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Printing of wool, avikanagar 29.9.03
 

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    Printing of wool, avikanagar 29.9.03 Printing of wool, avikanagar 29.9.03 Presentation Transcript

    • PRINTING OF WOOL R.B.CHAVAN DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY HASU-KHAS, NEW DELHI 110016
    • INTRODUCTION
      • PROPORTION OF WOOL PRINTING IS VERY LOW COMPARED TO COTTON
      • COMMERCIAL REASONS THAN TECHNICAL REASONS
      • BASI FABRIC COST, COST OF SAMPLES, SHORTER RUN LENGTH , MAKE PRINTED WOOL EXPENSIVE
      • THERE IS RENEWED INTEREST IN THE PRINTED WOOL DUE TO ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLINESS AND NON-FLAMMABILITY.
    • PREPARATION FOR PRINTING
      • EMPHASIS ON EFFICIENT FABRIC PREPARATION TO GET LEVELNESS, GOOD COLOUR YIELD AND BRIGHTNESS OF PRINT.
      • SETTING
      • NECESSARY TO RELAX AND STABILIZE CLOTH BEFORE SCOURING.
      • CARRIED OUT BY CRABBING EITHER CONTINUOUSLY OR DISCONTINUOUSLY
      • PLAIN WEAVE CHALLIS AND WORSTED TWILL WIDLY USED FOR PRINTING REQUIRE SETTING BEFORE SCOURING
    • SCOURING
      • TO REMOVE NATURAL WAXES, PROCESSING OILS, DIRT
      • SIZE IN CASE OF LIGHT WEIGHT FABRICS
      • CONTINUOUS AND BATCHWISE SCOPURING METHODS ARE USED.
      • MILLING
      • LIGHT MILLING IS SOME TIMES EMPLOYED TO IMPART DESIRED FINISH TO CLOTH.
    • OXIDATIVE PROCESSES
      • CHLORINATION- THE TRADITIONAL METHOD FOR PREPARING WOOL FOR PRINTING.
      • REACTION OF WOOL WITH CHLORINE IS pH DEPENDENT
      • STRONG ACID pH: RAPID REACTION, LITTLE YELLOWING
      • ALKALINE pH SLOW REACTION, SIGNIFICANT YELLOWING
    • CHLORINATION
      • REACTIONS
      • CYSTENE OXIDATION
      • RAPID OXIDATION OF CYSTENE RESIDUES TO CYSTEIC ACID
      • PEPTIDE BOND CLEAVAGE
      • CHLORINE TENDS TO CLEAVE PEPTIDE AND PROTEINS AT THE TYROSENE RESIDUE
      • ACID CHLORINATION: TWO FUNCTIONS
      • CREATES NUMBER OF STROGLY ANIONIC GROUPS SUCH AS RSO 3 - , RCOO -
      • BREAKS DISULPHIDE AND PEPTIDE CROSSLINKS MAKING WOOL MORE READILY ACCESSIBLE.
      • EASY SWELLING BY WATER
      • MUCH MORE HYDROPHILIC FIBRE SURFACE
      • EASY ABSORPTION AND EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF PRINT PASTE
    • CHLORINATION METHODS
      • SODIUM HYPOCLORITE: TRADITIONAL METHOD
      • pH 1.5-2
      • CONTINUOUS METERING OF HCl OR H2SO4
      • NOW SELDOM USED
      • DICHLOROISOCYNURIC ACID
      • COMMONLY KNOWN AS DCCA
      • COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS
      • BASOLAN DC (BASF)
      • Fi-CHLOR CLEARON (CHLORCHEM Ltd)
      • SOLUBLE SALT CONTAINING 60% AVAILABLE CHLORINE
      • HYDROLYSIS OF DCCA IN WATER RESULTS FORMATION OF HYPOCLOROUS ACID (SCHEME 10.3 PAGE 335)
    • DCCA APPLICATION
      • BATCHWISE APPLICATION
      • 3-4% owf
      • pH 3.5-4.5 WITH ACID
      • Temp. 20-25 0 C
      • TIME 30 MIN
      • ANTICHLOR WITH REDUCING AGENT
      • BLEACH
      • MACHINES: WING, JIGGER, JET DYEING MACHINE
      • CONTINUOUS APPLICATION
      • PAD 35-50 gpl
      • WETTING AGENT 2 gpl
      • DWELL IN CHUTE 2-5 MIN.
