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    Indian textile industy environmental issues ppt Indian textile industy environmental issues ppt Presentation Transcript

    • INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTY-ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Prof.R.B.CHAVAN DEPT. OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY HAUZ-KHAS, NEW DELHI
    • INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY
      • STATUS
      • OCCUPIES UNIQUE POSITION IN INDIAN ECONOMY
      • 14% OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION
      • 33% OF TOTAL EXPORTS
      • 1-1.5% IMPORT BILL
      • SINGLE LARGEST EMPLOYER IN THE INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
      • 35 MILLION EMPLOYMENT
      • 93 MILLION INCLUDING EMPLOYMENT IN AGRICULTURE, GINNING, PRESSING, COTTON TRADE, JUTE
    • PRESENT PAPER
          • STRUCTURE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY
          • PROBLEMS
          • IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT
          • POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGY
          • GERMAN BAN
          • RESPONSE OF MINISTRY OF TEXTILES TO COPE WITH GERMAN BAN
    • STRUCTURE OF INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSRY
      • TWO EXTREMES
        • KHADI : HANDSPUN , HAND WOVEN FABRIC
        • HIGHLY CAPITAL INTENSIVE MODERN SOPHISTICATED ORGANIZED MILL SECTOR
      • IN BETWEEN
          • DECENTRALIZED POWERLOOM, KNITTNG AND GARMENT SECTORS
          • PRODUCTS
          • DIVERSIFIED
          • MANUFACTURE OF TRADITIONAL ITEMS
          • MANUFACTURE OF FASHION ITEMS FOR SOPHISTICATED NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL MAKETS
    • INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY- BROAD DIVISION
          • NATURAL FIBRES: COTTON, WOOL, SILK, JUTE ETC
          • MAN MADE AND SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND BLENDS
          • OUT OF TOTAL TEXTILE PRODUCTION
          • COTTON >70%
          • MAN MADE AND SYNTHETIC 20%
          • WOOL, SILK, JUTE ETC 10%
    • Decentralized Sector TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA NATURAL FIBRES / FABRICS MAN-MADE FIBRES / FABRICS Organized Sector (Mills) Spinning Composites Handloom Powerloom Khadi WOOL J UTE SILK COTTON RAYON Cellulose / viscose BLENDED (Synthetic + Natural) SYNTHETIC (Nylon, PET, PAN)
    • NATURAL FIBRES
      • COTTON
          • COTTON TEXTILES PRODUCED IN
          • ORGANIZED SECTOR
          • SPINNING MILLS : YARN PRODUCTION
          • COMPOSITE MILLS : YARN, GREY AND
          • PROCESSED FABRIC PRODUCTION
          • DECENTRALIZED SECTOR
          • POWERLOOM, HANDLOOM, KHAD I AND HOSIERY PRODUCTION
    • ORGANIZED MILL SECTOR
          • 1400 SPINNING MILLS
          • 280 COMPOSIT MILLS
          • SPINNING CAPACITY
          • 11 MILLION SPINDLES IN 1951
          • 33 MILLION SPINDLES IN 1997 (19% OF WORLDS SPINDLE)
          • WEAVING CAPACITY
          • 2.1 LAKH LOOMS IN 1951
          • 1.24 LAKH LOOMS IN 1997
          • REASON : RISE OF POWERLOOM SECTOR
          • PRESENT SHARE OF MILL SECTOR 6% IN THE TOTAL CLOTH PRODUCTION IN THE COUNTRY
    •  
    • DEENTRALIZED SECTOR
      • HANDLOOM
          • PRODUCTION OF
          • NAURAL FIBRE FABRICS, COTTON, WOOL AND SILK
          • SYNTHETIC AND BLENDED FABRICS
          • APPROXIMATELY 3.9 MILLION HANDLOOMS
          • 20% OF TOTAL CLOTH PRODUCTION
          • TILL RECENTLY, PROTECTION FROM GOVT. OF INDIA TO WITHSTAND COMPETITION FROM MILL AND POWERLOOM SECTOR
          • LABOUR INTENSIVE
          • PROVIDE SUPPLEMENTARY EARNING TO AGRO RURAL STRATA OF SOCIETY
    • DEENTRALIZED SECTOR
      • POWERLOOM
          • 13 LAKH POWERLOOMS
          • 70% OF TOTAL CLOTH PRODUCTION
          • PLAYING PIVOTAL ROLE DUE TO
          • LOWER COST OF PRODUCTION
          • FLEXIBILITY IN CHANGING THE PRODUCTION PATTERN TO SUIT THE MARKET DEMAND
          • PROXIMITY TO FABRIC WHOLESALE MARKETS
          • FAVOURABLE EXCISE DUTY STRUCTURE
    • Share of Cloth Production
      • Organized Sector
      • Power Loom
      • Handloom
    • MATERIAL FLOW ALONG THE TEXTILE CLOTHING CHAIN
      • Synthetic Fibre
      • Basic chemicals petrochemistry
      • Production of monomers /
      Production Fibre, yarn, fabric Natural Fibre - Cultivation . . fertilizers pesticides - Crop auxiliary agents Textile Processing e.g. desizing, mercerizing, bleaching, dyeing, printing, finishing Garment / Textile industry Use Packing, washing, dry-cleaning Disposal
    • HOSIERY SECTOR
      • SMALL SCALE INDUSTRY
      •  LABOUR INTENSIVE
      •          PRODUCION RANGE
      • T SHIRTS,CARDIGANNS, JERSEY, PULLOVERS, POLO SHIRTS, INNER GARMENTS FO MEN AND WOMEN .
