Lecture 4 dyeing basics

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Lecture 4 dyeing basics

  1. 1. DYEING: DEFINITIONS <ul><li>DYEING </li></ul><ul><li>UNIFORM COLOURATION OF TEXTILE MATERIAL IN FIBRE, YARN OR FABRIC FORM. </li></ul><ul><li>THE COLOUR PRODUCED SHOULD WITHSTAND EXTERNAL AGENCIES SUCH AS WASHING, LIGHT, RUBBING etc TO WHICH TEXTILE MATERIAL IS SUBJECTED DURING USE. </li></ul><ul><li>THE COLOURATION SHOULD NOT RESTRICT ONLY TO THE FIBRE SURFACE BUT SHOULD PENETRATE THE FIBRE CROSS SECTION. </li></ul><ul><li>THE SURFACE COLOURATION IS KNOWN AS RING DYEING. </li></ul>
  2. 2. DYES AND PIGMENTS <ul><li>DYES </li></ul><ul><li>COLOUR COMPOUND </li></ul><ul><li>SOLUBLE IN WATER OR CAN BE MADE SOLUBLE IN WATER </li></ul><ul><li>POSSESSES AFFINITY TO FIBRE TO BE DYED </li></ul><ul><li>PENETRATION OF DYE IN FIBRE CROSS-SECTION UNDER DYEING CONDITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>INTERACT WITH FIBRE WITH SUITBLE DYE-FIBRE INTERACTIVE FORCES DEPENDING ON THE NATURE OF FIBRE AND NATURE OF DYE </li></ul><ul><li>NATURE OF DYE-FIBRE INTERACTION DETERMINES THE FASTNESS PROPERTY OF DYE TO EXTERNAL AGENCIES. THERE SOME EXCEPTIONS TO THIS RULE. </li></ul>
  3. 3. DYES AND PIGMENTS <ul><li>TINTING COLOURS </li></ul><ul><li>DYES HAVING NO AFFINITY TO FIBRE. </li></ul><ul><li>EASILY REMOVED DURING WASHING </li></ul><ul><li>PIGMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>COLOURING COMPOUND </li></ul><ul><li>INSOLUBLE IN WATER </li></ul><ul><li>NO AFFINITY TO FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>NO INTERACTION WITH FIBRE </li></ul>
  4. 4. AFFINITY OR SUBSTANTIVITY <ul><li>ATTRACTION BETWEEN DYE AND FIBRE UNDER GIVEN DYEING CONDITIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>ABILITY OF DYE TO MOVE FROM SOLUTION PHASE TO FIBRE PHASE DURING THE DYEING OPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>THIS MEANS REDUCTION IN DYE CONCENTRATION IN SOLUTION PHASE AND CORRESPONDING INCREASE OF DYE CONCENTRATION IN FIBRE PHASE WITH DYEING TIME. </li></ul><ul><li>DYES HAVE AFFINITY TO FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>PIGMENT AND TINTING COLOURS HAVE NO AFFINITY TOWARDS FIBRE. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF DYES <ul><li>WATER SOLUBLE SUITABILITY TO FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT COTTON, WOOL, SILK, NYLON </li></ul><ul><li>ACID WOOL, SILK, NYLON </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC OR CATIONIC MAINLY ACRYLIC, LIMITED WOOL, SILK </li></ul><ul><li>REACTIVE MAINLY COTTON, LIMITED WOOL, SILK </li></ul><ul><li>SOLUBILIZED VAT COTTON </li></ul><ul><li>WATER INSOLUBLE </li></ul><ul><li>VAT COTTON </li></ul><ul><li>SULPHUR COTTON </li></ul><ul><li>DISPERSE MAINLY POLYESTER, LIMITED NYLON, ACRYLIC </li></ul><ul><li> IN-SITU COLOUR FORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>AZOIC COTTON </li></ul><ul><li>OXIDATION COLOURS COTTON </li></ul><ul><li>PIGMENT COLOURS ALL FIBRES DEPENDING ON BINDER </li></ul>
  6. 6. THEORETICAL CONCEPT <ul><li>DYEING PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>FIBRE DYE BATH: DYE, WATER, DYEING AUXILIARY </li></ul><ul><li>INTRODUCTION OF FIBRE IN DYE BATH </li></ul><ul><li>DYEING UNDER SUITABLE CONDITIONS FOR SUITABLE LENGTH OF TIME </li></ul><ul><li>ZERO TIME ALL DYE IN DYE BATH </li></ul><ul><li>WITH PASSAGE OF TIME INCREASE IN DYE CONCENTRATION ON FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>CORRESPONDING DECREASE IN DYE CONCENTRTION IN DYE BATH </li></ul><ul><li>THIS PHENOMENON IS KNOWN AS DYE EXHAUSTION AND OCCURS DUE TO AFFINITY OF DYE FOR FIBRE </li></ul>