      • RINSE, ANTI-CHLOR
      • BATCHWISE METHOD MOST COMMON
    • KROY TECHNOLOGY
      • USE OF CHLORINE GAS
      • CONTINUOUS METHOD FOR FABRIC TREATMENT IN OPEN WIDTH
      • CHLORINE GAS FROM CYLINDER AND WATER ARE PRECISELY METERED INTO CHAMBER
      • CHLORINE GAS DISSOLVES IN WATER WITH THE FORMATION OF HYPOCLOROUS AND HCl ACIDS
      • Cl2 + H2O  HOCl + HCl
      • THIS ACID SOLUTION (pH 2) ALONG WITH WETTING/ANTIFOAM AGENT ADDED
      • SPRAY ON FABRIC IN SPECIALLY DESIGNED CHAMBER
      • CHLORINATING SPECIES REACT RAPIDLY WITH WOOL
      • CHLORINE DDOSAGE IS ABOUT 4% owf
      • SPEED OF FABRIC 10-15 m/min
      • RINSING, ANTICHLORINATION AND NEUTRALIZATION IS DONE IN SUBSEQUENT CHAMBERS.
      • SINCE THE INTRODUCTION OF KROY TECHNOLOGY THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PREPARATION OF WOOL FOR PRINTING APPEAR TO HAVE BECOME A THING OF THE PAST.
    • PRINTING RECIPE
      • ACID/METAL REACTIVE
      • COMPLEX DYE DYE
      • DYE X X
      • UREA 50-100 50
      • THIDIGLYCOL 50 -
      • WETTING AGENT 5-10 5-10
      • ANTIFOAM 1-5 1-5
      • ACID OR ACID DONOR 10-30 10-30
      • THICKENER(10-12%) 500 500
      • WATER TO BULK 1000 1000
    • PRINTING RECIPE
      • UREA: AIDS DYE DISSOLUTIUON
      • HUMECTANT, PROMOTE WOOL SWELLING, DYE PENETRATION DURING STEAMING
      • THIODDIGLYCOL: DYE SOLVENT
      • WETTING AGENT: NECESSARY IN CASE OF INADEQUATE CHLORINATION
      • ANTIFOAM: IN CASE OF MACHINE PRINTING
      • ACID COMPOUND: CITRIC ACID OR AMM. TARTARATE OR SULPHATE
      • REMAZOLS ARE FIXED UNDER NEUTRAL OR SLIGHT ALKALINE CONDITIONS USING SOD. ACETATE 40g/kg
      • SOD. CHLORATE OXIDIZING AGENT TO COUNTERACT THE REDUCING EFFECT OF THICKENER AND WOOL ON DYE (Acid conditions)
      • SOD. META NITRO BENZENE SULPHONATE IN CASE OF REMAZOL (alkaline conditions)
    • STEAMING
      • DYE IN AGGREGATED FORM ON FIBRE SURFACE WITHIN THICKENER FILM AT PRINTING AND DRYING STAGE
      • STEAMING: THICKENER FILM SWELLING
      • DYE DISSOLUTION
      • WOOL FIBRE SWELLING
      • DYE PENETRATION
      • DYE FIXATION
      • STEAMING FOR 10-15 MIN FOR REACTIVE DYES
      • 30-45 MIN FOR METAL COMPLEX AND ACID DYES
      • SATURATED STEAM AT 102 0 C
      • STAR AGER MOST SUITABLE FOR BATCH STEAMING
    • YELLOWING
      • CHLORINATED WOOL YELLOWS TWICE AS FAST AS UNTREATED WOOL
      • YELLOWNESS INDEX OF STEAMED WOOL REACHES MAX. IN 15-20 MIN.
