• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Lecture 4 dyeing basics
 

Lecture 4 dyeing basics

on

  • 621 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
621
Views on SlideShare
621
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Lecture 4 dyeing basics Lecture 4 dyeing basics Presentation Transcript

    • DYEING: DEFINITIONS
      • DYEING
      • UNIFORM COLOURATION OF TEXTILE MATERIAL IN FIBRE, YARN OR FABRIC FORM.
      • THE COLOUR PRODUCED SHOULD WITHSTAND EXTERNAL AGENCIES SUCH AS WASHING, LIGHT, RUBBING etc TO WHICH TEXTILE MATERIAL IS SUBJECTED DURING USE.
      • THE COLOURATION SHOULD NOT RESTRICT ONLY TO THE FIBRE SURFACE BUT SHOULD PENETRATE THE FIBRE CROSS SECTION.
      • THE SURFACE COLOURATION IS KNOWN AS RING DYEING.
    • DYES AND PIGMENTS
      • DYES
      • COLOUR COMPOUND
      • SOLUBLE IN WATER OR CAN BE MADE SOLUBLE IN WATER
      • POSSESSES AFFINITY TO FIBRE TO BE DYED
      • PENETRATION OF DYE IN FIBRE CROSS-SECTION UNDER DYEING CONDITIONS
      • INTERACT WITH FIBRE WITH SUITBLE DYE-FIBRE INTERACTIVE FORCES DEPENDING ON THE NATURE OF FIBRE AND NATURE OF DYE
      • NATURE OF DYE-FIBRE INTERACTION DETERMINES THE FASTNESS PROPERTY OF DYE TO EXTERNAL AGENCIES. THERE SOME EXCEPTIONS TO THIS RULE.
    • DYES AND PIGMENTS
      • TINTING COLOURS
      • DYES HAVING NO AFFINITY TO FIBRE.
      • EASILY REMOVED DURING WASHING
      • PIGMENTS
      • COLOURING COMPOUND
      • INSOLUBLE IN WATER
      • NO AFFINITY TO FIBRE
      • NO INTERACTION WITH FIBRE
    • AFFINITY OR SUBSTANTIVITY
      • ATTRACTION BETWEEN DYE AND FIBRE UNDER GIVEN DYEING CONDITIONS.
      • ABILITY OF DYE TO MOVE FROM SOLUTION PHASE TO FIBRE PHASE DURING THE DYEING OPERATION
      • THIS MEANS REDUCTION IN DYE CONCENTRATION IN SOLUTION PHASE AND CORRESPONDING INCREASE OF DYE CONCENTRATION IN FIBRE PHASE WITH DYEING TIME.
      • DYES HAVE AFFINITY TO FIBRE
      • PIGMENT AND TINTING COLOURS HAVE NO AFFINITY TOWARDS FIBRE.
    • CLASSIFICATION OF DYES
      • WATER SOLUBLE SUITABILITY TO FIBRE
      • DIRECT COTTON, WOOL, SILK, NYLON
      • ACID WOOL, SILK, NYLON
      • BASIC OR CATIONIC MAINLY ACRYLIC, LIMITED WOOL, SILK
      • REACTIVE MAINLY COTTON, LIMITED WOOL, SILK
      • SOLUBILIZED VAT COTTON
      • WATER INSOLUBLE
      • VAT COTTON
      • SULPHUR COTTON
      • DISPERSE MAINLY POLYESTER, LIMITED NYLON, ACRYLIC
      • IN-SITU COLOUR FORMATION
      • AZOIC COTTON
      • OXIDATION COLOURS COTTON
      • PIGMENT COLOURS ALL FIBRES DEPENDING ON BINDER
    • THEORETICAL CONCEPT
      • DYEING PROCESS
      • FIBRE DYE BATH: DYE, WATER, DYEING AUXILIARY
      • INTRODUCTION OF FIBRE IN DYE BATH
      • DYEING UNDER SUITABLE CONDITIONS FOR SUITABLE LENGTH OF TIME
      • ZERO TIME ALL DYE IN DYE BATH
      • WITH PASSAGE OF TIME INCREASE IN DYE CONCENTRATION ON FIBRE
