Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTY-ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Prof.R.B.CHAVAN DEPT. OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY HAU...
INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY   <ul><li>STATUS </li></ul><ul><li>OCCUPIES UNIQUE POSITION IN INDIAN ECONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>14...
PRESENT PAPER <ul><ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PROBLEMS </li></ul></ul></...
STRUCTURE OF INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSRY <ul><li>TWO EXTREMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KHADI : HANDSPUN , HAND WOVEN FABRIC </li><...
INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY-  BROAD DIVISION <ul><ul><ul><li>NATURAL FIBRES: COTTON, WOOL, SILK, JUTE ETC </li></ul></ul></ul>...
Decentralized Sector TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA NATURAL  FIBRES / FABRICS MAN-MADE  FIBRES / FABRICS Organized Sector (Mill...
NATURAL FIBRES <ul><li>COTTON </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COTTON TEXTILES PRODUCED IN  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O...
ORGANIZED MILL SECTOR <ul><ul><ul><li>1400 SPINNING MILLS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>280 COMPOSIT MILLS </li></ul...
 
DEENTRALIZED SECTOR <ul><li>HANDLOOM  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION OF  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAURAL ...
DEENTRALIZED SECTOR <ul><li>POWERLOOM </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>13 LAKH POWERLOOMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>70%...
Share of Cloth Production  <ul><li>Organized Sector </li></ul><ul><li>Power Loom </li></ul><ul><li>Handloom </li></ul>
MATERIAL FLOW ALONG THE TEXTILE CLOTHING CHAIN <ul><li>Synthetic Fibre </li></ul><ul><li>Basic chemicals petrochemistry </...
HOSIERY SECTOR <ul><li>SMALL SCALE INDUSTRY </li></ul><ul><li> LABOUR INTENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>          PRODUCION RA...
WET PROCESSING <ul><li>       PROCESS HOUSES SPREAD  THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY </li></ul><ul><li>      MOST BEING IN AND AR...
GARMENT MANUFACTURING   <ul><ul><li>         GROWN PREDOMINENTLY DUE TO  EXPORT DEMANDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>     ...
SILK <ul><li>        SECOND LARGEST PRODUCER </li></ul><ul><li>       PRODUCE ALL FOUR  VARIETIES i.e MULBERRY,  TUSSAR,...
JUTE <ul><li>       HIGHEST JUTE  AND JUTE GOODS  PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>       CONVENTIONAL USE: PACKAGING      M...
MAN MADE FIBRES <ul><li>      PRODUCTION OF VISCOSE,  POLYESTER, ACRYLIC, NYLON,  POLYPROPELENE. </li></ul><ul><li>     ...
TEXTILE EXPORTS <ul><li> 20 BILLION DOLLARS? </li></ul><ul><li>  LEADING OVERSEAS MARKETS FOR EXPORTS ARE </li></ul><u...
INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY AND ITS PROBLEMS <ul><li> ONE OF THE OLDEST AND SINGLE LARGEST  INDUSTRIAL SECTORS </li></ul><ul...
DIFFICULT PHASE  60S AND 70S  <ul><li>           OBSOLETE MACHINERY </li></ul><ul><li>           LACK OF MAINTENANCE <...
EMERGING TRENDS <ul><li>   EMERGENCE OF SYNTHETIC AND  BLENDED FABRICS </li></ul><ul><li>   PHENOMENAL EXPANSION OF ...
NATIONALIZATION (1967) <ul><li>   SETTING UP OF NATIONAL  TEXTILE  CORPORATION (NTC)  </li></ul><ul><li>   MAIN OBJE...
NEW TEXTILE POLICY (1980) <ul><li>   OBJECTIVE: DEVELOP  HARMONIOUSLY </li></ul><ul><li>   MILL, POWERLOOM AND  HAND...
SHIFT IN PRODUCTION PATTERN <ul><li>  1987 GLOBAL INCREASE IN COTTON  PRICES  </li></ul><ul><li>   SPINNING THOUGH  T...
LIBERIZATION <ul><li>   DE-LICENSING OF TEXTILE  INDUSTRY (1991) </li></ul><ul><li>   IMPORT OF MODERN MACHINES TO  ...
COLLAPSE OF YARN EXPORTS <ul><li>           IN 1990  </li></ul><ul><li>           70% EXPORT TO QUOTA COUNTRIES </li><...
COLLAPSE OF YARN EXPORTS <ul><li>  IN 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>  CURRENCY CRISIS IN SOUTH EAST  ASIAN  COUNTRIES  </li><...
WTO REGIME <ul><li>   MEMBER OF WTO </li></ul><ul><li>   SIGNATORY TO GATT( GENERAL  AGREEMENT  ON TRADE AND TARRIF)...
NEED OF THE HOUR <ul><li>   MODERNIZE TO COMPETE GLOBALLY </li></ul><ul><li>   WITHSTAND CHEAPER IMPORTS FROM  CHINA...
<ul><li>  INDIA IS FIRST COUNTRY TO HAVE CONSTITUTIONAL  PROVISION FOR ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION. </li></ul><ul><li>  NO ...
IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>   INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH  POLLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>   EXTENT VARIE...
ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS <ul><li>  TEXTILE WET PROCESSING POSES SERIOUS  ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS  </li></ul><ul><li>  USE ...
Input / output analysis of Textile Finishing Processes  Textile Auxiliaries   Dyes Base chemicals (e.g. acid, Alkali, sodi...
AIR EMMISSION SOURCES   <ul><li>FOUR GENERAL CATEGORIES </li></ul><ul><li>           OIL AND ACID MISTS </li></ul><ul><l...
OIL AND ACID MISTS <ul><li>  MOST COMMON SOURCE IS STENTER </li></ul><ul><li>  EVAPORATION OF SPINNING OILS,  PLASTICI...
SOLVENT VAPOURS <ul><li>  INCLUDE LARGE NUMBER OF  TOXIC  CHEMICALS </li></ul><ul><li>  KEROSENE OR MINERAL  TURPENTIN...
ODOUR <ul><li>  ASSOCIATED WITH  </li></ul><ul><li>  OIL MIST OR SOLVENT VAPOURS </li></ul><ul><li>  SULPHUR DYEING ...
DUST AND LINT <ul><li>PRODUCED DURING </li></ul><ul><li>  SPINNING  AND WEAVING </li></ul><ul><li>  CARPET SHEARING </...
EFFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>TEXTILE EFFLUENTS GENERALLY ARE </li></ul><ul><li>   COLOURED </li></ul><ul><li>   ...
DETERGENTS AND SURFACTANTS   <ul><li>  RISK TO AQUATIC LIFE </li></ul><ul><li>  HEALTH RISK  TO  LARGE  POPULATION IF ...
METAL POLLUTANTS <ul><li>  METAL COMPLEX DYES </li></ul><ul><li>  CHROMIUM SALTS USED FOR  SULPHUR DYE OXIDATION </li>...
ORGANIC WASTES <ul><li>  SIZES </li></ul><ul><li>  VARIOUS ORGANIC SOLVENTS  AND ACIDS </li></ul>
CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTILE WASTES   <ul><li>  HARD TO TREAT </li></ul><ul><li>  HAZARDOUS OR TOXIC </li></ul><ul><li> ...
HARD TO T R EAT WASTES <ul><li>  COLOURS </li></ul><ul><li>  METALS </li></ul><ul><li>  PHENOL </li></ul><ul><li> ...
TOXIC WASTES <ul><li>  SUB GROUP OF HARD TO TREAT  WASTES </li></ul><ul><li>  METALS </li></ul><ul><li>  CHLORINATED...
DISPERSIBLE WASTES <ul><li>  PRINT PASTES </li></ul><ul><li>   COATING CHEMICALS </li></ul><ul><li>   UNUSED PROCE...
HIGH VOLUME WASTES <ul><li>WASH WATER FROM </li></ul><ul><li>PREPARATORY </li></ul><ul><li>DYEING  </li></ul><ul><li>PRINT...
POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGIES   <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>  CLE A NER PRODUCTION  TECHNIQUES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• EN...
CLEANER PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES <ul><li>WASTE MINIMIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>   HIGHEST PRIORITY FOR REDUCTION IN WASTE  ...
CLEANER PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES <ul><li>END OF PIPE TREATMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>   SEGREGATION AND SEPARATE  TREATMENT O...
EFFLUENT TREATMENT <ul><li>COMMON PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>   PRIMARY SETTLING </li></ul><ul><li>  FLOCULATION/CHEMI...
SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL <ul><ul><li>FORMATION OF LARGE QUANTITIES OF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SLUDGE   DURING </li...
SOLID WASTES <ul><ul><li>INCLUDE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  CANS </li></ul><ul><li>  REJECTED FABRIC PIECES </li></ul><u...
AIR EMMISSION CONROL <ul><li>OIL MISTS AND VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON (VOC) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>         MO...
MANAGING AND AUDITING RESOURCE CONSUMPTION <ul><li>RESEARCH ASSOCIATIONS DEVELOPED MANUFACTURING NORMS FOR </li></ul><ul><...
MANAGING AND AUDITING RESOURCE CONSUMPTION <ul><li>• ASSESSMENT AT INTERVALS THE PERFORMANCE  OF EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT ...
SIMPLE OPTIONS <ul><li>   IMPROVED HOUSEKEEPING </li></ul><ul><li>   BETTER EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE </li></ul><ul><li>...
POLICY MANAGEMENT BY GOVT OF INDIA <ul><li>GERMAN BAN AND GOVERNMENT RESPONSE </li></ul><ul><li>RECOGNITION THAT NUMBER OF...
ECO STANDARDS AND ECO LABLES   <ul><li>  CONCEPT OF ECO FRIENDLY TEXTILES IS  PROMOTED BY ECO STANDARDS AND ECO  LABLES ...
ECO STANDARDS AND ECO LABLES <ul><li>CHEMICALS CONSIDERED FOR ECO NORMS </li></ul><ul><li>           FORMALDEHYDE </li><...