      • WOOL PREPARED BY NON-CHLORINATION METHOS IS LESS PRONE TO YELLOWING.
    • WASHING AND AFTER TREATMENT
      • TO REMOVE THICKENER, CHEMICALS AND UNFIXED DYE.
      • TO ATTAIN DESIRED LEVEL OF WET FASTNESS
      • CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO PREVENT STAINING OF UNPRINTED PORTIONS OF FABRIC.
      • WASHING CONDITIONS
      • PRINTS WITH ACID MILLING AND METAL COMPLEX DYES ARE ARE WASHED AT ABOUT 30-40 0 C AND REACTIVE DYES AT 70-80 0 C WITH AMMONIA
      • INCOMPLETE REMOVAL OF THICKENER WILL GIVE RISE TO FASTNESS AND HANDLE PROBLEMS
      • THE USE OF OPTIMUM STEAMING CONDITIONS ENSURES A HIGH DEGREE OF FIXATION AND LEAVES A MINIMUM OF UNFIXED DYE TO BE WASHED OUT.
      • WOOL FELTING DURING WASHING SHOULD NOT TAKE PLACE. THIS IS ENSURED BY PROPER PRETREATMENT PROCESSES
      • WASHING IS DONE ON WING OR CONTINUOUS OPEN SOAPER.
      • HIGHEST POSSIBLE LIQUOR RATIO DURING WASHING NESSARY TO PREVENT STAINING OF UNPRINTED PORTIONS.
    • MACHINE WASHABLE PRINTS
      • REACTIVE DYES GIVE MACHINE WASHABLE PRINTS
      • WASHING MUST BE CARRIED OUT AT 80 0 C IN PRESENCE OF AMMONIA.
      • WITH NON REACTIVE DYES WASHING DONE AT 30-40 0 C
      • FOR MACHINE WASH FASTNESS, WASHING IS DONE AT 50-60C IN PRESENCE OF AMMONIA AND APPROPRIATE AUXILIARY., AND THEN TREAT WITH CATIONIC DYE FIXING AGENT.
      • CATIONIC DYE FIXING AGENT IMPROVES WET FASTNESS AND PERSPIRATION FASTNESS
      • THEY SHOULD BE USED AFTER A THOROUGH WASH OTHERWISE DETERIORATION WITH RUB FSTNESS OCCURS.
      • PRODUCTS MAAINLY BASED ON CONDENSATES OF FORMALDEHYDE AND DYCYANDIAMIDE.
      • MANY NON-FORMALDEHYDE BASED PRODUCTS ARE NOW AVAILABLE.
    • DISCHARGE PRINTING
      • DISCHARGE PRINTS ARE CONSTANTLY IN DEMAND
      • PREDYED FABRIC IS DYED WITH A STRONG REDUCING AGENT WHICH DESTROYS THE GROUND SHADE TO GET WHITE DISCHARGE PRINT
      • IN COLOUR DISCHARGE, ILLUMINATING COLOUR RESISTANT TO DISCHARGING AGENT IS INCLUDED IN THE PRINT PASTE.
    • GROUND SHADES
      • DISCHARGE PRINTING INVOLVES THE CHEMICAL DESTRUCTION OF DYED AT THE PRINTED PORTIONS
      • THE GROUND SHADE DYES ARE INVARIABLY AZO DYES.
      • DISCHARGEABILITY RATING SHOULD BE 4-5
      • MANY ACID. METAL COMPLEX AND REACTIVE DYES ARE DISCHARGEABLE.
      • LABORATORY TEST FOR DISCHARGEABILITY IS ESSENTIAL PARTICULARLY FOR MIX SHADES WHERE ALL DYES IN A MIXTURE MAY NOT DISCHARGE AT THE SAME RATE.