      •  
    • WET PROCESSING
      •        PROCESS HOUSES SPREAD THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY
      •       MOST BEING IN AND AROUND POWERLOOM CENTRES
      •      CARRIES POST WEAVING/KNITTING OPERATIONS : BLEACHING, DYEING, PRINTING AND FINISHING.
      •  
    • GARMENT MANUFACTURING
        •          GROWN PREDOMINENTLY DUE TO EXPORT DEMANDS
        •          TILL RECENTLY IN SMALL SCALE SECTOR
        •          OPEN TO ORGANIZED SECTOR
        •  
        •   
    • SILK
      •         SECOND LARGEST PRODUCER
      •        PRODUCE ALL FOUR VARIETIES i.e MULBERRY, TUSSAR, ERI, MUGA
      •       MAJOR CONCENTRATION IN SMALL SCALE SECTOR
    • JUTE
      •        HIGHEST JUTE AND JUTE GOODS PRODUCTION
      •        CONVENTIONAL USE: PACKAGING MATERIAL
      •          DIVERSIFIED USES: APPAREL,FLOOR COVERINGS, HOME FURNISHING, FIBRE COMPOSITES, GEO TEXTILES, TECHNICL TEXTILES, SOFT LUGGAGE
      •  
    • MAN MADE FIBRES
      •       PRODUCTION OF VISCOSE, POLYESTER, ACRYLIC, NYLON, POLYPROPELENE.
      •      BLENDED YARN AND FABRICS PARTICULARLY POLYESTER/COTTON
    • TEXTILE EXPORTS
      •  20 BILLION DOLLARS?
      •   LEADING OVERSEAS MARKETS FOR EXPORTS ARE
      •   EUROPEAN UNION, USA, MIDDLE EAST, ASEAN COUNTRIES, JAPAN
      •          UNDERGOING RADICAL CHANGE
      •          HUGE INVESTMENTS FOR MODERNIZATION
      •          TO BECOME COMPETITIVE IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET
      •          VALUE ADDITION PRODUCTS FOR GLOBAL MARKET
      •          ASSURED SUPPLY OF GOOD QUALITY RAW MATERIAL, HUMAN SKILLS
          • POISED TO BE LEADING PLAYER IN INTERNATIONA L
          • MARKET
    • INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY AND ITS PROBLEMS
      •  ONE OF THE OLDEST AND SINGLE LARGEST INDUSTRIAL SECTORS
        •          SHARE OF TEXTILE PRODUCTION
        •          IN 50S
        •          ORGANIZED SECTOR >75%
      •           DENCENTRALIZED POWERLOOM 25%
      •  
      • PRESENTLY
      •    ORGANIZED SECTOR 6%
      • BALANCE POWERLOOME, HANDLOOM, HOSIERY
    • DIFFICULT PHASE 60S AND 70S
      •           OBSOLETE MACHINERY
      •           LACK OF MAINTENANCE
      •           LACK OF MODERNIZATION
      •           LOW PRODUCTIVITY
      •           LOW CAPACITY UTILIZATION
      •           STAGNANT DOMESTIC MARKETS
      •           SAGGING EXPORTS
      •          WIDE SPREAD SICKNESS
    • EMERGING TRENDS
      •    EMERGENCE OF SYNTHETIC AND BLENDED FABRICS
      •    PHENOMENAL EXPANSION OF SPINNING
      •    RAPID EXPANSION OF DECENTRALIZED POWERLOOM SECTOR
      •    BROUGHT SICKNESS COMPOSIT ORGANIZED SECTOR
      •    LARGE NUMBER OF MILLS WENT BANKRUPT
      •    2/3 OF THEM WERE COMPOSIT MILLS
    • NATIONALIZATION (1967)
      •    SETTING UP OF NATIONAL TEXTILE CORPORATION (NTC)