EFFORTS MADE BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA <ul><li>REGULATORY MEASURES </li></ul><ul><li>PROHIBITION ON THE USE OF BANNED DYES </...
EFFORTS MADE BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA <ul><li>DEVELOPMENTAL MEASURES </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATIVE SEMINARS, W...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Indian textile industy environmental issues ppt

2,934

Published on

Published in: Business, Lifestyle
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,934
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
149
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Indian textile industy environmental issues ppt"

  1. 1. INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTY-ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Prof.R.B.CHAVAN DEPT. OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY HAUZ-KHAS, NEW DELHI
  2. 2. INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY <ul><li>STATUS </li></ul><ul><li>OCCUPIES UNIQUE POSITION IN INDIAN ECONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>14% OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>33% OF TOTAL EXPORTS </li></ul><ul><li>1-1.5% IMPORT BILL </li></ul><ul><li>SINGLE LARGEST EMPLOYER IN THE INDUSTRIAL SECTOR </li></ul><ul><li>35 MILLION EMPLOYMENT </li></ul><ul><li>93 MILLION INCLUDING EMPLOYMENT IN AGRICULTURE, GINNING, PRESSING, COTTON TRADE, JUTE </li></ul>
  3. 3. PRESENT PAPER <ul><ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PROBLEMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GERMAN BAN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RESPONSE OF MINISTRY OF TEXTILES TO COPE WITH GERMAN BAN </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. STRUCTURE OF INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSRY <ul><li>TWO EXTREMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KHADI : HANDSPUN , HAND WOVEN FABRIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIGHLY CAPITAL INTENSIVE MODERN SOPHISTICATED ORGANIZED MILL SECTOR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IN BETWEEN </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DECENTRALIZED POWERLOOM, KNITTNG AND GARMENT SECTORS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PRODUCTS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIVERSIFIED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURE OF TRADITIONAL ITEMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURE OF FASHION ITEMS FOR SOPHISTICATED NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL MAKETS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY- BROAD DIVISION <ul><ul><ul><li>NATURAL FIBRES: COTTON, WOOL, SILK, JUTE ETC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MAN MADE AND SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND BLENDS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OUT OF TOTAL TEXTILE PRODUCTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COTTON >70% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MAN MADE AND SYNTHETIC 20% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WOOL, SILK, JUTE ETC 10% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Decentralized Sector TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA NATURAL FIBRES / FABRICS MAN-MADE FIBRES / FABRICS Organized Sector (Mills) Spinning Composites Handloom Powerloom Khadi WOOL J UTE SILK COTTON RAYON Cellulose / viscose BLENDED (Synthetic + Natural) SYNTHETIC (Nylon, PET, PAN)
  7. 7. NATURAL FIBRES <ul><li>COTTON </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COTTON TEXTILES PRODUCED IN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANIZED SECTOR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SPINNING MILLS : YARN PRODUCTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COMPOSITE MILLS : YARN, GREY AND </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PROCESSED FABRIC PRODUCTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DECENTRALIZED SECTOR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POWERLOOM, HANDLOOM, KHAD I AND HOSIERY PRODUCTION </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. ORGANIZED MILL SECTOR <ul><ul><ul><li>1400 SPINNING MILLS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>280 COMPOSIT MILLS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SPINNING CAPACITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11 MILLION SPINDLES IN 1951 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>33 MILLION SPINDLES IN 1997 (19% OF WORLDS SPINDLE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WEAVING CAPACITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1 LAKH LOOMS IN 1951 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.24 LAKH LOOMS IN 1997 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REASON : RISE OF POWERLOOM SECTOR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PRESENT SHARE OF MILL SECTOR 6% IN THE TOTAL CLOTH PRODUCTION IN THE COUNTRY </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. DEENTRALIZED SECTOR <ul><li>HANDLOOM </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION OF </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAURAL FIBRE FABRICS, COTTON, WOOL AND SILK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SYNTHETIC AND BLENDED FABRICS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>APPROXIMATELY 3.9 MILLION HANDLOOMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% OF TOTAL CLOTH PRODUCTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TILL RECENTLY, PROTECTION FROM GOVT. OF INDIA TO WITHSTAND COMPETITION FROM MILL AND POWERLOOM SECTOR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LABOUR INTENSIVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PROVIDE SUPPLEMENTARY EARNING TO AGRO RURAL STRATA OF SOCIETY </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. DEENTRALIZED SECTOR <ul><li>POWERLOOM </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>13 LAKH POWERLOOMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>70% OF TOTAL CLOTH PRODUCTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PLAYING PIVOTAL ROLE DUE TO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LOWER COST OF PRODUCTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FLEXIBILITY IN CHANGING THE PRODUCTION PATTERN TO SUIT THE MARKET DEMAND </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PROXIMITY TO FABRIC WHOLESALE MARKETS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FAVOURABLE EXCISE DUTY STRUCTURE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Share of Cloth Production <ul><li>Organized Sector </li></ul><ul><li>Power Loom </li></ul><ul><li>Handloom </li></ul>
  12. 13. MATERIAL FLOW ALONG THE TEXTILE CLOTHING CHAIN <ul><li>Synthetic Fibre </li></ul><ul><li>Basic chemicals petrochemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Production of monomers / </li></ul>Production Fibre, yarn, fabric Natural Fibre - Cultivation . . fertilizers pesticides - Crop auxiliary agents Textile Processing e.g. desizing, mercerizing, bleaching, dyeing, printing, finishing Garment / Textile industry Use Packing, washing, dry-cleaning Disposal
  13. 14. HOSIERY SECTOR <ul><li>SMALL SCALE INDUSTRY </li></ul><ul><li> LABOUR INTENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>         PRODUCION RANGE </li></ul><ul><li>T SHIRTS,CARDIGANNS, JERSEY, PULLOVERS, POLO SHIRTS, INNER GARMENTS FO MEN AND WOMEN . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  14. 15. WET PROCESSING <ul><li>       PROCESS HOUSES SPREAD THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY </li></ul><ul><li>      MOST BEING IN AND AROUND POWERLOOM CENTRES </li></ul><ul><li>     CARRIES POST WEAVING/KNITTING OPERATIONS : BLEACHING, DYEING, PRINTING AND FINISHING. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  15. 16. GARMENT MANUFACTURING <ul><ul><li>         GROWN PREDOMINENTLY DUE TO EXPORT DEMANDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>         TILL RECENTLY IN SMALL SCALE SECTOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>         OPEN TO ORGANIZED SECTOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>   </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. SILK <ul><li>        SECOND LARGEST PRODUCER </li></ul><ul><li>       PRODUCE ALL FOUR VARIETIES i.e MULBERRY, TUSSAR, ERI, MUGA </li></ul><ul><li>      MAJOR CONCENTRATION IN SMALL SCALE SECTOR </li></ul>
  17. 18. JUTE <ul><li>       HIGHEST JUTE AND JUTE GOODS PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>       CONVENTIONAL USE: PACKAGING MATERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>         DIVERSIFIED USES: APPAREL,FLOOR COVERINGS, HOME FURNISHING, FIBRE COMPOSITES, GEO TEXTILES, TECHNICL TEXTILES, SOFT LUGGAGE </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  18. 19. MAN MADE FIBRES <ul><li>      PRODUCTION OF VISCOSE, POLYESTER, ACRYLIC, NYLON, POLYPROPELENE. </li></ul><ul><li>     BLENDED YARN AND FABRICS PARTICULARLY POLYESTER/COTTON </li></ul>