    • DISCHARGING AGENT
      • REDUCING AGENT FOR DISCHARGE PRINTING
      • REDUCING AGENT TRADE NAME
      • SODIUM FORMALDEHYDE
      • SULPHOXYLATE
    • DIRECT PRINTING
      • MOST SIMPLE STYLE
      • PRINTING ON PREPARED GROUND
      • OFTEN BLEACHED IN CASE OF LARGE UNPRINTED AREAS
      • SOMETIMES DYED IN PALE SHADES
      • DYED IN MEDIUM SHADES AND OVER PRINTED WITH DARK COLOURS TO OBTAIN SHADOW EFFECTS
    • PRINTING MACHINES
      • ROTARY SCREEN PRINTING MACHINE
      • NOT SUITABLE FOR SHORT LENGTHS
      • SOMETIMES CHOSEN FOR BLOTCH PRINTS OR WARP WAY STRIPE PRINTS
      • AUTOMATIC FLAT SCREEN PRINTING MACHINE
      • MOST POPULAR FOR SHORT RUN LENGTHS
      • MANUAL SCREEN PRINTING
      • POPULAR IN INDIA.
    • DYE SELECTION
      • CRITERIA
      • PRICE
      • BRIGHTNESS OF SHADE
      • GOOD COVERAGE PROPERTIES
      • GOOD SOLUBILITY AND PRINT PASTE STABILITY
      • GOOD BUILD UP PROPERTIES
      • GOOD WASHING OFF PROPERTIES
      • SATISFACTORY WET AND LIGHT FASTNESS
    • NON-REACTIVE DYES
      • ACID MILLING DYES
      • METAL COMPLEX DYES
      • COMMERCIAL DYES
      • ACIDOL, ACIDOL M (BASF)
      • SUPRANOL, ALIZARIN, ISOLAN (BAYER)
      • POLAR, IRGANOL, LANASET (Ciba-geigy)
      • COOMASSIE, CARBOLAN (ICI)
      • SANDOLAN, LANASYN (SANDOZ)
    • REACTIVE DYES
      • USED FOR HIGH WET FASTNESS STANDARDS
      • MACHINE WASHABLE WOOL: PRESENT TREND
      • GOOD WATER SOLUBILITY
      • SHORTER STEAMING TIME ADVANTAGE IN CONTINUOUS STEAMING
      • REACTIVE DYES SUITABLE FOR WOOL PRINTING
      • DYE NAME REACTIVE GROUP MANUFAC.
      • LEVAFIX E-A MONOCHLORO BAYER
      • DIFLUORO PYRIMIDINE
      • DRIMARINE R, K -DO- SANDOZ
      • LANASOL BROMOACRYLAMIDO CGY
      • REMAZOL VINYL SULPHONE HOECHST
      • PROCION P, H-E MONOCHLOROTRIAZINE ICI
    • REDUCING AGENTS
      • CHEMICAL NAME TRADE NAME
      • SODIUM SULPHOXYLATE FORMALDEHYDE RONGALIT C (BASF)
      • ZINC SULPHOXYLATE FORMALDEHYDE DECROLIN (BASF)
      • CALCIUM FORMALDEHYDE SULPHOXYLATE RONGALIT H (BASF)
      • THIOUREA DIOXIDE REDUCING AGENT F
      • STANNOUS CHLORIDE
      • MOST COMMON FORMALDEHYDE SULPHOXYLATES
      • HOCH2SO2NA  HCHO + HSO2 + Na  HSO3 + 2H
      • Ar-N=N-Ar’ + 4h  ArNH2 + ArNH2’
    • SOD. FORMALDEHYDE SULPHOXYLATE
      • WATER SOLUBLE PRODUCT
      • GIVES GOOD WHITE DISCHARGE
      • DEVELOPS FULL REDUCTION POTENTIAL IN THE ALKALINE pH RANGE
      • GREAT CAR NECESSARY TO PREVENT FIBRE DAMAGE AND SHRINKAGE
      • RARELY USED FOR WOOLON ITS OWN
      • pH ADJUSTMENT RESULTS IN REDUCED STABILITY
    • CALCIUM FORMALDEHYDE SULPHOXYLATE
      • WATER INSOLUBLE, STABLE
      • CAN LEAD TO PROBLEMS OF SCREEN CHOKING AND UNSATISFACTORY PENETRATION OF THE DISCHARGE
      • BASF HAS DEVELOPED 30% DISPERSION OF GREATER STABILITY
      • LESS FIBRE DAMAGE AND LESS SHRINKAGE THAN SODIUM SALT
      • Ca SALT IS COMMONLY USED IN COMBINATION WITH Na SALT
    • ZINC FORMALDEHYDE SULPHOXYLATE
      • FUNCTIONS IN THE WEAKLY ACID pH
      • NO FIBRE DAMAGE AND SHRINKAGE THERE CAN BE PROBLEMS IN WASHING OUT THE DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS OF SOME REDUCED DYES LEADING TO AFTER YELLOWING OF THE DISCHARGE ON EXPOSURE TO LIGHT AND AIR.
