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Indian wool industry and finishing, avikanagar
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  • 1. INDIAN WOOL INDUSTRY STATISTICS AND FIFNISHING OF WOOL CARPETS YARNS R.B.CHAVAN DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY HASZ-KHAS, NEW DELHI
  • 2. WOOL INDUSTRY IN INDIA
    • SMALL IN SIZE
    • WIDELY SCATTERED
    • LOCATED IN STATES OF PUNJAB, HARYANA, RAJASTHAN, U.P., MAHARASHTRA AND GUJARAT
    • 40% OF THE WOOLLEN UNITS ARE LOCATED IN PUNJAB,
    • 27% IN HARYANA,
    • 10% IN RAJASTHAN,
    • 23% THE REST OF THE STATES
    • A FEW OF THE LARGER UNITS ARE LOCATED IN MAHARASHTRA, PUNJAB, U.P., GUJARAT AND WEST BENGAL.
  • 3. WOOL PRODUCTION IN INDIA
    • 45 MILLION kg ESTIMATE
    • 15-16 MILLION kg SUITABLE FOR CARPER
    • REST COARSE, INFERIOR, BLACK WOOL UNSUITABLE FOR USE IN CARPET MAKING.
    • NO PRODUCTION OF FAPPAREL WOOL
    • 50-60 MIILION kg IMPORT
    • NEW ZEALAND CARPET WOOL
    • AUSTRALIA APPAREL WOOL
    • IMPORT OF WOOLEN RAGS FOR SHODDY WOOL
    • SHODDY WOOL USE
    • BLANKETS
    • BLAZERS
    • RECYCLED WOOL BLENDED FABRIC
  • 4. INDIAN WOOL INDUSTRY PROFILE
    • TOTAL No. OF REGISTERED UNITS 675
    • TOTAL No. OF PERSONS EMPLOYED 12 LAKH
    • TOTAL IMPORT OF WOOL Rs.700 cr.
    • TOTAL EXPORTS 1999-2000 (EXCLUDING
    • HAND MADE CARPETS, RUGS, DURRIES ETC.) Rs.2110 Cr.
    • TOTAL IMPORT OF RAW WOOL (1999-2000) 66 m kg
    • TOTAL IMPORT OF WOOLLEN
    • AND COTTON RAGS ETC. (1999-2000) 71.6 m kg
  • 5. WOOLEN INDUSTRY SECTORS
    • ORGANISED SECTOR: I) COMPOSITE MILLS II) COMBING UNITS. III) WORSTED AND NON-WORSTED SPINNING UNITS. IV) MACHINE MADE CARPET MANUFACTURING UNITS.
    • B) DECENTRALISED SECTOR: I) HOSIERY AND KNITTING II) POWERLOOM III) HAND KNOTTED CARPETS, DRUGGETS AND NAMDAHS IV) INDEPENDENT DYEING PROCESSING HOUSES.
  • 6. INSTALLED CAPACITY(1999-2000)
    • WOOL COMBING 29.28 m. kg.
    •  
    • SYNTHETIC FIBRE COMBING 3.57 m. kg.
    • WORSTED SPINDLES 5.88 Lakh Nos.
    • NON-WORSTED SPINDLES 4.25 Lakh Nos.
    • POWERLOOM (approx. including 7228 Nos.
    • decentralized sector)
    • MACHINE MADE CARPET SECTOR 8.10 lac sq. mt. 8.27 m.kg.
  • 7. STATE WISE WOOL PRODUCTION mkg (1996-1997)
    • Andhra Pradesh  1.88
    • Arunachal Pradesh 0.06
    • Bihar 1.23
    • Gujarat 2.40
    • Haryana 1.86
    • Himachal Pradesh 1.60
    • Jammu & Kashmir 5.06
    • Karnataka 5.00
    • Madhya Pradesh 0.78
    • Maharashtra 1.56
    • Punjab 1.40
    • Rajasthan 18.00
    • Sikkim 0.04
    • Tamil Nadu 0.73
    • Uttar Pradesh 2.03
    • West Bengal 0.63
    • Total 44.26
  • 8. INDIAN CARPETS
    • RENOWNED THE WORLD OVER
    • THEIR EXQUISITE DESIGNS,
    • SUBTLE ELEGANCE,
    • ATTRACTIVE COLORS
    • WORKMANSHIP.
    • SUBSTANTIAL CARPET EXPORTS
    • PROMINENT IN THE INTERNATIONAL CARPET MAP.