  19. 20. TEXTILE EXPORTS <ul><li> 20 BILLION DOLLARS? </li></ul><ul><li>  LEADING OVERSEAS MARKETS FOR EXPORTS ARE </li></ul><ul><li>  EUROPEAN UNION, USA, MIDDLE EAST, ASEAN COUNTRIES, JAPAN </li></ul><ul><li>         UNDERGOING RADICAL CHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>         HUGE INVESTMENTS FOR MODERNIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>         TO BECOME COMPETITIVE IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET </li></ul><ul><li>         VALUE ADDITION PRODUCTS FOR GLOBAL MARKET </li></ul><ul><li>         ASSURED SUPPLY OF GOOD QUALITY RAW MATERIAL, HUMAN SKILLS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POISED TO BE LEADING PLAYER IN INTERNATIONA L </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MARKET </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY AND ITS PROBLEMS <ul><li> ONE OF THE OLDEST AND SINGLE LARGEST INDUSTRIAL SECTORS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>         SHARE OF TEXTILE PRODUCTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>         IN 50S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>         ORGANIZED SECTOR >75% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>          DENCENTRALIZED POWERLOOM 25% </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTLY </li></ul><ul><li>   ORGANIZED SECTOR 6% </li></ul><ul><li>BALANCE POWERLOOME, HANDLOOM, HOSIERY </li></ul>
  21. 22. DIFFICULT PHASE 60S AND 70S <ul><li>          OBSOLETE MACHINERY </li></ul><ul><li>          LACK OF MAINTENANCE </li></ul><ul><li>          LACK OF MODERNIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>          LOW PRODUCTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>          LOW CAPACITY UTILIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>          STAGNANT DOMESTIC MARKETS </li></ul><ul><li>          SAGGING EXPORTS </li></ul><ul><li>         WIDE SPREAD SICKNESS </li></ul>
  22. 23. EMERGING TRENDS <ul><li>   EMERGENCE OF SYNTHETIC AND BLENDED FABRICS </li></ul><ul><li>   PHENOMENAL EXPANSION OF SPINNING </li></ul><ul><li>   RAPID EXPANSION OF DECENTRALIZED POWERLOOM SECTOR </li></ul><ul><li>   BROUGHT SICKNESS COMPOSIT ORGANIZED SECTOR </li></ul><ul><li>   LARGE NUMBER OF MILLS WENT BANKRUPT </li></ul><ul><li>   2/3 OF THEM WERE COMPOSIT MILLS </li></ul>
  23. 24. NATIONALIZATION (1967) <ul><li>   SETTING UP OF NATIONAL TEXTILE CORPORATION (NTC) </li></ul><ul><li>   MAIN OBJECTIVE: EMPLOYMENT RELIEF TO THOUSANDS OF WORKERS </li></ul><ul><li>   PRODUCTION OF CONTROLLED CLOTH </li></ul><ul><li>   EXPERIMENT MISERABLY FAILED </li></ul><ul><li>  MANY NTC MILLS CLOSED DOWN </li></ul>
  24. 25. NEW TEXTILE POLICY (1980) <ul><li>   OBJECTIVE: DEVELOP HARMONIOUSLY </li></ul><ul><li>   MILL, POWERLOOM AND HANDLOOM SECTORS </li></ul><ul><li>   RECOGNITION OF LACK OF MODERNIZATION AS MAIN CAUSE OF SICKNESS </li></ul><ul><li>   750 CRORE AS TEXTLE MODERNIZATION FUNDS IN 1986  </li></ul>
  25. 26. SHIFT IN PRODUCTION PATTERN <ul><li>  1987 GLOBAL INCREASE IN COTTON PRICES </li></ul><ul><li>   SPINNING THOUGH TECHNOLOGICALLY ADVANCED, LABOUR INTENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>   DEVELOPED COUNTRIES PREFERRED TO BYU YARN FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES </li></ul><ul><li>  LED TO YARN EXPORT GROWTH IN INDIA FROM 1987 ONWARDS </li></ul><ul><li>  5% YARN EXPORT IN 1990 INCREASED TO 22% IN 1997 </li></ul>
  26. 27. LIBERIZATION <ul><li>   DE-LICENSING OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY (1991) </li></ul><ul><li>   IMPORT OF MODERN MACHINES TO SET UP NEW UNITS </li></ul><ul><li>   IMPROVEMENT IN YARN QUALITY </li></ul><ul><li>   INDIA BECAME GLOBAL PLAYER IN YARN EXPORTS </li></ul>
  27. 28. COLLAPSE OF YARN EXPORTS <ul><li>          IN 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>          70% EXPORT TO QUOTA COUNTRIES </li></ul><ul><li>          30% TO NON-QUOTA COUNTRIES </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER LIBERIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>          INCREASE IN PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>          STAGNANT QUOTA EXPORTS </li></ul><ul><li>          SHOT UP IN NON-QUOTA EXPORS 80% </li></ul><ul><li>          DROP IN QUOTA EXPORTS 20% </li></ul><ul><li>          UNINTENTIIONAL EXPORT DEPENDENCE ON NON-QUOTA COUNTRIES </li></ul>
  28. 29. COLLAPSE OF YARN EXPORTS <ul><li>  IN 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>  CURRENCY CRISIS IN SOUTH EAST ASIAN COUNTRIES </li></ul><ul><li>  SEVERE EFFECT ON EXPORTS </li></ul><ul><li>  EXPORT BELOW COST </li></ul><ul><li>  DUMP EXPORT QUALITY YARN IN DOMESTIC MARKET </li></ul><ul><li>  CRIPPLING EFFECT ON TEXTILE INDUSTRU </li></ul><ul><li>  HUGE OVERSUPPLY POSITION </li></ul><ul><li>  SUNRISE INDUSTRY BECAME SUNSET INDUSTRY </li></ul>
  29. 30. WTO REGIME <ul><li>   MEMBER OF WTO </li></ul><ul><li>   SIGNATORY TO GATT( GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE AND TARRIF) </li></ul><ul><li>   END OF ATC (AGREEMENT OF TEXTILES AND CLOTHING) BY DECEMBER 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>   END OF QUOTA ERA </li></ul><ul><li>   TO FACE THE GLOBAL COMPETITION </li></ul><ul><li>   LIMITED TIME FOR </li></ul><ul><li>   INDUSTRY RESTRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>   IMPROVED QUALITY PRODUCTS AT COMPETITIVE PRICE </li></ul>