      • ALSO GIVES RISE TO EFFLUENT PROBLEMS
    • THIOUREA DIOXIDE
      • THIOUREA DIOXIDE
      • H2N
      • =SO2  H2N OH H2O
      • H2N S -  H2N
      • HN O = O + H2SO2
      • H2N
      • ATTRACTIVE ALTERNATIVE TO FORMALDEHYDE SULPHOXYLATES
      • RARELY USED DUE TO ITS LOW SOLUBILITY (37 g/l)
    • STANNOUS CHLORIDE
      • Ar-N=N-Ar’ + SNCL4 + 4H2O  ArNH2 + Ar’NH2 + 2SnO2 + 4HCl
      • NOT COMMON FOR WOOL DISCHAGE PRINTING
      • LOW REDOX POTENTIAL PERMITS THE USE OF WIDER RANGE OF ILLUMINATING DYES
      • AT THE SAME TIME LIMITS THE NUMBER OF GROUND SHADES WHICH ARE DISCHARGEABLE
      • AFTER BROWNING OF WHITTE DISCHARGE IS ALSO A PROBLEM
      • PROBLEM OF EFFLUENT DISPOSAL
      • CORROSION OF STEAMER DUE LIBERATION OF HCl
      • IN PRESENCE OF THIDIGLYCOL MOST UNDESIRABLE MUSTARD GAS IS PRODUCED.
    • ILLUMINATING DYES
      • REAL PROBLEM: SELECTION OF DYES RESISTANT TO REDUCING AGENT FOR COLOUR DISCHARGE
      • SUITABLE DYES
      • CI DIRECT YELLOW 28
      • CI ACID YELLOW 3
      • CI ACID RED 52, 315
      • CI DIRECT BLUE 106
      • CI BASIC YELLOW 3
      • CI ACID VIOLET 90
      • CI ACID BLUE 61:1
      • THREE COLOUR MIXTURE IS MADE UP OF
      • CI ACID YELLOW 3
      • CI ACID VIOLET 90
      • CI ACID BLUE 61:1
    • PRINTING AND FIXATION
      • VARIOUS PRINT PASTE RECIPES BASED ON PRINTER’S KNOW-HOW AND EXPERIENCE, LOCAL WORK CONDITIONS
      • TYPICAL RECIPE
      • DYE X
      • UREA 30-50
      • THIDIETHYLENE GLYCOL 30-50
      • WATER Y
      • Na/Zn/Ca FORMALDEHYDE
      • SULPHOXYLATE 30-180
      • THICKENING 500
      • MILD OXIDIZING AGENT 5-20
      • AMMONIUM CHLORIDE 5-20
      • ZINC OXIDE 1:1 20-50
      • WATER TO BULK 1000
    • PRINT RECIPE
      • REUCING AGENT MUST BE USED TO MINIMUM LEVEL DEPENDING UPON DISCHARGABILITY OF GROUND SHADE
      • HIGHER LEVELS WILL LEAD TO BOTH HALOING OVER REDUCTION OF ILLUMINATING COLOUR
      • MILD OXIDIZING AGENT (NITROBENZENE SULPHONIC ACID) USED TO PREVENT UNWANTED REDUCTION OF ILLUMINATING DYE
      • USE OF TOO HIGH LEVEL AFFECT THE DISCHARGEABILITY OF GROUND SHADE, STORAGE STABILITY OF PRINT AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF REULTS
    • DRYING
      • DRY PRINTS AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE AT NOT TOO HIGH A TEMPERATURE
      • LONG STORAGE AFTER DRYING SHOULD BE AVOIDED