  • 9. NATURAL COLOURS
    • 'MADDER'  ROOT PROVIDES THE WHOLE RANGE OF PINKS AND REDS
    • GREEN FROM THE 'GRASS'
    • BROWN FROM THE 'KIKER' TREE.
    • BLUE FROM INDIGO
    • BLACK FROM HARADA
    • ALL TYPES OF NATURAL DYES ARE USED.
  • 10. MATERIAL
    • WOOL HAS BEEN THE BASIC MATERIAL,
    • SILK IS ALSO COMMONLY USED ,
    • TO A LESSER DEGREE COTTON AND STAPLE/SYNTHETIC MATERIALS.
  • 11. DESIGNING
    • THE USUAL PROCEDURE ADOPTED BY THE WEAVER IS TO DRAW HIS DESIGNS AND TRANSFER THEM TO GRAPH PAPER ON WHICH EACH SQUARE REPRESENTS A SINGLE KNOT.
    • THEN THE PAPER IS DIVIDED INTO VARYING PARTS DEPENDING ON WHETHER THE PATTERN IS INTENDED FOR THE CENTER MEDALLION OR FOR A PART OF A REPEATED PATTERN.
    • THESE SHEETS OF PAPER ARE THEN PASSED ON TO THE KNOTTING WORKSHOP.
    • THE OTHER MANNER FOLLOWED BY THE WEAVERS OF KASHMIR AND AMRITSAR IS THE 'TALIM',
    • WHERE A CODED COLOR CHART INDICATES THE NUMBER OF KNOTS TO BE WOVEN IN THEIR RESPECTIVE COLORS.
    • THE MASTER-WEAVER READS ALOUD FROM IT AND THE WEAVERS FOLLOWS HIS DIRECTIONS CAREFULLY..
  • 12. WEAVING
    • ONE OF THE MOST COMMONLY USED LOOM IN INDIA IS THE ROLLER-BEAM LOOM.
    • THE SIMPLEST OF THESE LOOMS HAS TWO HORIZONTAL WOODEN BEANS BETWEEN WHICH THE WRAP THREADS ARE STRETCHED,
    • THE ONE BEAM IN FRONT OF THE WEAVER, THE OTHER IS BEHIND THE FIRST.
    • AS THE KNOTTING PROCEEDS,
    • THE CARPET IS ROLLED TO THE BACK OF THE LOOM.
    • THE WEAVER BEGINS BY WEAVING A SELVEDGE AND SEVERAL SHOOTS OF WEFT ARE PASSED TO FORM A NARROW BAND TO SECURE THE KNOTS AT THE END OF THE CARPET.
    • THE INDIAN CARPET WEAVER NORMALLY USES THE ASYMMETRICAL OR PERSIAN KNOT .
  • 13. FINISHING
    • WASHING OF A CARPET IS DONE TO BRING SHEEN AND LUSTER.
    • BEFORE WASHING, THE CARPET GOES THROUGH THE STAGE OF BURNING THE BACK OF THE CARPET,
    • RUBBING WITH WIRED BRUSH ('BERAI') TO MAKE IT EVEN.
    • WASHING IS DONE WITH WATER MIXED WITH SOAP, BLEACHING POWDER AND OTHER CHEMICALS.
    • AFTER WASHING, THE CARPET IS SUN-DRIED AND THEN SENT FOR CLIPPING.
  • 14. CARPET INDUSTRY
    • THE  CARPET PRODUCING CENTERS IN INDIA ARE
    • UTTAR PRADESH,
    • JAMMU & KASHMIR,
    • RAJASTHAN,
    • PUNJAB,
    • HARYANA,
    • MADHYA PRADESH,
    • BIHAR ,
    • HIMACHAL PRADESH,
    • WEST BENGAL,
    • ANDHRA PRADESH,
    • KARNATAKA  
    • PONDICHERRY.
    • EMPLOYEES AROUND 2.5 MILLION PEOPLE IN  RURAL AREAS OF WHERE OTHER EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ARE VERY REMOTE.
    • CHILD LABOUR IS PROHIBITED BY LAW UNDER THE CHILD LABOUR PROHIBITION  ACT.