  7. 7. DYEING MECHANISM <ul><li>DIVISION OF DYE SYSTEM IN THREE PHASES </li></ul><ul><li>DYE IN SOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>FIBRE SURFACE </li></ul><ul><li>INTERIOR OF FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>DURING DYEING THREE TYPES OF EQUILIBRIA EXIST </li></ul><ul><li>DYE IN SOLUTION  DYE ON FIBRE SURFACE  DYE IN THE INTERIOR OF FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST EQUILIBRIA TRANSFER OF DYE FROM SOLUTION TO FIBRE SURFACE </li></ul><ul><li>SECOND EQUILIBRIA PENETRATION OF DYE FROM FIBRE SURFACE TO FIBRE INTERIOR </li></ul><ul><li>DISTURBANCE IN FIRST EQUILIBRIA </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESS CONTINUE TILL THREE PHASES ARE IN EQUILIBRIUM </li></ul>
  8. 8. DYE FIBRE INTERACTION
  9. 9. CLASSIFICATION OF ATTRACTIVE FORCES <ul><li>ATTRACTIVE FORCES BETWEEN DYE AND FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>VAN DER WAAL’S FORCES OR DISPERSION FORCES </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROGEN BONDS </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>CO-VALENT BOND </li></ul>
  10. 10. DYE-FIBRE INTERCTION <ul><li>FORCES OF ATTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>DYE CLASS FORCE OF ATTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>CELLULOSIC (COTTON, JUTE, VISCOSE) </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT, VAT, SULPHUR VANDER WAAL, H-BOND </li></ul><ul><li>SOLUBILIZED VAT </li></ul><ul><li>REACTIVE CO-VALENT BOND </li></ul><ul><li>WOOL, SILK, NYLON </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT, ACID, METAL IONIC OR ELECTROSTATIC </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLEX </li></ul><ul><li>REACTIVE IONIC/COVALENT </li></ul><ul><li>POLYESTER </li></ul><ul><li>DISPERSE VANDER WAAL, H-BOND </li></ul><ul><li>ACRYLIC </li></ul><ul><li>CATIONIC INONIC OR ELECTROSTTIC </li></ul>
  11. 11. FORCE OF ATTRACTION AND WASH FASTNESS <ul><li>DYED FIBRE MUST MEET CERTAIN FASTNESS REQUIREMENT TO VARIOUS AGENCIES LIKE WASHING, LIGHT, RUBBING </li></ul><ul><li>FASTNESS PROPERTY DEPENDS ON SEVERAL FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>WASH FASTNESS DEPENDS ON </li></ul><ul><li>FORCE OF ATTRACTION BETWEEN DYE AND FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL STATE OF DYE INSIDE THE FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>BOND ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>COVALENT BOND > ELECTROSTATIC BOND > H-BOND > VANDER WAAL FORCE </li></ul><ul><li>WASH FASTNESS </li></ul><ul><li>REACTIVE DYE > ACID, METAL COMPLEX, CATIONIC > DIRECT, VAT, SULPHUR, DISPERSE </li></ul>
  12. 12. EXCEPTIONS <ul><li>VAT DYES ON COTTON </li></ul><ul><li>EXCELLENT WASH FASTNESS PROPERTY </li></ul><ul><li>REASONS </li></ul><ul><li>DYE INSIDE FIBRE WATER INSOLUBLE FORM </li></ul><ul><li>STATE OF DYE INSIDE FIBRE AGGREGATED (VERY HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT) </li></ul><ul><li>BOTH THESE FACTORS LEAD TO VERY HIGH WASH FASTNESS ON COTTON THOUGH WEAK FORCES OF DYE-FIBRE INTERACTION </li></ul><ul><li>DISPERSE DYES ON POLYESTER </li></ul><ul><li>DYE INSIDE FIBRE WATER INSOLUBLE FORM </li></ul><ul><li>VERY COMPACT PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>DYE UNABLE TO DIFFUSE OUT UNDER WASHING CONDITIONS </li></ul>