      • CORRESPONDING DECREASE IN DYE CONCENTRTION IN DYE BATH
      • THIS PHENOMENON IS KNOWN AS DYE EXHAUSTION AND OCCURS DUE TO AFFINITY OF DYE FOR FIBRE
    • DYEING MECHANISM
      • DIVISION OF DYE SYSTEM IN THREE PHASES
      • DYE IN SOLUTION
      • FIBRE SURFACE
      • INTERIOR OF FIBRE
      • DURING DYEING THREE TYPES OF EQUILIBRIA EXIST
      • DYE IN SOLUTION  DYE ON FIBRE SURFACE  DYE IN THE INTERIOR OF FIBRE
      • FIRST EQUILIBRIA TRANSFER OF DYE FROM SOLUTION TO FIBRE SURFACE
      • SECOND EQUILIBRIA PENETRATION OF DYE FROM FIBRE SURFACE TO FIBRE INTERIOR
      • DISTURBANCE IN FIRST EQUILIBRIA
      • PROCESS CONTINUE TILL THREE PHASES ARE IN EQUILIBRIUM
    • DYE FIBRE INTERACTION
    • CLASSIFICATION OF ATTRACTIVE FORCES
      • ATTRACTIVE FORCES BETWEEN DYE AND FIBRE
      • VAN DER WAAL’S FORCES OR DISPERSION FORCES
      • HYDROGEN BONDS
      • ELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTION
      • CO-VALENT BOND
    • DYE-FIBRE INTERCTION
      • FORCES OF ATTRACTION
      • DYE CLASS FORCE OF ATTRACTION
      • CELLULOSIC (COTTON, JUTE, VISCOSE)
      • DIRECT, VAT, SULPHUR VANDER WAAL, H-BOND
      • SOLUBILIZED VAT
      • REACTIVE CO-VALENT BOND
      • WOOL, SILK, NYLON
      • DIRECT, ACID, METAL IONIC OR ELECTROSTATIC
      • COMPLEX
      • REACTIVE IONIC/COVALENT
      • POLYESTER
      • DISPERSE VANDER WAAL, H-BOND
      • ACRYLIC
      • CATIONIC INONIC OR ELECTROSTTIC
    • FORCE OF ATTRACTION AND WASH FASTNESS
      • DYED FIBRE MUST MEET CERTAIN FASTNESS REQUIREMENT TO VARIOUS AGENCIES LIKE WASHING, LIGHT, RUBBING
      • FASTNESS PROPERTY DEPENDS ON SEVERAL FACTORS
      • WASH FASTNESS DEPENDS ON
      • FORCE OF ATTRACTION BETWEEN DYE AND FIBRE
      • PHYSICAL STATE OF DYE INSIDE THE FIBRE
      • PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FIBRE
      • BOND ENERGY
      • COVALENT BOND > ELECTROSTATIC BOND > H-BOND > VANDER WAAL FORCE
      • WASH FASTNESS
      • REACTIVE DYE > ACID, METAL COMPLEX, CATIONIC > DIRECT, VAT, SULPHUR, DISPERSE
    • EXCEPTIONS
      • VAT DYES ON COTTON
      • EXCELLENT WASH FASTNESS PROPERTY
      • REASONS
      • DYE INSIDE FIBRE WATER INSOLUBLE FORM
      • STATE OF DYE INSIDE FIBRE AGGREGATED (VERY HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT)
      • BOTH THESE FACTORS LEAD TO VERY HIGH WASH FASTNESS ON COTTON THOUGH WEAK FORCES OF DYE-FIBRE INTERACTION
      • DISPERSE DYES ON POLYESTER
      • DYE INSIDE FIBRE WATER INSOLUBLE FORM
      • VERY COMPACT PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FIBRE
      • DYE UNABLE TO DIFFUSE OUT UNDER WASHING CONDITIONS
    • 100 YEARS OF CHRONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS OF SYNTHEIC DYES
      • 1856 FIRST SYNTHETIC DYE (PURPLE ), PERKIN
      • 1858 DISCOVERY OF THE PROCESS OF DIAZOTIZATION AND COUPLING, PETER GREISS