  • 15. TYPES OF INDIAN CARPETS
    • HAND-KNOTTED WOOLEN CARPETS
    • TUFTED WOOLEN
    • HANDMADE WOOLEN DHURRIES
    • PURE SILK CARPETS
    • STAPLE/SYNTHETIC CARPETS
    • CHAIN-STITCH RUGS
  • 16. FINISHING OF WOOL CARPET YARN
    • VALUE ADDITION THROUGH
    • IMPROVEMENT IN AESTHETICS
    • IMPROVEMENT IN FUNTIONAL PROPERTIES
    • BROAD CLASSIFICATION
    • PHYSICAL FINISHING
    • OPTICAL FINISHING
    • BRUSHING AND NAPPING
    • SOFTENING
    • SHEARING
    • COMPACTING (CALENDERING)
  • 17. FINISHING OF WOOL CARPET YARN
    • VALUE ADDITION THROUGH
    • IMPROVEMENT IN AESTHETICS
    • IMPROVEMENT IN FUNTIONAL PROPERTIES
    • BROAD CLASSIFICATION
    • PHYSICAL FINISHING
    • OPTICAL FINISHING
    • BRUSHING AND NAPPING
    • SOFTENING
    • SHEARING
    • COMPACTING (CALENDERING)
  • 18. CHMICAL FINISHING
    • FINISHES AFECTING AESTHETICS, COMFORT AND SERVICES
    • OPTICAL FINISHES
    • HYDROPHILIC AND SOIL RELEASE FINISHES
    • SOFT AND STIFF FINISHES
    • WEIGHTING AGENTS
    • SHRINK RESISTANT FINISHES
    • CREASE RESISTANCE FINISHES
    • PROTECTIVE FINISHES
    • PHOTOPROTECTIVE AGENTS AND ANTIOXIDANTS
    • OIL AND WTER REPELLANTS
    • ANTISTATIC AGENTS
    • ANTIBACTERIAL AND INSECT RESISTANT FINISHES
    • FLAME RETARDANTS
  • 19. FINISHING OF WOOL CARPET YARNS
    • YARN SCOURING
    • YARN SCOURING IS ESSENTIAL FOR WOOL CARPETS
    • REMOVE FIBRE PROCESSING AIDS (LUBRICANTS) APPLIED TO ASSIST CARDING AND SPINNING
    • REMOVE SOIL AND DIRT DEPOSITED ON THE YARN
    • REMOVE RESIDUAL WOOL GREASE
    • REDUCE THE RESIDUAL IMPURITIES TO 1% IMPROPER SCOURING MAKE CARPETS PRONE TO RAPID AND EXCESSICE SOILING DURING USE
    • PROCESS
    • DETERGENT ALONG ITH MILD ALKALI AMMONIA
  • 20. SCOURING PROCESS
    • YARN IN HANK FORM
    • SCOURING AGENT: DETERGENT AND MILD ALKALI LIKE AMMONIA
    • 60 0 C, 30-45 MIN.
    • WASH, NETRALIZE, WASH.
    • DRY
    • SOLVENT SCOURING
    • SHORT TREAMENT WITH PERCHLOROETHYLENE IN DRY CLEANING MACHINE
    • USEFUL FOR YARNS SENSITIVE TO AQUEOUS SCOURING
  • 21. SETTING OF CARPET YARNS
    • NECESSARY TO SET THE TWIST OF CARPET YARNS
    • CARPET MAINTAINS TEXTURE AND TUFT DEFINITION AND APPEARANCE
    • DURING PROCESSING
    • DURING USE.
  • 22. AUTOCLAVE SETTING
    • SETTING CYCLE OF YARN IN HANK FORM
    • VACUUM TO MAXIMUM
    • STEAM AT 105/110 0 C FOR 2 MIN. AIR REMOVAL
    • VACUUM TO MAXIMUM
    • STEAM AT 105/110 0 C FOR 10 MIN. SETTING
    • VACUUM STEAM REMOVAL
  • 23. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE
    • TEMP. 105/11 0 C IS SATISFACTORY
    • IN CASE OF YELLOWING REDUCE TEMP TO 102 0 C OR EVEN 100 0 C
    • INCREASE SETTING TIME AT LOWER TEMP.
    • ALTERNATIVELY, FOR IMPROVED SETTING RAISE TEMP. TO 120 0 C PROVIDED YELLOWING IS NOT EXCESSIVE
    • LIGH LEVEL OF SET ACHIEVED AT 100 0 C FOR LONGER TIME
    • INCREASE IN YELLOWNESS IS LESS THAN FOR SIMILAR SET SET LEVEL OBTAINED AT HIGH TEMP. IN SHORTER TIME.
