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Indian textile industy environmental issues ppt

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  • 1. INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTY-ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Prof.R.B.CHAVAN DEPT. OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY HAUZ-KHAS, NEW DELHI
  • 2. INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY
    • STATUS
    • OCCUPIES UNIQUE POSITION IN INDIAN ECONOMY
    • 14% OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION
    • 33% OF TOTAL EXPORTS
    • 1-1.5% IMPORT BILL
    • SINGLE LARGEST EMPLOYER IN THE INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
    • 35 MILLION EMPLOYMENT
    • 93 MILLION INCLUDING EMPLOYMENT IN AGRICULTURE, GINNING, PRESSING, COTTON TRADE, JUTE
  • 3. PRESENT PAPER
        • STRUCTURE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY
        • PROBLEMS
        • IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT
        • POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGY
        • GERMAN BAN
        • RESPONSE OF MINISTRY OF TEXTILES TO COPE WITH GERMAN BAN
  • 4. STRUCTURE OF INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSRY
    • TWO EXTREMES
      • KHADI : HANDSPUN , HAND WOVEN FABRIC
      • HIGHLY CAPITAL INTENSIVE MODERN SOPHISTICATED ORGANIZED MILL SECTOR
    • IN BETWEEN
        • DECENTRALIZED POWERLOOM, KNITTNG AND GARMENT SECTORS
        • PRODUCTS
        • DIVERSIFIED
        • MANUFACTURE OF TRADITIONAL ITEMS
        • MANUFACTURE OF FASHION ITEMS FOR SOPHISTICATED NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL MAKETS
  • 5. INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY- BROAD DIVISION
        • NATURAL FIBRES: COTTON, WOOL, SILK, JUTE ETC
        • MAN MADE AND SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND BLENDS
        • OUT OF TOTAL TEXTILE PRODUCTION
        • COTTON >70%
        • MAN MADE AND SYNTHETIC 20%
        • WOOL, SILK, JUTE ETC 10%
  • 6. Decentralized Sector TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA NATURAL FIBRES / FABRICS MAN-MADE FIBRES / FABRICS Organized Sector (Mills) Spinning Composites Handloom Powerloom Khadi WOOL J UTE SILK COTTON RAYON Cellulose / viscose BLENDED (Synthetic + Natural) SYNTHETIC (Nylon, PET, PAN)
  • 7. NATURAL FIBRES
    • COTTON
        • COTTON TEXTILES PRODUCED IN
        • ORGANIZED SECTOR
        • SPINNING MILLS : YARN PRODUCTION
        • COMPOSITE MILLS : YARN, GREY AND
        • PROCESSED FABRIC PRODUCTION
        • DECENTRALIZED SECTOR
        • POWERLOOM, HANDLOOM, KHAD I AND HOSIERY PRODUCTION
  • 8. ORGANIZED MILL SECTOR
        • 1400 SPINNING MILLS
        • 280 COMPOSIT MILLS
        • SPINNING CAPACITY
        • 11 MILLION SPINDLES IN 1951
        • 33 MILLION SPINDLES IN 1997 (19% OF WORLDS SPINDLE)
        • WEAVING CAPACITY
        • 2.1 LAKH LOOMS IN 1951
        • 1.24 LAKH LOOMS IN 1997
        • REASON : RISE OF POWERLOOM SECTOR
        • PRESENT SHARE OF MILL SECTOR 6% IN THE TOTAL CLOTH PRODUCTION IN THE COUNTRY
  • 9.  