      • STORAGE UNDER MOIST CONDITIONS LEAD TO DECOMPOSITION OF REDUCING AGENT AFFECTING DISCHARGEABILITY
    • RESIST PRINTING
      • END RESULTS OF RESIST PRINTING ARE SIMILAR TO DISCHARGE PRINTING
      • PROCESSING ROUTE IS DIFFERENT
      • PRINT RESIST AGENT  DYE APPLICATION (USUALLY NIP PADDING)  REIST AND DYE FIXATION  WASH  DRY
      • COLOURED RESIST: INCORPORATION OF ILLUMINATING COLUR IN RESIST PRINT PASTE ABLE TO FIX IN PRESENCE OF RESIST AGENT
      • RESIST TECHNIQUES : TWO CLASSES
      • REACTIVE RESIST FOLLOWED BY PIECE DYEING FROM LONG LIQUOR
      • MECHANICAL/CHEMICAL RESIST: PRINT RESIST AGENT, APPLY GROUND SHADE BY WET-ON WET PRINTING WITH A BLANK SCREEN
    • CHEMICAL RESIST PROCESSES
      • REACTIVE RESIST AGENT (SANDOSPACE R (SANDOZ)
      • REACTIVE RESIT AGENT RESEMBLING TO COLURLESS REACTIVE DYE
      • HIGHLY REACTIVE WATER-SOLUBLE ANIONIC PRODUCT
    • SANDOSPACE R
      • THE COMPOUND IS ABLE TO REACT WITH AMINO GROUPS IN WOOL
      • THE RESIST PRINT TAKES PALCE DUE TO BLOCKING OF REACTIVE AMINO SITES ON FIBRE AND BY ANIONIC REPULSION.
      • THE PRODUCT USED FOR RESIST PRINTING OF WOOL AND NYLON
      • APPLICATION
      • EXHAUST DYEING OR PAD APPLICATION
      • 10-12% ADD ON
      • 80-90% RESIST EFFECT WHEN DYED IN 2% SHADE
      • AT PALE SHADE COMPLETE WHITE RESIST
      • TONE ON TONE EFFECT IN DARK SHADES
    • SULPHAMIC ACID RESIST
      • THE MOST PROBABLE REACTIVE SITES ON WOOL FOR SULPHAMIC ACID ARE
      • BASIC AMINO GROUPS
      • SERINE HYDROXY GROUPS AND CYSTENE LINKAGES
      • THE REACTIONS ARE COMPLEX
    • SULPHAMIC ACID RESIST
      • UREA IS ESSENTIL FOR MAX. UPTAKE OF SULPHAMIC ACID
      • RECIPE FOR WHITE RESIST
      • SULPHAMIC ACID 150-200
      • UREA 150-200
      • THICKENER 500
      • NON IONIC WETTING AGENT 2
      • ANTIFOAM 1
      • WATER TO BULK TO 1000
      • PRINT, DRY, CURE 150-160 0 C FOR 4-5 MIN
      • COLOURF RESIST: INCORPORATE ILLUMINATING DYE IN PRINT PASTE
      • TWO STAGE FIXATION
      • CURING FOR SULPHAMIC ACID
      • STEAMING FOR 30 MIN AT 100-102 0 C TO FIX ILLUMINATING COLOUR
    • SULPHAMIC ACID RESIST
      • STEAMING AND BAKING STEPS ARE NOT INTERCHANGEABLE
      • SULPHAMIC ACID HYDROLYSIS IF STEAMING IS DONE FIRST AFFECTIGN RESIST EFFECT
      • THOROUGH WASHING OFF INCLUDING AMMONIA WASH AT 70 0 C IS NECESSARY TO REMOVE UNFIXED DYE AND TO PREVENT CROSS-STAINING OF UNPRINTED AREAS DDURING SUBSEQENT DYEING.