  • 24. EFFECT OF pH
    • DURING SETTING YARN SHOULD BE NEUTRAL
    • IF ALKALINE (pH 9),
    • INCREASE IN THE DEGREE OF SET,
    • EXCESSIVE YELLOWING
    • CONSIDERABLE STRENGTH LOSS
  • 25. EFFECT FO MOISTURE
    • MOISTURE HAS CONSIDER EFFECT ON SETTING
    • MOIST AND WET YARN SETS BETTER THAN DRY YARN
    • YELLOWING OF MOIST YARN IS ALSO LESS
    • STRENGTH LOSS IS HIGHER BUT DOES NOT AFFECT THE LIFE OF CARPET
    • UNEVEN MOISTURE CONTENT IN YARN WILL GIVE VARIABLE DEGREE OF SETTING
  • 26. SETTING IN CONE FORM
    • AVOIDS HANK CONVERSION AND RE-WINDING
    • YARN IS NOT FREE TO RELAX
    • LESS DEGREE OF SET COMPARED TO HANK SETTING
    • CONES SHOULD BE PERFORATED TO ALLOW STEAM PENETRATION
  • 27. SETTING IN HANK FORM
    • COMMON FORM FOR SETTING CARPET YARN
    • ALL THE YARNS MUST BE EQUALLY FREE TO RELAX AND BULK
    • CAN BE ENSURED BY SETTING THE HANKS IN TRAY OR
    • PREBULKING AND RELAXING THE HANKS e>g. SCOURING
  • 28. CHEMICAL SETTING
    • IMMERSE THE YARN IN SODIUM BISULPHITE SOLUTIN (1%) AT pH 7, 85 0 C , 2 MIN
    • RINSE TWICE 85 0 C , 2 MIN. EACH
    • TO IMPROVE SET, INCREASE SETTING TIME, BISULPHITE CONCENTRATION AND TEMP.
    • LONG DWELL TIMES ARE NOT EASILY ACHIEVED IN SOME MACHINES
    • IWS HAS DEVISED A SETTING PROCESS USING HIGHER CONC. OF BISULPHITE WITH DWELL TIME AS LOW AS 20 SEC.
    • IF DYED YARN IS USED TAKE CARE TO USE DYESTUFFS FAST TO BISULPHITE
  • 29. WATER SETTING
    • SET THE BATH WITH ACETIC ACID AT pH 5
    • ADD WETTING AGENT
    • ENTER YARN AT 30 0 C
    • BRING TO BOIL
    • BOIL FOR 15-20 MIN.
    • DROP LIQUOR
    • RINSE
    • DRY
    • BOILING FOR LONGER TIME INCREASE SET AT THE EXPENSE OF YELLOWING
  • 30. ASSESSMENT OF DEGREE OF SET
    • CUT 10 PIECES OF YARN EACH OF 40 mm LONG
    • STAPLE TO A PIECE OF FAIRLY STIFF FABRIC
    • PLACE THE FABRIC INSIDE THE BEAKER FILLED WITH WATER
    • BOIL FOR 60-90 MIN
    • REMOVE YARNS
    • DRY
    • MEASURE LENGTH AND TPI
  • 31.  
  • 32. INSECT RESIST FINISH
    • WOOL AND OTHER ANIMAL FIBRES ARE PRONE TOATTACK BY CERTAIN INSECT SPECIES
    • IN ALL CASES THE LARVAE NOT THE ADULT INSECTS CAUSE DAMAGE.
    • THE KERATINE DIGESTING INSECTS PREFER TO LIVE AND BREED IN DARK PLACES WHERE THEY ARE MOST LIKELY TO REMAIN UNDISTURBED
    • THE RISK IS INCREASED CONSIDERABLY IF THE ARTICLE IS DIRTY
    • TYPICAL SITES OF INSECT INFESTATION OCCUR IN PARTS OF CARPETS UNDER HEAVY PIECES OF FURNITURE WHICH RE CLEANED ONLY SELDOM AND PROVIDE AREAS UNDISTURBED SEMI-DARKNESS WHERE THE INSECTS CAN BREED.
