PRODUCTION TO 1,40,000 TONS/ANNUM </li></ul><ul><li>ANTICIPATION, BY 2002 MANY COMPETITORS WOULD ENTER INTO PRODUCTION OF THIS NEW POLYMER </li></ul>
  23. 23. PRODUCTION ROUTE <ul><li>TRADE NAMES </li></ul><ul><li>LACTRON (KANEBO, JAPAN) , NATURE WORKS PLA (CARGILL DOW POLYMERS, USA) </li></ul><ul><li>CORN AS RAW MATERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>POSSIBLE TO USE OTHER PLANT MATERIALS </li></ul><ul><li>RICE, WHEAT, SUGAR BEETS AND EVEN AGRICULTURE WASTE </li></ul>
  24. 24. PRODUCTION ROUTE <ul><li>MILLING </li></ul><ul><li>MILLING OF CORN TO SEPARATE STARCH FROM RAW MATERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESSING OF STARCH TO GET UNREFINED DEXTROSE/SUGAR </li></ul>
  25. 25. FERMENTATION <ul><li>FERMENTATION OF DEXTROSE/SUGAR TO LACTIC ACID </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESS SIMILAR TO THAT USED BY BEER AND WINE PRODUCERS </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS THE SAME LACTIC ACID </li></ul><ul><li>USED AS A FOOD ADDITIVE AND </li></ul><ul><li>FOUND IN MUSCLE TISSUE IN HUMAN BODY </li></ul>
  26. 26. INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTION <ul><li>THROUGH A SPECIAL CONDENSATION PROCSS A CYCLIC INTERMEDIATE DIMER “ LACTIDE” IS FORMED </li></ul><ul><li>POLYMER PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>LACTIDE IS PURIFIED THROUGH VACUUM DISTILLATION </li></ul><ul><li>RING OPENING POLYMERIZATION OF LACTIDE THROUGH SOLVENT FREE MELT PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>POLYMERS WITH WIDE RANGE OF APPLICATIONS THROUGH CONTROL OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND CRYSTALLINITY </li></ul>
  27. 27. CHEMISTRY <ul><li>CONVERSION OF LACTIC ACID INTO DIMER LACTIDE BY WATER ELIMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIAL RING OPENING POLYMERIZATION OF LACTIDE TO POLYLACTIDE (PLA) </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY OF POLYMERS DEPENDING ON STEREO CHEMISTRY OF LACTIC ACID AND ITS DIMER </li></ul><ul><li>THREE FORMS OF LACTIC ACID : L - ISOMER, D- ISOMER AND MESO - ISOMER </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>POLYMERIZATION OF L - ISOMER PRODUCE CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS </li></ul><ul><li>THAT CONTAIN MORE THAN 15% D - ISOMER PRODUCE AMORPHOUS POLYMERS </li></ul><ul><li>BETTER CONTROL OF STEREOCHEMISTRY OF DIMERS EXPLAINS THE SUPERIORITY OF POLYESTERS THAN THOSE OBATAINED BY CAROTHERS IN 1932 </li></ul>
  29. 29. FIG 2 LACTIDE FORMATION
  30. 30. PROPERTIES <ul><li>The key properties of new synthetic fibre derived from corn are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Superior melt processability, can produce microfibres. </li></ul><ul><li>Low moisture absorption, rapid wicking, excellent hand drape and resilience. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrinkle resistance. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Qualities from silk-like to cotton-like. </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptional UV resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Low flammability, stain resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be washed,dry cleaned and commercially laundered. </li></ul>

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