  • 10. DEENTRALIZED SECTOR
    • HANDLOOM
        • PRODUCTION OF
        • NAURAL FIBRE FABRICS, COTTON, WOOL AND SILK
        • SYNTHETIC AND BLENDED FABRICS
        • APPROXIMATELY 3.9 MILLION HANDLOOMS
        • 20% OF TOTAL CLOTH PRODUCTION
        • TILL RECENTLY, PROTECTION FROM GOVT. OF INDIA TO WITHSTAND COMPETITION FROM MILL AND POWERLOOM SECTOR
        • LABOUR INTENSIVE
        • PROVIDE SUPPLEMENTARY EARNING TO AGRO RURAL STRATA OF SOCIETY
  • 11. DEENTRALIZED SECTOR
    • POWERLOOM
        • 13 LAKH POWERLOOMS
        • 70% OF TOTAL CLOTH PRODUCTION
        • PLAYING PIVOTAL ROLE DUE TO
        • LOWER COST OF PRODUCTION
        • FLEXIBILITY IN CHANGING THE PRODUCTION PATTERN TO SUIT THE MARKET DEMAND
        • PROXIMITY TO FABRIC WHOLESALE MARKETS
        • FAVOURABLE EXCISE DUTY STRUCTURE
  • 12. Share of Cloth Production
    • Organized Sector
    • Power Loom
    • Handloom
  • 13. MATERIAL FLOW ALONG THE TEXTILE CLOTHING CHAIN
    • Synthetic Fibre
    • Basic chemicals petrochemistry
    • Production of monomers /
    Production Fibre, yarn, fabric Natural Fibre - Cultivation . . fertilizers pesticides - Crop auxiliary agents Textile Processing e.g. desizing, mercerizing, bleaching, dyeing, printing, finishing Garment / Textile industry Use Packing, washing, dry-cleaning Disposal
  • 14. HOSIERY SECTOR
    • SMALL SCALE INDUSTRY
    •  LABOUR INTENSIVE
    •          PRODUCION RANGE
    • T SHIRTS,CARDIGANNS, JERSEY, PULLOVERS, POLO SHIRTS, INNER GARMENTS FO MEN AND WOMEN .
    •  
  • 15. WET PROCESSING
    •        PROCESS HOUSES SPREAD THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY
    •       MOST BEING IN AND AROUND POWERLOOM CENTRES
    •      CARRIES POST WEAVING/KNITTING OPERATIONS : BLEACHING, DYEING, PRINTING AND FINISHING.
    •  
  • 16. GARMENT MANUFACTURING
      •          GROWN PREDOMINENTLY DUE TO EXPORT DEMANDS
      •          TILL RECENTLY IN SMALL SCALE SECTOR
      •          OPEN TO ORGANIZED SECTOR
      •  
      •   
  • 17. SILK
    •         SECOND LARGEST PRODUCER
    •        PRODUCE ALL FOUR VARIETIES i.e MULBERRY, TUSSAR, ERI, MUGA
    •       MAJOR CONCENTRATION IN SMALL SCALE SECTOR
  • 18. JUTE
    •        HIGHEST JUTE AND JUTE GOODS PRODUCTION
    •        CONVENTIONAL USE: PACKAGING MATERIAL
    •          DIVERSIFIED USES: APPAREL,FLOOR COVERINGS, HOME FURNISHING, FIBRE COMPOSITES, GEO TEXTILES, TECHNICL TEXTILES, SOFT LUGGAGE
    •  
  • 19. MAN MADE FIBRES
    •       PRODUCTION OF VISCOSE, POLYESTER, ACRYLIC, NYLON, POLYPROPELENE.
    •      BLENDED YARN AND FABRICS PARTICULARLY POLYESTER/COTTON
  • 20. TEXTILE EXPORTS
    •  20 BILLION DOLLARS?
    •   LEADING OVERSEAS MARKETS FOR EXPORTS ARE
    •   EUROPEAN UNION, USA, MIDDLE EAST, ASEAN COUNTRIES, JAPAN
    •          UNDERGOING RADICAL CHANGE
    •          HUGE INVESTMENTS FOR MODERNIZATION
    •          TO BECOME COMPETITIVE IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET
    •          VALUE ADDITION PRODUCTS FOR GLOBAL MARKET
    •          ASSURED SUPPLY OF GOOD QUALITY RAW MATERIAL, HUMAN SKILLS
        • POISED TO BE LEADING PLAYER IN INTERNATIONA L
        • MARKET
  • 21. INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY AND ITS PROBLEMS
    •  ONE OF THE OLDEST AND SINGLE LARGEST INDUSTRIAL SECTORS
      •          SHARE OF TEXTILE PRODUCTION
      •          IN 50S
      •          ORGANIZED SECTOR >75%
    •           DENCENTRALIZED POWERLOOM 25%
    •  
    • PRESENTLY
    •    ORGANIZED SECTOR 6%
    • BALANCE POWERLOOME, HANDLOOM, HOSIERY