      • DYEING
      • CARRIED OUT FROM LONG LIQUOR WITH REACTIVE DYESREACTIVE DYES ARE USED BOTH FOR COLOURED RESIST AND GROUND SHADE DYEING, FASTNESS PROPERTIES OF PRINTS ARE GOOD.
      • THERE IS CERTAIN AMOUNT OF FIBRE DAMAGE BUT NOT AS HIGH AS IN DISCHARGE PRINTING
    • STEAMING
      • CARRIED OUT FOR 10-20 MIN AT 100-102 0 C
      • AIR FREE STEAM IS AESSENTIAL
      • ADDITION OF SMALL AMOUNT OF HYDRAZINE TO THE BOILER WATER IS BENEFICIAL IN BINDING FREE OXYGEN IN STEAM
      • REQUIRED STEAMING TEMPERATURE IS ATTAINED AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE SINCE FORMALDEHYDE SULPHOXYLATE BEGINS TO BREAKDOWN AT ABOUT 50-60 0 C
      • WASHING OFF
      • MILD CONDITIONS AS THE DYES USED FOR COLOUR DISCHARGE GENERALLY POSSESS POOR WET FASTNESS.
    • MECHANICAL/CHEMICAL RESIST PROCESS
      • BATIK AND TIE-DYE ARE EXAMPLES OF MECHANICAL RESIST
      • THIOTAN WS (SANDOZ)
      • CATIONIC AGENT FORMS COMPLEX WITH ANIONIC DYE PREVENT DYE FIXATION
      • CONCENTRATION 600-700 g/kg OF PRINT PASTE FOR WHITE RESIST
      • 600 g/kg FOR COLOUR RESIST
      • PRINT WITH THIOTAN WS
      • WET ON WET PRINT WITH DYE
      • DRY
      • STEAM
      • WASH
      • DRAWBACK
      • HIGH CONCENTRATION OF REIST AGENT
    • REACTIVE UNDER REACTIVE RESIST
      • MONOCHLORO TRIAZINE REACTIVE DYE AS ILLUMINATING COLOUR
      • PRINT FROM MILD ALKALINE (pH 7.6 WITH SODIUM ACETATE)
      • ADD SODIUM SULPHITE IN PRINT PASTE
      • PRINT GROUND SHADE WET ON WET WITH VINYL SULPHONE DYES (MILD AKLINITY)
      • DRY
      • STEAM FOR 20 MIN AT 102 0 C
      • WASH OFF IN AMMONIA AT 60-70 0 C
      • GROUND SHADE PRINT IS RESISTED AT THE PRINTED AREAS DUE TO PREENCE OF SODIUM SULPHITE WHICH REACTS RAPIDLY WITH VINYL SULPHONE GROUP, PREVENTING DYE FIXATION.
    • COLD PRINT BATCH
      • THE METHOD IS BASED ON USE OF SOD. METABISULPHITE AND HIGH LEVELS OF UREA TO ACCELERATE COLD FIXATION OF HIGHLY REACTIVE DYES OF DICHLOROTRIZINE TYPE (PROCION MX) AND MONOCHLRODIFLUROPYRIMIDINE (LEVAFIX E-A) TYPES.
      • PROCESS
      • PRINT
      • INTERLEAVE WET WITH POLYTHENE FOIL,
      • BATCH FOR 24 HOURS.
      • FIXATION LEVEL UPTO 80%
      • STEAMING NOT ESSENTIAL.
      • AMMONIA WASH TO REMOVE UNFIXED DYE
      • METHOD MOST SUITABLE FOR SMALL SCALE PRINTERS IN INDIA
      • CONTINUOS LENGTHS ARE DIFFICULT MAINTAIN IN MOIST CONDITION DURING BATCHING
      • METHOD MOST SUITABLE FOR PRINTING GARMENT CUT PANELS
      • PRINTED PANELS ARE STACKED OVER EACH OTHER WITH SEPARATION BY POLYTHENE FILM.