      •    MAIN OBJECTIVE: EMPLOYMENT RELIEF TO THOUSANDS OF WORKERS
      •    PRODUCTION OF CONTROLLED CLOTH
      •    EXPERIMENT MISERABLY FAILED
      •   MANY NTC MILLS CLOSED DOWN
    • NEW TEXTILE POLICY (1980)
      •    OBJECTIVE: DEVELOP HARMONIOUSLY
      •    MILL, POWERLOOM AND HANDLOOM SECTORS
      •    RECOGNITION OF LACK OF MODERNIZATION AS MAIN CAUSE OF SICKNESS
      •    750 CRORE AS TEXTLE MODERNIZATION FUNDS IN 1986 
    • SHIFT IN PRODUCTION PATTERN
      •   1987 GLOBAL INCREASE IN COTTON PRICES
      •    SPINNING THOUGH TECHNOLOGICALLY ADVANCED, LABOUR INTENSIVE
      •    DEVELOPED COUNTRIES PREFERRED TO BYU YARN FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      •   LED TO YARN EXPORT GROWTH IN INDIA FROM 1987 ONWARDS
      •   5% YARN EXPORT IN 1990 INCREASED TO 22% IN 1997
    • LIBERIZATION
      •    DE-LICENSING OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY (1991)
      •    IMPORT OF MODERN MACHINES TO SET UP NEW UNITS
      •    IMPROVEMENT IN YARN QUALITY
      •    INDIA BECAME GLOBAL PLAYER IN YARN EXPORTS
    • COLLAPSE OF YARN EXPORTS
      •           IN 1990
      •           70% EXPORT TO QUOTA COUNTRIES
      •           30% TO NON-QUOTA COUNTRIES
      • AFTER LIBERIZATION
      •           INCREASE IN PRODUCTION
      •           STAGNANT QUOTA EXPORTS
      •           SHOT UP IN NON-QUOTA EXPORS 80%
      •           DROP IN QUOTA EXPORTS 20%
      •           UNINTENTIIONAL EXPORT DEPENDENCE ON NON-QUOTA COUNTRIES
    • COLLAPSE OF YARN EXPORTS
      •   IN 1997
      •   CURRENCY CRISIS IN SOUTH EAST ASIAN COUNTRIES
      •   SEVERE EFFECT ON EXPORTS
      •   EXPORT BELOW COST
      •   DUMP EXPORT QUALITY YARN IN DOMESTIC MARKET
      •   CRIPPLING EFFECT ON TEXTILE INDUSTRU
      •   HUGE OVERSUPPLY POSITION
      •   SUNRISE INDUSTRY BECAME SUNSET INDUSTRY
    • WTO REGIME
      •    MEMBER OF WTO
      •    SIGNATORY TO GATT( GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE AND TARRIF)
      •    END OF ATC (AGREEMENT OF TEXTILES AND CLOTHING) BY DECEMBER 2004.
      •    END OF QUOTA ERA
      •    TO FACE THE GLOBAL COMPETITION
      •    LIMITED TIME FOR
      •    INDUSTRY RESTRUCTURE
      •    IMPROVED QUALITY PRODUCTS AT COMPETITIVE PRICE
    • NEED OF THE HOUR
      •    MODERNIZE TO COMPETE GLOBALLY
      •    WITHSTAND CHEAPER IMPORTS FROM CHINA, PAKISTAN AND OTHER SOUTH-EAST ASIAN COUNTRIES
      • TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION FUND SCHEME (TUFS)
      •    Rs 25 000 CRORE FOR MODERNIZATION
      •    5% RE-IMBERSEMENT OF INTEREST CHARGED BY FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
      •    IN OPERATION FOR FIVE YEARS FROM APRIL 1999 – MARCH 2004
      •   INDIA IS FIRST COUNTRY TO HAVE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION FOR ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION.