  • 22. DIFFICULT PHASE 60S AND 70S
    •           OBSOLETE MACHINERY
    •           LACK OF MAINTENANCE
    •           LACK OF MODERNIZATION
    •           LOW PRODUCTIVITY
    •           LOW CAPACITY UTILIZATION
    •           STAGNANT DOMESTIC MARKETS
    •           SAGGING EXPORTS
    •          WIDE SPREAD SICKNESS
  • 23. EMERGING TRENDS
    •    EMERGENCE OF SYNTHETIC AND BLENDED FABRICS
    •    PHENOMENAL EXPANSION OF SPINNING
    •    RAPID EXPANSION OF DECENTRALIZED POWERLOOM SECTOR
    •    BROUGHT SICKNESS COMPOSIT ORGANIZED SECTOR
    •    LARGE NUMBER OF MILLS WENT BANKRUPT
    •    2/3 OF THEM WERE COMPOSIT MILLS
  • 24. NATIONALIZATION (1967)
    •    SETTING UP OF NATIONAL TEXTILE CORPORATION (NTC)
    •    MAIN OBJECTIVE: EMPLOYMENT RELIEF TO THOUSANDS OF WORKERS
    •    PRODUCTION OF CONTROLLED CLOTH
    •    EXPERIMENT MISERABLY FAILED
    •   MANY NTC MILLS CLOSED DOWN
  • 25. NEW TEXTILE POLICY (1980)
    •    OBJECTIVE: DEVELOP HARMONIOUSLY
    •    MILL, POWERLOOM AND HANDLOOM SECTORS
    •    RECOGNITION OF LACK OF MODERNIZATION AS MAIN CAUSE OF SICKNESS
    •    750 CRORE AS TEXTLE MODERNIZATION FUNDS IN 1986 
  • 26. SHIFT IN PRODUCTION PATTERN
    •   1987 GLOBAL INCREASE IN COTTON PRICES
    •    SPINNING THOUGH TECHNOLOGICALLY ADVANCED, LABOUR INTENSIVE
    •    DEVELOPED COUNTRIES PREFERRED TO BYU YARN FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    •   LED TO YARN EXPORT GROWTH IN INDIA FROM 1987 ONWARDS
    •   5% YARN EXPORT IN 1990 INCREASED TO 22% IN 1997
  • 27. LIBERIZATION
    •    DE-LICENSING OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY (1991)
    •    IMPORT OF MODERN MACHINES TO SET UP NEW UNITS
    •    IMPROVEMENT IN YARN QUALITY
    •    INDIA BECAME GLOBAL PLAYER IN YARN EXPORTS
  • 28. COLLAPSE OF YARN EXPORTS
    •           IN 1990
    •           70% EXPORT TO QUOTA COUNTRIES
    •           30% TO NON-QUOTA COUNTRIES
    • AFTER LIBERIZATION
    •           INCREASE IN PRODUCTION
    •           STAGNANT QUOTA EXPORTS
    •           SHOT UP IN NON-QUOTA EXPORS 80%
    •           DROP IN QUOTA EXPORTS 20%
    •           UNINTENTIIONAL EXPORT DEPENDENCE ON NON-QUOTA COUNTRIES
  • 29. COLLAPSE OF YARN EXPORTS
    •   IN 1997
    •   CURRENCY CRISIS IN SOUTH EAST ASIAN COUNTRIES
    •   SEVERE EFFECT ON EXPORTS
    •   EXPORT BELOW COST
    •   DUMP EXPORT QUALITY YARN IN DOMESTIC MARKET
    •   CRIPPLING EFFECT ON TEXTILE INDUSTRU
    •   HUGE OVERSUPPLY POSITION
    •   SUNRISE INDUSTRY BECAME SUNSET INDUSTRY
  • 30. WTO REGIME
    •    MEMBER OF WTO
    •    SIGNATORY TO GATT( GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE AND TARRIF)
    •    END OF ATC (AGREEMENT OF TEXTILES AND CLOTHING) BY DECEMBER 2004.
    •    END OF QUOTA ERA
    •    TO FACE THE GLOBAL COMPETITION
    •    LIMITED TIME FOR
    •    INDUSTRY RESTRUCTURE
    •    IMPROVED QUALITY PRODUCTS AT COMPETITIVE PRICE
  • 31. NEED OF THE HOUR
    •    MODERNIZE TO COMPETE GLOBALLY
    •    WITHSTAND CHEAPER IMPORTS FROM CHINA, PAKISTAN AND OTHER SOUTH-EAST ASIAN COUNTRIES
    • TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION FUND SCHEME (TUFS)
    •    Rs 25 000 CRORE FOR MODERNIZATION
    •    5% RE-IMBERSEMENT OF INTEREST CHARGED BY FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
    •    IN OPERATION FOR FIVE YEARS FROM APRIL 1999 – MARCH 2004
  • 32.
    •   INDIA IS FIRST COUNTRY TO HAVE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION FOR ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION.