  30. 31. NEED OF THE HOUR <ul><li>   MODERNIZE TO COMPETE GLOBALLY </li></ul><ul><li>   WITHSTAND CHEAPER IMPORTS FROM CHINA, PAKISTAN AND OTHER SOUTH-EAST ASIAN COUNTRIES </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION FUND SCHEME (TUFS) </li></ul><ul><li>   Rs 25 000 CRORE FOR MODERNIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>   5% RE-IMBERSEMENT OF INTEREST CHARGED BY FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>   IN OPERATION FOR FIVE YEARS FROM APRIL 1999 – MARCH 2004 </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>  INDIA IS FIRST COUNTRY TO HAVE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION FOR ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION. </li></ul><ul><li>  NO SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL NORMS FOR TEXTILE SECTOR </li></ul><ul><li>  INDUSTRY SPECIFIC STANDARDS EXIST </li></ul><ul><li>          STRINGENT ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION </li></ul><ul><li>          POORLY EMFORCED </li></ul><ul><li>          JUDICIARY HAS TO INTERVENE TO ENFORCE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES </li></ul><ul><li>          JUDICIARY HAS GO T ITS OWN LIMITATIONS AND CAN NOT ACT AS ENFORCING AGENCY. </li></ul><ul><li>  MAKING LAW ONLY DOES NOT HELP </li></ul><ul><li>  ENVIRONMENT IS A SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>  DESIRABLE COMPLIENCE SHOULD COME VOLUNTARILY FROM INDUSTRY AND NOT BY POLICING  </li></ul>ENVIRONMENT LEGISLATION
  32. 33. IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>   INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH POLLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>   EXTENT VARIES </li></ul><ul><li>   CONCEPT: TO KEEP POLLUTION LEVEL AS L O W AS POSSIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>   ANOTHER DIMENSION: SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY STANDARDS SAS 800 </li></ul><ul><li>   NO CHILD LABOUR </li></ul><ul><li>   MINIMUM LABOUR WAGES </li></ul><ul><li>   PROVISION OF HYGIENIC CONDITIONS AT WORK PLACE </li></ul><ul><li>   COMPLIANCE WITH GERMAN BAN INTRODUCED IN 1996 </li></ul>
  33. 34. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS <ul><li>  TEXTILE WET PROCESSING POSES SERIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>  USE OF LARGE NUMBER OF CHEMICALS (ESTIMATE 8000) AND IN LARGE QUANTITIES IN WET PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>  DYES AND FINISHING AGENTS REMAIN ATTACHED TO TEXTILES </li></ul><ul><li>  SOME OF THEM POSE HEALTH HAZARDS (CARCINOGENIC DYES, FORMALDEHYDE BASED INISHES) </li></ul><ul><li>  ‘ POISON IN WARDROBE’ </li></ul><ul><li>  SUBSTANTIAL PROPORTION OF THESE CHEMICALS REMAIN IN THE PROCESSED WATER </li></ul><ul><li>   WATER POLLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>  AIR POLLUTION DURING DRYING AND POLYMERIZATION OF FINISHING OPERATION AND PIGMENT PRINTING WHEN KEROSENE IS USED FOR EMULSION THICKENING </li></ul>
  34. 35. Input / output analysis of Textile Finishing Processes Textile Auxiliaries Dyes Base chemicals (e.g. acid, Alkali, sodium chloride) Textile Energy Natural Fibres; 10-20 MJ/kg Synthetic Fibres: 5-50 MJ/kg Water 60-360 l/kg textile Polluted Air Water Effluent Waste Sewage sludge: 60-70 g/kg textile Wet Processing (pre-treatment, dyeing, printing, finishing.)
  35. 36. AIR EMMISSION SOURCES   <ul><li>FOUR GENERAL CATEGORIES </li></ul><ul><li>          OIL AND ACID MISTS </li></ul><ul><li>          SOLVENT VAPOURS </li></ul><ul><li>          ODOUR </li></ul><ul><li>          DUST AND LINT </li></ul>
  36. 37. OIL AND ACID MISTS <ul><li>  MOST COMMON SOURCE IS STENTER </li></ul><ul><li>  EVAPORATION OF SPINNING OILS, PLASTICIZERS, AND VOLATILE FINISHING AGENTS </li></ul><ul><li>  ACID MISTS (CORROSIVE) </li></ul><ul><li>  DURING WOOL CARBONIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>  VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC ACIDS LIKE ACETIC ACID </li></ul>
  37. 38. SOLVENT VAPOURS <ul><li>  INCLUDE LARGE NUMBER OF TOXIC CHEMICALS </li></ul><ul><li>  KEROSENE OR MINERAL TURPENTINE OIL </li></ul><ul><li>  FORMALDEHYDE </li></ul><ul><li>  CARRIERS FOR POLYESTER DYEING </li></ul><ul><li>  CHLOROFLUORO HYDROCARBONS </li></ul>
  38. 39. ODOUR <ul><li>  ASSOCIATED WITH </li></ul><ul><li>  OIL MIST OR SOLVENT VAPOURS </li></ul><ul><li>  SULPHUR DYEING </li></ul><ul><li>  BLEACHING WITH SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE </li></ul>
  39. 40. DUST AND LINT <ul><li>PRODUCED DURING </li></ul><ul><li>  SPINNING AND WEAVING </li></ul><ul><li>  CARPET SHEARING </li></ul><ul><li>  CAUSE RESPIRATORY DISEASES </li></ul>
  40. 41. EFFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>TEXTILE EFFLUENTS GENERALLY ARE </li></ul><ul><li>   COLOURED </li></ul><ul><li>   HIGH BOD </li></ul><ul><li>   HIGH TDS </li></ul><ul><li>   HIGH RATIO BETWEEN BOD AND COD </li></ul><ul><li>   RATIO OF 1:2 TO 1:3 INDICATES GOOD BIODEGRADABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>   IN WOOL RATIO 1:5 INDICATING DIFFICULT BIODEGRADABILITY DUE TO GREASE CONTENT </li></ul>