      •   NO SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL NORMS FOR TEXTILE SECTOR
      •   INDUSTRY SPECIFIC STANDARDS EXIST
      •           STRINGENT ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION
      •           POORLY EMFORCED
      •           JUDICIARY HAS TO INTERVENE TO ENFORCE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES
      •           JUDICIARY HAS GO T ITS OWN LIMITATIONS AND CAN NOT ACT AS ENFORCING AGENCY.
      •   MAKING LAW ONLY DOES NOT HELP
      •   ENVIRONMENT IS A SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
      •   DESIRABLE COMPLIENCE SHOULD COME VOLUNTARILY FROM INDUSTRY AND NOT BY POLICING 
      ENVIRONMENT LEGISLATION
    • IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT
      •    INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH POLLUTION
      •    EXTENT VARIES
      •    CONCEPT: TO KEEP POLLUTION LEVEL AS L O W AS POSSIBLE
      •    ANOTHER DIMENSION: SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY STANDARDS SAS 800
      •    NO CHILD LABOUR
      •    MINIMUM LABOUR WAGES
      •    PROVISION OF HYGIENIC CONDITIONS AT WORK PLACE
      •    COMPLIANCE WITH GERMAN BAN INTRODUCED IN 1996
    • ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS
      •   TEXTILE WET PROCESSING POSES SERIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
      •   USE OF LARGE NUMBER OF CHEMICALS (ESTIMATE 8000) AND IN LARGE QUANTITIES IN WET PROCESSING
      •   DYES AND FINISHING AGENTS REMAIN ATTACHED TO TEXTILES
      •   SOME OF THEM POSE HEALTH HAZARDS (CARCINOGENIC DYES, FORMALDEHYDE BASED INISHES)
      •   ‘ POISON IN WARDROBE’
      •   SUBSTANTIAL PROPORTION OF THESE CHEMICALS REMAIN IN THE PROCESSED WATER
      •    WATER POLLUTION
      •   AIR POLLUTION DURING DRYING AND POLYMERIZATION OF FINISHING OPERATION AND PIGMENT PRINTING WHEN KEROSENE IS USED FOR EMULSION THICKENING
    • Input / output analysis of Textile Finishing Processes Textile Auxiliaries Dyes Base chemicals (e.g. acid, Alkali, sodium chloride) Textile Energy Natural Fibres; 10-20 MJ/kg Synthetic Fibres: 5-50 MJ/kg Water 60-360 l/kg textile Polluted Air Water Effluent Waste Sewage sludge: 60-70 g/kg textile Wet Processing (pre-treatment, dyeing, printing, finishing.)
    • AIR EMMISSION SOURCES  
      • FOUR GENERAL CATEGORIES
      •           OIL AND ACID MISTS
      •           SOLVENT VAPOURS
      •           ODOUR
      •           DUST AND LINT
    • OIL AND ACID MISTS
      •   MOST COMMON SOURCE IS STENTER
      •   EVAPORATION OF SPINNING OILS, PLASTICIZERS, AND VOLATILE FINISHING AGENTS
      •   ACID MISTS (CORROSIVE)
      •   DURING WOOL CARBONIZATION
      •   VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC ACIDS LIKE ACETIC ACID
    • SOLVENT VAPOURS
      •   INCLUDE LARGE NUMBER OF TOXIC CHEMICALS
      •   KEROSENE OR MINERAL TURPENTINE OIL
      •   FORMALDEHYDE
      •   CARRIERS FOR POLYESTER DYEING
      •   CHLOROFLUORO HYDROCARBONS
    • ODOUR
      •   ASSOCIATED WITH
      •   OIL MIST OR SOLVENT VAPOURS
      •   SULPHUR DYEING
      •   BLEACHING WITH SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE
    • DUST AND LINT
      • PRODUCED DURING
      •   SPINNING AND WEAVING
      •   CARPET SHEARING
      •   CAUSE RESPIRATORY DISEASES
    • EFFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS
      • TEXTILE EFFLUENTS GENERALLY ARE
      •    COLOURED
      •    HIGH BOD
      •    HIGH TDS
      •    HIGH RATIO BETWEEN BOD AND COD
      •    RATIO OF 1:2 TO 1:3 INDICATES GOOD BIODEGRADABILITY
      •    IN WOOL RATIO 1:5 INDICATING DIFFICULT BIODEGRADABILITY DUE TO GREASE CONTENT