      • 1859 MAGENTA DYE, FRENCH CHEMIST VERGUIN
      • 1862 FIRST SULPHONATED DYE
      • 1863 ANILINE BLACK, NICHOLSON
      • 1880 IN SITU AZOIC COLOUR FORMATION, READ HOLLIDAY
      • 1884 FIRST DIRECT DYE, CONGO RED, BOTTIGER
      • 1893 FIRST SULPHUR DYE
      • 1897 SYNTHETIC INDIGO
      • 1890 METAL COMPLEX DYE
      • 1901 VAT DYE
      • 1922 DISPERSE DYE
      • 1956 REACTIVE DYE
      • NATURAL DYES BEFORE 1856 ABOUT 100
      • SYNTHETIC DYES TODAY 2000-3000
    • DYEING METHODS
      • BATCHWISE OR EXHAUST DYEING
      • FIBRE
      • YARN
      • FABRIC
      • SEMI-CONTINUOUS DYEING
      • FABRIC
      • CONTINUOUS DYEING
      • FABRIC
      • YARN IN WARP SHEET FORM (INDIGO DYEING FOR DENIM)
    • EXHAUST DYEING
      • MATERIAL TO LIQUOR RATIO (M:L RATIO)
      • VOLUME OF WATER TAKEN IN RELATION TO WEIGHT OF MATERIAL (FIBRE, YARN OR FABRIC)
      • e.g. M:L :: 1:10 MEANS FOR 1 kg OF TEXTILE MATERIAL 10 LITRES OF WATER TAKEN FOR DYEING
      • % DYEBATH EXHAUSTION
      • AMOUNT OF DYE GONE FROM SOLUTION PHASE TO FIBRE PHASE AT THE END OF DYEING PERIOD EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF %. IT IS A MEASURE OF DYE SUBSTANTIVITY. THE TERM IS MAINLY APPLICABLE TO BATCHWISE DYEING.
      • % FIXATION: AMOUNT OF DYE FIXED (INTERACTED) WITH FIBRE AFTER WASHING/SOAPING.
      • % SHADE
      • AMOUNT OF DYE TAKEN FOR DYEING ON THE BASIS OF WEIGHT OF MATERIAL
      • e.g. 2% SHADE MEANS 2 gm DYE TAKEN FOR DYEING 100 gm MATERIAL i.e TEXTILE FIBRE, YARN OR FABRIC.
    • BATCHWISE DYEING
      • DYEING IN SMALL BATCHES, 100-300 kg FABRIC
      • FABRIC DYEING EQUIPMENTS
      • DESIGNED ON THREE PRINCIPLES
      • FABRIC MOVING, DYE LIQUOR STATIONARY
      • JIGGER (FABRIC IN OPEN WIDTH FORM)
      • WINCH (FABRIC IN ROPE FORM)
      • FABRIC STATIONARY, DYE LIQUOR MOVING
      • BEAM DYEING MACHINE FOR DYEING POLYESTER OR POLYESTER/COTTON BLENDS (FABRIC IN OPEN WIDTH)
      • BOTH FABRIC AND DYE LIQUOR MOVING
      • JET DYEING MACHINE (FABRIC IN ROPE FORM)
    • CONTINUOUS DYEING
      • PADDING
      • SATURATION OF FABRIC BY DYE SOLUTION AND SQUEEZING THE EXCESS LIQUOR BY PRESSING BETWEEN SQUEEZ ROLLERS
      • MACHINE: PADDING MANGLE
      • TERMS COMMON FOR CONTINUOUS DYEING OF FABRIC.
      • EXPRESSION
      • %INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF DRY FABRIC AFTER PADDING e.g.
      • DRY FABRIC WEIGHT 1kg
      • FABRIC WEIGHT AFTER PADDING 1.8 kg
      • INCREASE IN DRY FABRIC WEIGHT 0.8 kg
      • % INCREASE IN WEIGHT 80%
      • EXPRESSION 80%
      • HIGHER THE VALUE OF % EXPRESSION LESS IS LIQUOR SQUEEZING BY PADDING MANGLE AND VICE VERSA
    • DYEING MACHINES Fibre dyeing machine Hank dyeing machine Cheese/Cone dyeing machine
    • Winch Jet Dyeing
    • Beam dyeing Jigger Padding mangles
    • Pad-batch (Semi continuous Pad- steam-wash (Continuous)