    •   NO SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL NORMS FOR TEXTILE SECTOR
    •   INDUSTRY SPECIFIC STANDARDS EXIST
    •           STRINGENT ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION
    •           POORLY EMFORCED
    •           JUDICIARY HAS TO INTERVENE TO ENFORCE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES
    •           JUDICIARY HAS GO T ITS OWN LIMITATIONS AND CAN NOT ACT AS ENFORCING AGENCY.
    •   MAKING LAW ONLY DOES NOT HELP
    •   ENVIRONMENT IS A SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
    •   DESIRABLE COMPLIENCE SHOULD COME VOLUNTARILY FROM INDUSTRY AND NOT BY POLICING 
    ENVIRONMENT LEGISLATION
  • 33. IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT
    •    INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH POLLUTION
    •    EXTENT VARIES
    •    CONCEPT: TO KEEP POLLUTION LEVEL AS L O W AS POSSIBLE
    •    ANOTHER DIMENSION: SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY STANDARDS SAS 800
    •    NO CHILD LABOUR
    •    MINIMUM LABOUR WAGES
    •    PROVISION OF HYGIENIC CONDITIONS AT WORK PLACE
    •    COMPLIANCE WITH GERMAN BAN INTRODUCED IN 1996
  • 34. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS
    •   TEXTILE WET PROCESSING POSES SERIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
    •   USE OF LARGE NUMBER OF CHEMICALS (ESTIMATE 8000) AND IN LARGE QUANTITIES IN WET PROCESSING
    •   DYES AND FINISHING AGENTS REMAIN ATTACHED TO TEXTILES
    •   SOME OF THEM POSE HEALTH HAZARDS (CARCINOGENIC DYES, FORMALDEHYDE BASED INISHES)
    •   ‘ POISON IN WARDROBE’
    •   SUBSTANTIAL PROPORTION OF THESE CHEMICALS REMAIN IN THE PROCESSED WATER
    •    WATER POLLUTION
    •   AIR POLLUTION DURING DRYING AND POLYMERIZATION OF FINISHING OPERATION AND PIGMENT PRINTING WHEN KEROSENE IS USED FOR EMULSION THICKENING
  • 35. Input / output analysis of Textile Finishing Processes Textile Auxiliaries Dyes Base chemicals (e.g. acid, Alkali, sodium chloride) Textile Energy Natural Fibres; 10-20 MJ/kg Synthetic Fibres: 5-50 MJ/kg Water 60-360 l/kg textile Polluted Air Water Effluent Waste Sewage sludge: 60-70 g/kg textile Wet Processing (pre-treatment, dyeing, printing, finishing.)
  • 36. AIR EMMISSION SOURCES  
    • FOUR GENERAL CATEGORIES
    •           OIL AND ACID MISTS
    •           SOLVENT VAPOURS
    •           ODOUR
    •           DUST AND LINT
  • 37. OIL AND ACID MISTS
    •   MOST COMMON SOURCE IS STENTER
    •   EVAPORATION OF SPINNING OILS, PLASTICIZERS, AND VOLATILE FINISHING AGENTS
    •   ACID MISTS (CORROSIVE)
    •   DURING WOOL CARBONIZATION
    •   VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC ACIDS LIKE ACETIC ACID
  • 38. SOLVENT VAPOURS
    •   INCLUDE LARGE NUMBER OF TOXIC CHEMICALS
    •   KEROSENE OR MINERAL TURPENTINE OIL
    •   FORMALDEHYDE
    •   CARRIERS FOR POLYESTER DYEING
    •   CHLOROFLUORO HYDROCARBONS
  • 39. ODOUR
    •   ASSOCIATED WITH
    •   OIL MIST OR SOLVENT VAPOURS
    •   SULPHUR DYEING
    •   BLEACHING WITH SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE
  • 40. DUST AND LINT
    • PRODUCED DURING
    •   SPINNING AND WEAVING
    •   CARPET SHEARING
    •   CAUSE RESPIRATORY DISEASES
  • 41. EFFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS
    • TEXTILE EFFLUENTS GENERALLY ARE
    •    COLOURED
    •    HIGH BOD
    •    HIGH TDS
    •    HIGH RATIO BETWEEN BOD AND COD
    •    RATIO OF 1:2 TO 1:3 INDICATES GOOD BIODEGRADABILITY
    •    IN WOOL RATIO 1:5 INDICATING DIFFICULT BIODEGRADABILITY DUE TO GREASE CONTENT