  41. 42. DETERGENTS AND SURFACTANTS <ul><li>  RISK TO AQUATIC LIFE </li></ul><ul><li>  HEALTH RISK TO LARGE POPULATION IF DISCHARGED IN RIVER USED FOR DRINKING </li></ul>
  42. 43. METAL POLLUTANTS <ul><li>  METAL COMPLEX DYES </li></ul><ul><li>  CHROMIUM SALTS USED FOR SULPHUR DYE OXIDATION </li></ul><ul><li>  CHROME DYEING OF WOOL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• MORDANTS FOR NATURAL DYES </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. ORGANIC WASTES <ul><li>  SIZES </li></ul><ul><li>  VARIOUS ORGANIC SOLVENTS AND ACIDS </li></ul>
  44. 45. CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTILE WASTES <ul><li>  HARD TO TREAT </li></ul><ul><li>  HAZARDOUS OR TOXIC </li></ul><ul><li>  DISPERSIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>• HIGH VOLUME </li></ul>
  45. 46. HARD TO T R EAT WASTES <ul><li>  COLOURS </li></ul><ul><li>  METALS </li></ul><ul><li>  PHENOL </li></ul><ul><li>  TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS </li></ul><ul><li>  PHOSPHATES </li></ul><ul><li>  NON-BIODEGRADABLE SURFACTANTS </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> TOXIC TO AQUATIC LIFE </li></ul>
  46. 47. TOXIC WASTES <ul><li>  SUB GROUP OF HARD TO TREAT WASTES </li></ul><ul><li>  METALS </li></ul><ul><li>  CHLORINATED SOLVENTS </li></ul><ul><li>  BOILER CHEMICALS </li></ul>
  47. 48. DISPERSIBLE WASTES <ul><li>  PRINT PASTES </li></ul><ul><li>   COATING CHEMICALS </li></ul><ul><li>   UNUSED PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li> CHEMICALS </li></ul>
  48. 49. HIGH VOLUME WASTES <ul><li>WASH WATER FROM </li></ul><ul><li>PREPARATORY </li></ul><ul><li>DYEING </li></ul><ul><li>PRINTING </li></ul><ul><li>EXHAUSTED DYEBATHS </li></ul>
  49. 50. POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGIES <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>  CLE A NER PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• END OF PIPE TREATMENTS </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. CLEANER PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES <ul><li>WASTE MINIMIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>   HIGHEST PRIORITY FOR REDUCTION IN WASTE WATER </li></ul><ul><li>   COUNTER CURRENT WASHING OPERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>         OPTIMUM USE OF PROCESS CHEMICALS </li></ul><ul><li>   SUBSTITUTION OF TOXIC CHEMICALS BY ECO FRIENDLY CHEMICALS </li></ul><ul><li>   GOOD HOUSE KEEPING </li></ul><ul><li>   RECOVERY OF CHEMICALS SUCH AS SIZE, CAUSTIC SODA, DYES AND GREASE </li></ul><ul><li>   REPLACEMENT OF HIGH BOD CHEMICALS BY LOW BOD ONES </li></ul><ul><li>   USE OF LOW LIQUOR RATIO DYEING EQUIPMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>   IMPROVED PRODUCTION PROCESSES TO ELIMINATE AND REDUCE WASTE AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE </li></ul>
  51. 52. CLEANER PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES <ul><li>END OF PIPE TREATMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>   SEGREGATION AND SEPARATE TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC EFFLUENT STREAM IS MORE EFFICIENT COMPARED TO </li></ul><ul><li>   COMBINED AND COMPLEX EFFLUENTS </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUCH STRATEGY PROVIDE OPPORTUNITY TO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>   RE-USE WATER </li></ul><ul><li>   RECOVER CHEMICALS </li></ul><ul><li>• REDUCE SIZE OF TREATMENT PLANT </li></ul>
  52. 53. EFFLUENT TREATMENT <ul><li>COMMON PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>   PRIMARY SETTLING </li></ul><ul><li>  FLOCULATION/CHEMICAL COAGULATION </li></ul><ul><li>  BIOLOGICAL TRETMENT </li></ul><ul><li>  SECONDARY PHYSICAL ADSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>  TERTIARY TREATMENT IF NECESSARY </li></ul>
  53. 54. SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL <ul><ul><li>FORMATION OF LARGE QUANTITIES OF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SLUDGE DURING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> SUBJECT SLUDGE TO AEROBIC DIGESTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> DEWATER BY CENTRIFUGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> DISPOSE OFF TO LAND FILL </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. SOLID WASTES <ul><ul><li>INCLUDE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  CANS </li></ul><ul><li>  REJECTED FABRIC PIECES </li></ul><ul><li>  CART AWAY TO LAND FILL OR </li></ul><ul><li>  INCINERATE ON OR OFF SITE </li></ul><ul><li>  DURING INCINERATION ADEQUATE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES </li></ul>