  • 33. INSECT RESIST ((IR) AGENTS (MOTH PROFFING)
    • LARGE NUMBER OF MOTH PROOFING AGENTS ARE REPORTED IN LITERATURE
    • ONLY FEW ARE USED IN INDUSTRY
    • ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS
    • IMPORTANT MOTH PROOFING AGENTS ARE
  • 34. APPLICATION
    • EASILY APPLID FROM ACIDIC AQUEOUS SOLUTION AT BOIL
    • ADSORBED BY WOOL LIKE ACID DYES
    • COMPOUNDS WITH SULPHONIC ACID GROUP ARE WATER SOLUBLE
    • HAVE HIGH AFFINITY TO WOOL
    • POSSESS THE FASTNESS PROPERTIES OF GOOD WOOL DYES
    • RESISTNT TO REPEATED WASHING, LIGHT, DRYCLEANOING, RUBBING etc.
    • ODOURLESS, COLOURLESS
    • MITIN FF AND EULONS ARE EXPENSIVE
    • DIELDRIN LOW COST, LACK WASH FASTNESS
  • 35. APPLICATION
    • DURING HANK DYEING
    • APPLICATION DURING DYEING IS PREFERRED METHOD
    • TECHNICALLY SIMPLEST
    • FSTNESS IS BETTER
    • ADD THE APPROPRIATE QUANTITY (1% oww) TO DYE BATH ALONG WITH THE DYESTUFF AND OTHER AUXILIARIES
    • PRECAUTIONS
    • SOME DYEBATH AUXILIARIES MAY RETARD THE EXHAUSTION OF IR AGENTS ONTO WOOL OR MAY REDUCE THEIR EFFECTIVENESS
    • IR AGENT MAY DECOMPOSE IF DYEING TIME IS PROLONGED
    • TREATMENT AFTER DYEING WITH CATIONIC AGENT THE CONCENTRATION OF IR AGENT SHOULD BE DOUBLED IN ORDER TO COMPENSATE FOR ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF THE CATIONIC AGENT ON THE ANIONIC IR AGENT.
  • 36. APPLICATION
    • DURING SCOURING
    • MANY IR AGENTS MAY BE APPLIED DURING CONTINUOUS SCOURING PROCESS
    • ADD IR AGENT AND ACID TO THE FINAL BOWL
    • BOTH LOOSE STOCK AND YARN IN HANK FORM MAY BE TREATED IN THIS WAY.
    • DURING YARN SETTING
    • IF YARN IS SET IN BOILING WATER, IR AGENT MAY BE ADDED TO BOILING BATH
    • MAINTAIN NEUTRAL OR SLIGHT ACID CONDITION
  • 37. APPLICATION
    • ON PRINTED CARPETS
    • CAN BE CARRIED OUT BEFORE OR DURING PRINTING PROCESS
    • BEFORE PRINTING
    • TREATMENT DURING RAW WOOL SCOURING, DURING YARN SCOURING OR DURING WATER-SETTING OF YARN IS POSSIBLE
    • DURING PRINTING
    • ADDITION OF IR AGENT IN THE PRINT PASTE
  • 38. WOOLMARK CARPETS
    • FOR CARPETS WITH WOOLMARK LABLE MOTHPROOFING IS MANDATORY
    • SHOULD CONTAIN SUFFICIENT IR AENT TO PROTECT CARPET FROM INSECT ATTACK THROUGH THEIR USEFUL LIFE.
    • IWS WITH AGREEMENT OF ALL MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF IR AGENTS HAS ISSUED LISTS OF RECOMMENDED APPLICATION LEVEL (RAL’S)FOR WIDELY USED IR AGENTS AND ALL METHODS OF APPLICATION
  • 39. TOXICITY
    • ALL CHLORINATED IR AGENTS ARE TOXIC
    • TO BE USED CAREFULLY
    • LESS TOXIC ORGANIC IR AGENTS HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED
  • 40. FLAME RETARDANT TREATMENT
    • WOOL IS NATURALLY FLAME RETARDANT
    • ADDITIONAL FLAME RETARDANCY REQUIRED TO PREVENT BURNING DUE TO CIGARETTE BUTS
    • FLAME RETARDANCY IS IMPARTED USING
    • HALOGENATED ORGANIC ACIDS
    • ORGANOPHONATES
    • COMPLEX INORGANIC SALTS OF ZIRCONIUM, TITANIUM TUNGSTEN etc.
  • 41. ANTI-SOIL/ANTI-STAIN FINISH
    • TREATMENT WITH FLUROCARBON BASED PRODUCTS (e.g. TEFLON OR SCOTCHGARD) CAN INCREASE RESISTANCE TO BOTH STAINING AND SOILING
    • DURABILITY OF SUCH PRODUCTS IS LIMITED
    • SILCONE TREATMENT INCREASES RESISTANCE TO STAINING TO WATER BASED SPILLS.