  13. 13. 100 YEARS OF CHRONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS OF SYNTHEIC DYES <ul><li>1856 FIRST SYNTHETIC DYE (PURPLE ), PERKIN </li></ul><ul><li>1858 DISCOVERY OF THE PROCESS OF DIAZOTIZATION AND COUPLING, PETER GREISS </li></ul><ul><li>1859 MAGENTA DYE, FRENCH CHEMIST VERGUIN </li></ul><ul><li>1862 FIRST SULPHONATED DYE </li></ul><ul><li>1863 ANILINE BLACK, NICHOLSON </li></ul><ul><li>1880 IN SITU AZOIC COLOUR FORMATION, READ HOLLIDAY </li></ul><ul><li>1884 FIRST DIRECT DYE, CONGO RED, BOTTIGER </li></ul><ul><li>1893 FIRST SULPHUR DYE </li></ul><ul><li>1897 SYNTHETIC INDIGO </li></ul><ul><li>1890 METAL COMPLEX DYE </li></ul><ul><li>1901 VAT DYE </li></ul><ul><li>1922 DISPERSE DYE </li></ul><ul><li>1956 REACTIVE DYE </li></ul><ul><li>NATURAL DYES BEFORE 1856 ABOUT 100 </li></ul><ul><li>SYNTHETIC DYES TODAY 2000-3000 </li></ul>
  14. 14. DYEING METHODS <ul><li>BATCHWISE OR EXHAUST DYEING </li></ul><ul><li>FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>YARN </li></ul><ul><li>FABRIC </li></ul><ul><li>SEMI-CONTINUOUS DYEING </li></ul><ul><li>FABRIC </li></ul><ul><li>CONTINUOUS DYEING </li></ul><ul><li>FABRIC </li></ul><ul><li>YARN IN WARP SHEET FORM (INDIGO DYEING FOR DENIM) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  15. 15. EXHAUST DYEING <ul><li>MATERIAL TO LIQUOR RATIO (M:L RATIO) </li></ul><ul><li>VOLUME OF WATER TAKEN IN RELATION TO WEIGHT OF MATERIAL (FIBRE, YARN OR FABRIC) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. M:L :: 1:10 MEANS FOR 1 kg OF TEXTILE MATERIAL 10 LITRES OF WATER TAKEN FOR DYEING </li></ul><ul><li>% DYEBATH EXHAUSTION </li></ul><ul><li>AMOUNT OF DYE GONE FROM SOLUTION PHASE TO FIBRE PHASE AT THE END OF DYEING PERIOD EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF %. IT IS A MEASURE OF DYE SUBSTANTIVITY. THE TERM IS MAINLY APPLICABLE TO BATCHWISE DYEING. </li></ul><ul><li>% FIXATION: AMOUNT OF DYE FIXED (INTERACTED) WITH FIBRE AFTER WASHING/SOAPING. </li></ul><ul><li>% SHADE </li></ul><ul><li>AMOUNT OF DYE TAKEN FOR DYEING ON THE BASIS OF WEIGHT OF MATERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. 2% SHADE MEANS 2 gm DYE TAKEN FOR DYEING 100 gm MATERIAL i.e TEXTILE FIBRE, YARN OR FABRIC. </li></ul>
  16. 16. BATCHWISE DYEING <ul><li>DYEING IN SMALL BATCHES, 100-300 kg FABRIC </li></ul><ul><li>FABRIC DYEING EQUIPMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGNED ON THREE PRINCIPLES </li></ul><ul><li>FABRIC MOVING, DYE LIQUOR STATIONARY </li></ul><ul><li>JIGGER (FABRIC IN OPEN WIDTH FORM) </li></ul><ul><li>WINCH (FABRIC IN ROPE FORM) </li></ul><ul><li>FABRIC STATIONARY, DYE LIQUOR MOVING </li></ul><ul><li>BEAM DYEING MACHINE FOR DYEING POLYESTER OR POLYESTER/COTTON BLENDS (FABRIC IN OPEN WIDTH) </li></ul><ul><li>BOTH FABRIC AND DYE LIQUOR MOVING </li></ul><ul><li>JET DYEING MACHINE (FABRIC IN ROPE FORM) </li></ul>
  17. 17. CONTINUOUS DYEING <ul><li>PADDING </li></ul><ul><li>SATURATION OF FABRIC BY DYE SOLUTION AND SQUEEZING THE EXCESS LIQUOR BY PRESSING BETWEEN SQUEEZ ROLLERS </li></ul><ul><li>MACHINE: PADDING MANGLE </li></ul><ul><li>TERMS COMMON FOR CONTINUOUS DYEING OF FABRIC. </li></ul><ul><li>EXPRESSION </li></ul><ul><li>%INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF DRY FABRIC AFTER PADDING e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>DRY FABRIC WEIGHT 1kg </li></ul><ul><li>FABRIC WEIGHT AFTER PADDING 1.8 kg </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASE IN DRY FABRIC WEIGHT 0.8 kg </li></ul><ul><li>% INCREASE IN WEIGHT 80% </li></ul><ul><li>EXPRESSION 80% </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHER THE VALUE OF % EXPRESSION LESS IS LIQUOR SQUEEZING BY PADDING MANGLE AND VICE VERSA </li></ul>
  18. 18. DYEING MACHINES Fibre dyeing machine Hank dyeing machine Cheese/Cone dyeing machine
  19. 19. Winch Jet Dyeing
  20. 20. Beam dyeing Jigger Padding mangles
  21. 21. Pad-batch (Semi continuous Pad- steam-wash (Continuous)

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