    • DETERGENTS AND SURFACTANTS
      •   RISK TO AQUATIC LIFE
      •   HEALTH RISK TO LARGE POPULATION IF DISCHARGED IN RIVER USED FOR DRINKING
    • METAL POLLUTANTS
      •   METAL COMPLEX DYES
      •   CHROMIUM SALTS USED FOR SULPHUR DYE OXIDATION
      •   CHROME DYEING OF WOOL
        • • MORDANTS FOR NATURAL DYES
    • ORGANIC WASTES
      •   SIZES
      •   VARIOUS ORGANIC SOLVENTS AND ACIDS
    • CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTILE WASTES
      •   HARD TO TREAT
      •   HAZARDOUS OR TOXIC
      •   DISPERSIBLE
      • • HIGH VOLUME
    • HARD TO T R EAT WASTES
      •   COLOURS
      •   METALS
      •   PHENOL
      •   TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
      •   PHOSPHATES
      •   NON-BIODEGRADABLE SURFACTANTS
      •  TOXIC TO AQUATIC LIFE
    • TOXIC WASTES
      •   SUB GROUP OF HARD TO TREAT WASTES
      •   METALS
      •   CHLORINATED SOLVENTS
      •   BOILER CHEMICALS
    • DISPERSIBLE WASTES
      •   PRINT PASTES
      •    COATING CHEMICALS
      •    UNUSED PROCESS
      • CHEMICALS
    • HIGH VOLUME WASTES
      • WASH WATER FROM
      • PREPARATORY
      • DYEING
      • PRINTING
      • EXHAUSTED DYEBATHS
    • POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGIES
      •   CLE A NER PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES
        • • END OF PIPE TREATMENTS
    • CLEANER PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES
      • WASTE MINIMIZATION
      •    HIGHEST PRIORITY FOR REDUCTION IN WASTE WATER
      •    COUNTER CURRENT WASHING OPERATIONS
      •          OPTIMUM USE OF PROCESS CHEMICALS
      •    SUBSTITUTION OF TOXIC CHEMICALS BY ECO FRIENDLY CHEMICALS
      •    GOOD HOUSE KEEPING
      •    RECOVERY OF CHEMICALS SUCH AS SIZE, CAUSTIC SODA, DYES AND GREASE
      •    REPLACEMENT OF HIGH BOD CHEMICALS BY LOW BOD ONES
      •    USE OF LOW LIQUOR RATIO DYEING EQUIPMENTS
      •    IMPROVED PRODUCTION PROCESSES TO ELIMINATE AND REDUCE WASTE AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE
    • CLEANER PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES
      • END OF PIPE TREATMENTS
      •    SEGREGATION AND SEPARATE TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC EFFLUENT STREAM IS MORE EFFICIENT COMPARED TO
      •    COMBINED AND COMPLEX EFFLUENTS
      • 
        • SUCH STRATEGY PROVIDE OPPORTUNITY TO
      •    RE-USE WATER
      •    RECOVER CHEMICALS
      • • REDUCE SIZE OF TREATMENT PLANT
    • EFFLUENT TREATMENT
      • COMMON PROCESS
      •    PRIMARY SETTLING
      •   FLOCULATION/CHEMICAL COAGULATION
      •   BIOLOGICAL TRETMENT
      •   SECONDARY PHYSICAL ADSORPTION
      •   TERTIARY TREATMENT IF NECESSARY
    • SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL
        • FORMATION OF LARGE QUANTITIES OF
        • SLUDGE DURING
        • BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT
        •  SUBJECT SLUDGE TO AEROBIC DIGESTION
        •  DEWATER BY CENTRIFUGE
        •  DISPOSE OFF TO LAND FILL
    • SOLID WASTES
        • INCLUDE
      •   CANS
      •   REJECTED FABRIC PIECES
      •   CART AWAY TO LAND FILL OR
      •   INCINERATE ON OR OFF SITE
      •   DURING INCINERATION ADEQUATE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES
    • AIR EMMISSION CONROL
      • OIL MISTS AND VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON (VOC)
      •         MORE DIFFICULT TO CONTROL
      •          CONTROL THE APPLICATION OF SPINNING OILS AND FINISHING AGENTS
      •          PROPER AIR DUCTING
      •          INSTALLATION OF MIST ELIMINATORS
      •          CONDENSATION OF VAPOURS BY COOLING THE CONTAMINATED AIR