  55. 56. AIR EMMISSION CONROL <ul><li>OIL MISTS AND VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON (VOC) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>        MORE DIFFICULT TO CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>         CONTROL THE APPLICATION OF SPINNING OILS AND FINISHING AGENTS </li></ul><ul><li>         PROPER AIR DUCTING </li></ul><ul><li>         INSTALLATION OF MIST ELIMINATORS </li></ul><ul><li>         CONDENSATION OF VAPOURS BY COOLING THE CONTAMINATED AIR </li></ul>
  56. 57. MANAGING AND AUDITING RESOURCE CONSUMPTION <ul><li>RESEARCH ASSOCIATIONS DEVELOPED MANUFACTURING NORMS FOR </li></ul><ul><li> DESIRABLE USAGE OF RESOURCES SUCH AS WATER, LABOUR, ELECTRICITY AND COMMON CHEMICALS </li></ul><ul><li> NORMS NOT IMPOSED LEGALLY </li></ul><ul><li> ACT AS GUIDELINES </li></ul><ul><li> MEMBERMILLS ARE ENCOURAGED TO FOLLOW THESE NORMS </li></ul><ul><li> RECORD OF SIMPLE MATERIAL BALANCE </li></ul><ul><li> WORTH EXAMINING THE RECORD OF STORE KEEPER AND PROCESSING DEPRTMENTS TO TRACK LOSSES OF EXPENSIVE AND/OR HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS DURING HANDLING AND PROCESSING </li></ul>
  57. 58. MANAGING AND AUDITING RESOURCE CONSUMPTION <ul><li>• ASSESSMENT AT INTERVALS THE PERFORMANCE OF EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>  IT IS NECESSARY TO EMPLOY A FULL TIME PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TEAM OR TRAIN SENIOR STAFF AND WORKERS TO UNDERTAKE ENVIRONMENT MONITORING AND AUDIT TASKS </li></ul><ul><li>          COMMITMENT BY TO MANAGEMENT TO ESTABLISH SOUND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>          THIS WOULD ALSO IMPROVE THE PRODUCTIVITY AND PROFITABILITY OF THE ORGANIZATION </li></ul>
  58. 59. SIMPLE OPTIONS <ul><li>   IMPROVED HOUSEKEEPING </li></ul><ul><li>   BETTER EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE </li></ul><ul><li>   OPTIMIZATION OF VARIOUS PROCESS SEQUENCES </li></ul><ul><li>   THE MANAGERS MUST HAVE BASELINE DATA FOR SIMILAR OPERATIONA IN OTHER INDUSTRIES </li></ul><ul><li>   COMPARE AND INTERPRET THE RESULTS WITH OPEN MIND </li></ul><ul><li>   ALLOW DISCUSSION BETWEEN STAFF AND ENCOURAGE TEAM MEMBERS TO BRING FORWARD INNOVATIVE IDEAS </li></ul><ul><li>   EVALUATE THE IDEAS FROM TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE </li></ul>
  59. 60. POLICY MANAGEMENT BY GOVT OF INDIA <ul><li>GERMAN BAN AND GOVERNMENT RESPONSE </li></ul><ul><li>RECOGNITION THAT NUMBER OF DYES AND CHEMICALS ARE HAZARDOUS </li></ul><ul><li>AFFECT THE CONSUMER HEALTH </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSE IRREPARABLE DAMAGE TO ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>GERMANY IMPOSED BAN ON THE USE OF AZO DYES BASED ON CARCINOGENIC AMINE </li></ul><ul><li>ABOUT 300 AZO DYES SUSPECTED TO BE CARCINOGENIC HAVE BEEN WITHDRAWN </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENTA L PERMISSIBILITY NORMS FOR HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS ARE AVAILABLE FROM VARIOUS INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS </li></ul>
  60. 61. ECO STANDARDS AND ECO LABLES <ul><li>  CONCEPT OF ECO FRIENDLY TEXTILES IS PROMOTED BY ECO STANDARDS AND ECO LABLES </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>  ECO LABLES ARE BASED ON ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY NORMS FOR VARIOUS CHEMICALS STIPULATED ON THE BASIS OF CRADLE TO GRAVE APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>  USE OF ECO LABLES IS VOLUNTARY IN NATURE </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul>
  61. 62. ECO STANDARDS AND ECO LABLES <ul><li>CHEMICALS CONSIDERED FOR ECO NORMS </li></ul><ul><li>          FORMALDEHYDE </li></ul><ul><li>          TOXIC PESTICIDES </li></ul><ul><li>          PENTACHORO PHENOL </li></ul><ul><li>          HEAVY METAL TRACES </li></ul><ul><li>          CARCINOGENIC AZO DYES </li></ul><ul><li>          HALOGEN CARRIERS </li></ul><ul><li>          CHLORINE BLEACHING </li></ul>
  62. 63. EFFORTS MADE BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA <ul><li>REGULATORY MEASURES </li></ul><ul><li>PROHIBITION ON THE USE OF BANNED DYES </li></ul><ul><li>EVOLUTION OF ECO STANDARDS AND LOGO FOR ECO FRIENDLY TEXTILES </li></ul>
  63. 64. EFFORTS MADE BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA <ul><li>DEVELOPMENTAL MEASURES </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATIVE SEMINARS, WORKSHOPS FOR THE AWARENESS OF ECO FRIENDLY CONCEPTS </li></ul><ul><li>ASSISTANCE TO INDUSTRY FOR THE SECURING ISO 9000 AND EMS 14000 CERTIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>FINACIAL ASSISTANCE THROUGH TUFS FOR MODERNIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>MASSIVE PROGRAMME ON SETTING ECO TESTING FACILITIES </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×