  • 42. DETERGENTS AND SURFACTANTS
    •   RISK TO AQUATIC LIFE
    •   HEALTH RISK TO LARGE POPULATION IF DISCHARGED IN RIVER USED FOR DRINKING
  • 43. METAL POLLUTANTS
    •   METAL COMPLEX DYES
    •   CHROMIUM SALTS USED FOR SULPHUR DYE OXIDATION
    •   CHROME DYEING OF WOOL
      • • MORDANTS FOR NATURAL DYES
  • 44. ORGANIC WASTES
    •   SIZES
    •   VARIOUS ORGANIC SOLVENTS AND ACIDS
  • 45. CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTILE WASTES
    •   HARD TO TREAT
    •   HAZARDOUS OR TOXIC
    •   DISPERSIBLE
    • • HIGH VOLUME
  • 46. HARD TO T R EAT WASTES
    •   COLOURS
    •   METALS
    •   PHENOL
    •   TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
    •   PHOSPHATES
    •   NON-BIODEGRADABLE SURFACTANTS
    •  TOXIC TO AQUATIC LIFE
  • 47. TOXIC WASTES
    •   SUB GROUP OF HARD TO TREAT WASTES
    •   METALS
    •   CHLORINATED SOLVENTS
    •   BOILER CHEMICALS
  • 48. DISPERSIBLE WASTES
    •   PRINT PASTES
    •    COATING CHEMICALS
    •    UNUSED PROCESS
    • CHEMICALS
  • 49. HIGH VOLUME WASTES
    • WASH WATER FROM
    • PREPARATORY
    • DYEING
    • PRINTING
    • EXHAUSTED DYEBATHS
  • 50. POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGIES
    •   CLE A NER PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES
      • • END OF PIPE TREATMENTS
  • 51. CLEANER PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES
    • WASTE MINIMIZATION
    •    HIGHEST PRIORITY FOR REDUCTION IN WASTE WATER
    •    COUNTER CURRENT WASHING OPERATIONS
    •          OPTIMUM USE OF PROCESS CHEMICALS
    •    SUBSTITUTION OF TOXIC CHEMICALS BY ECO FRIENDLY CHEMICALS
    •    GOOD HOUSE KEEPING
    •    RECOVERY OF CHEMICALS SUCH AS SIZE, CAUSTIC SODA, DYES AND GREASE
    •    REPLACEMENT OF HIGH BOD CHEMICALS BY LOW BOD ONES
    •    USE OF LOW LIQUOR RATIO DYEING EQUIPMENTS
    •    IMPROVED PRODUCTION PROCESSES TO ELIMINATE AND REDUCE WASTE AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE
  • 52. CLEANER PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES
    • END OF PIPE TREATMENTS
    •    SEGREGATION AND SEPARATE TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC EFFLUENT STREAM IS MORE EFFICIENT COMPARED TO
    •    COMBINED AND COMPLEX EFFLUENTS
    • 
      • SUCH STRATEGY PROVIDE OPPORTUNITY TO
    •    RE-USE WATER
    •    RECOVER CHEMICALS
    • • REDUCE SIZE OF TREATMENT PLANT
  • 53. EFFLUENT TREATMENT
    • COMMON PROCESS
    •    PRIMARY SETTLING
    •   FLOCULATION/CHEMICAL COAGULATION
    •   BIOLOGICAL TRETMENT
    •   SECONDARY PHYSICAL ADSORPTION
    •   TERTIARY TREATMENT IF NECESSARY
  • 54. SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL
      • FORMATION OF LARGE QUANTITIES OF
      • SLUDGE DURING
      • BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT
      •  SUBJECT SLUDGE TO AEROBIC DIGESTION
      •  DEWATER BY CENTRIFUGE
      •  DISPOSE OFF TO LAND FILL
  • 55. SOLID WASTES
      • INCLUDE
    •   CANS
    •   REJECTED FABRIC PIECES
    •   CART AWAY TO LAND FILL OR
    •   INCINERATE ON OR OFF SITE
    •   DURING INCINERATION ADEQUATE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES
  • 56. AIR EMMISSION CONROL
    • OIL MISTS AND VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON (VOC)
    •         MORE DIFFICULT TO CONTROL
    •          CONTROL THE APPLICATION OF SPINNING OILS AND FINISHING AGENTS
    •          PROPER AIR DUCTING
    •          INSTALLATION OF MIST ELIMINATORS
    •          CONDENSATION OF VAPOURS BY COOLING THE CONTAMINATED AIR
  • 57. MANAGING AND AUDITING RESOURCE CONSUMPTION