    • MANAGING AND AUDITING RESOURCE CONSUMPTION
      • RESEARCH ASSOCIATIONS DEVELOPED MANUFACTURING NORMS FOR
      •  DESIRABLE USAGE OF RESOURCES SUCH AS WATER, LABOUR, ELECTRICITY AND COMMON CHEMICALS
      •  NORMS NOT IMPOSED LEGALLY
      •  ACT AS GUIDELINES
      •  MEMBERMILLS ARE ENCOURAGED TO FOLLOW THESE NORMS
      •  RECORD OF SIMPLE MATERIAL BALANCE
      •  WORTH EXAMINING THE RECORD OF STORE KEEPER AND PROCESSING DEPRTMENTS TO TRACK LOSSES OF EXPENSIVE AND/OR HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS DURING HANDLING AND PROCESSING
    • MANAGING AND AUDITING RESOURCE CONSUMPTION
      • • ASSESSMENT AT INTERVALS THE PERFORMANCE OF EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENTS
      •   IT IS NECESSARY TO EMPLOY A FULL TIME PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TEAM OR TRAIN SENIOR STAFF AND WORKERS TO UNDERTAKE ENVIRONMENT MONITORING AND AUDIT TASKS
      •           COMMITMENT BY TO MANAGEMENT TO ESTABLISH SOUND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
      •           THIS WOULD ALSO IMPROVE THE PRODUCTIVITY AND PROFITABILITY OF THE ORGANIZATION
    • SIMPLE OPTIONS
      •    IMPROVED HOUSEKEEPING
      •    BETTER EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE
      •    OPTIMIZATION OF VARIOUS PROCESS SEQUENCES
      •    THE MANAGERS MUST HAVE BASELINE DATA FOR SIMILAR OPERATIONA IN OTHER INDUSTRIES
      •    COMPARE AND INTERPRET THE RESULTS WITH OPEN MIND
      •    ALLOW DISCUSSION BETWEEN STAFF AND ENCOURAGE TEAM MEMBERS TO BRING FORWARD INNOVATIVE IDEAS
      •    EVALUATE THE IDEAS FROM TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE
    • POLICY MANAGEMENT BY GOVT OF INDIA
      • GERMAN BAN AND GOVERNMENT RESPONSE
      • RECOGNITION THAT NUMBER OF DYES AND CHEMICALS ARE HAZARDOUS
      • AFFECT THE CONSUMER HEALTH
      • CAUSE IRREPARABLE DAMAGE TO ENVIRONMENT
      • GERMANY IMPOSED BAN ON THE USE OF AZO DYES BASED ON CARCINOGENIC AMINE
      • ABOUT 300 AZO DYES SUSPECTED TO BE CARCINOGENIC HAVE BEEN WITHDRAWN
      • ENVIRONMENTA L PERMISSIBILITY NORMS FOR HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS ARE AVAILABLE FROM VARIOUS INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
    • ECO STANDARDS AND ECO LABLES
      •   CONCEPT OF ECO FRIENDLY TEXTILES IS PROMOTED BY ECO STANDARDS AND ECO LABLES
      •   ECO LABLES ARE BASED ON ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY NORMS FOR VARIOUS CHEMICALS STIPULATED ON THE BASIS OF CRADLE TO GRAVE APPROACH
      •   USE OF ECO LABLES IS VOLUNTARY IN NATURE
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    • ECO STANDARDS AND ECO LABLES
      • CHEMICALS CONSIDERED FOR ECO NORMS
      •           FORMALDEHYDE
      •           TOXIC PESTICIDES
      •           PENTACHORO PHENOL
      •           HEAVY METAL TRACES
      •           CARCINOGENIC AZO DYES
      •           HALOGEN CARRIERS
      •           CHLORINE BLEACHING
    • EFFORTS MADE BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
      • REGULATORY MEASURES
      • PROHIBITION ON THE USE OF BANNED DYES
      • EVOLUTION OF ECO STANDARDS AND LOGO FOR ECO FRIENDLY TEXTILES
    • EFFORTS MADE BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
      • DEVELOPMENTAL MEASURES
      • ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATIVE SEMINARS, WORKSHOPS FOR THE AWARENESS OF ECO FRIENDLY CONCEPTS
      • ASSISTANCE TO INDUSTRY FOR THE SECURING ISO 9000 AND EMS 14000 CERTIFICATION
      • FINACIAL ASSISTANCE THROUGH TUFS FOR MODERNIZATION
      • MASSIVE PROGRAMME ON SETTING ECO TESTING FACILITIES
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