    • TRANSFER PRINTING
      • SUBLIMATION TRANSFER PRINTING BASED ON SUBLIMATION PROPERTY OF DISPERSE DYE
      • MOST SUITABLE FOR POLYESTER HAVING GOOD AFFINITY OF DISPERSE DYE VAPOURS.
      • WOOL HAS NO AFFINITY TO DISPERSE DYES
      • MODIFICATION OF FIBRE OR DYE OR BOTH IS ESSENTIAL
      • FIBRE MODIFICATION
      • PRETREAT WITH POLAR COMPOUNDS LIKE UREA, THIDIGLYCOL OR LACTIC ACID
      • USE OF TERTIARY AND QUATERNARY ORGANIC BASES AND SLTS TO CLEAVE S-S BONDS THEREBY OPENING WOOL STRUCTURE
      • PAD APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AND ACRYLIC MONOMERS
      • ABOVE METHODS COMMERCIALLY NOT SUCCESSFUL
    • CSIRO AND IWS METHOD
      • CONSIST OF PRETREATMENT WITH ANIONIC SURFACTANT AND CHROMIUM SALT.
      • THE USE OF SPECIALLY SYNTHESIZED METALLIZABLE DISPERSE DYES e.g.
    • KERATRAN PROCESS
      • PAD WOOL WITH
      • SOD. DI-ISO-OCTYL SULPHO SUCCINATE 50 g/l
      • UREA 50 g/l
      • LACTIC ACID 20 g/l
      • CHROMIUM (III) CHLORIDE 7.5 g/l
      • SURFACTANT IMPART AFFINITY TO DISPERSE DYES
      • CHROMUMIUM SALT PROMOTES THE FORMATION CHROMIUM-DYE COMPLEX DURING TRANSFER PRINTING
      • LACTIC ACID IMPROVES PAD LIQUOR STABILITY
      • TRNSFER TEMP 195-200 0 C FOR 30 SEC.
      • STEAM FOR 30 MIN AT 100 0 C FOR FULL COLOUR DEVELOPMENT AND WASH FASTNESS(UREA PALY IMP. ROLE IN DYE FIXATION)
      • DRABACK
      • LIMITED SHADE RANGE
      • NECESSITY OF SEPARATE STEAMING STEP AND AFTER WASH
    • WET OR MIGRATION TRNSFER PRINTING
      • USE OF LANASOL REACTIVE DYES ON PAPER
      • PADDING OF WOOL WITH THICKENED LIQUOR, UREA AT ACID pH
      • CONTACT BETWEEN WET WOOL AND PRINTED PAPER FOR 30-6- SEC AT 106 0 C WITH THE APPLICATION OF HIGH PRESSURE
      • STEAMING
      • WASHING OFF TO REMOVE UNFIXED DYE
      • COMMERCIALLY NOT SUCCESSFUL
    • NOVEL EFFECTS
      • BURN OUT PRINTING
      • SUITABLE FOR PRINTING OF BLENDS
      • PRINT WITH A CHEMICAL/AUXILIARY WHICH DESTROYS ONE COMPONENT OF THE BLEND IN THE PRINTED AREAS
      • EFFECT OBTAINED ON WOOL/POLYESTER
      • PRINT WITH SOD. HYDROXIDE
      • PRESSURE STEAMING AT 120 0 C FOR 15 MIN.
      • WOOL COMPONENT IS DESTROYED IN THE PRINTED REAS
      • WASH OFF.
    • SCULP[TURED EFFECTS
      • FELTING PROPERTY OF FWOOL IS EXPLOITED IN THIS TECHNIQUE
      • PRINT ON UNTREATED UNFINISHED WOOL WITH A PRINT PASTE CONTAINING A SHRINK RESIST POLYMER IN PRESENCE OF SOD. BICARBONTATE.
      • DRY
      • BAKE AT 150 0 C TO CURE THE RESIN.
      • SCOUR AND MILL
      • PRINTED PORTIONS DO NOT SHRINK PRODUCING SCULPTURE PRINT EFFECT.
      • PIGMENT COLOUR MAY BE INCLUDED IN THE PRINT PASTE
      • THE RESIN ACTS AS PIGMENT BINDER.