    • RESEARCH ASSOCIATIONS DEVELOPED MANUFACTURING NORMS FOR
    •  DESIRABLE USAGE OF RESOURCES SUCH AS WATER, LABOUR, ELECTRICITY AND COMMON CHEMICALS
    •  NORMS NOT IMPOSED LEGALLY
    •  ACT AS GUIDELINES
    •  MEMBERMILLS ARE ENCOURAGED TO FOLLOW THESE NORMS
    •  RECORD OF SIMPLE MATERIAL BALANCE
    •  WORTH EXAMINING THE RECORD OF STORE KEEPER AND PROCESSING DEPRTMENTS TO TRACK LOSSES OF EXPENSIVE AND/OR HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS DURING HANDLING AND PROCESSING
  • 58. MANAGING AND AUDITING RESOURCE CONSUMPTION
    • • ASSESSMENT AT INTERVALS THE PERFORMANCE OF EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENTS
    •   IT IS NECESSARY TO EMPLOY A FULL TIME PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TEAM OR TRAIN SENIOR STAFF AND WORKERS TO UNDERTAKE ENVIRONMENT MONITORING AND AUDIT TASKS
    •           COMMITMENT BY TO MANAGEMENT TO ESTABLISH SOUND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
    •           THIS WOULD ALSO IMPROVE THE PRODUCTIVITY AND PROFITABILITY OF THE ORGANIZATION
  • 59. SIMPLE OPTIONS
    •    IMPROVED HOUSEKEEPING
    •    BETTER EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE
    •    OPTIMIZATION OF VARIOUS PROCESS SEQUENCES
    •    THE MANAGERS MUST HAVE BASELINE DATA FOR SIMILAR OPERATIONA IN OTHER INDUSTRIES
    •    COMPARE AND INTERPRET THE RESULTS WITH OPEN MIND
    •    ALLOW DISCUSSION BETWEEN STAFF AND ENCOURAGE TEAM MEMBERS TO BRING FORWARD INNOVATIVE IDEAS
    •    EVALUATE THE IDEAS FROM TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE
  • 60. POLICY MANAGEMENT BY GOVT OF INDIA
    • GERMAN BAN AND GOVERNMENT RESPONSE
    • RECOGNITION THAT NUMBER OF DYES AND CHEMICALS ARE HAZARDOUS
    • AFFECT THE CONSUMER HEALTH
    • CAUSE IRREPARABLE DAMAGE TO ENVIRONMENT
    • GERMANY IMPOSED BAN ON THE USE OF AZO DYES BASED ON CARCINOGENIC AMINE
    • ABOUT 300 AZO DYES SUSPECTED TO BE CARCINOGENIC HAVE BEEN WITHDRAWN
    • ENVIRONMENTA L PERMISSIBILITY NORMS FOR HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS ARE AVAILABLE FROM VARIOUS INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
  • 61. ECO STANDARDS AND ECO LABLES
    •   CONCEPT OF ECO FRIENDLY TEXTILES IS PROMOTED BY ECO STANDARDS AND ECO LABLES
    •   ECO LABLES ARE BASED ON ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY NORMS FOR VARIOUS CHEMICALS STIPULATED ON THE BASIS OF CRADLE TO GRAVE APPROACH
    •   USE OF ECO LABLES IS VOLUNTARY IN NATURE
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  • 62. ECO STANDARDS AND ECO LABLES
    • CHEMICALS CONSIDERED FOR ECO NORMS
    •           FORMALDEHYDE
    •           TOXIC PESTICIDES
    •           PENTACHORO PHENOL
    •           HEAVY METAL TRACES
    •           CARCINOGENIC AZO DYES
    •           HALOGEN CARRIERS
    •           CHLORINE BLEACHING
  • 63. EFFORTS MADE BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
    • REGULATORY MEASURES
    • PROHIBITION ON THE USE OF BANNED DYES
    • EVOLUTION OF ECO STANDARDS AND LOGO FOR ECO FRIENDLY TEXTILES
  • 64. EFFORTS MADE BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
    • DEVELOPMENTAL MEASURES
    • ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATIVE SEMINARS, WORKSHOPS FOR THE AWARENESS OF ECO FRIENDLY CONCEPTS
    • ASSISTANCE TO INDUSTRY FOR THE SECURING ISO 9000 AND EMS 14000 CERTIFICATION
    • FINACIAL ASSISTANCE THROUGH TUFS FOR MODERNIZATION
    • MASSIVE PROGRAMME ON SETTING ECO TESTING FACILITIES
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